Skip to main content

Full text of "Gnomon of the New Testament"

See other formats

K> ' 

* i-Ar . i ; i 

C. U. C. A. 

Biblical Reference Library. 





3 1924 092 350 515 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 










VOL. I. 















J. C. p. STEUDEL. 












It is quite superfluous to write in praise of the Gnomon of 
Bengel. Ever since the year in which it was first published, 
A.D. 1742, up to the present time, it has heen growing^in esti- 
mation, and has been more and more widely circulated among 
the scholars of all countries. Though modem criticism has 
furnished many valuable additions to our materials for New 
Testament exegesis, yet, in some respects, Bengel stands out 
still " facile princeps" among all who have laboured, or who as 
yet labour, in that important field. He is unrivalled in felicitous 
brevity, combined with what seldom accompanies that excel- 
lence, namely, perspicuity. Terse, weighty, and suggestive, he 
often, as a modem writer observes, " condenses more matter into 
a line, than can be extracted from pages of other writers." 

This condensation of style requires that the reader should 
have his attention always on the alert, and never presume that 
any remark is without point. Bengel's parallel references to 
Scripture are never common-place and superficial, and ought to 
be in all cases looked for, as being often equivalent to an able 
and lengthened comment. His use of itahcs, for the most part, 
has relation to the ipsissima verba of the text or context. Deeply 
imbued vnth a holy reverence for all the Written Word, he em- 
ploys quotations of it in a way which opens out to the diligent 
student new and rich mines of thought in the Sacred Volume. 
The notes are not to be read isolated from their connection : 
they form a continuous thread, guiding the earnest and prayerful 
reader through the pleasant pastures of the Word, and by the 
still waters of comfort. 


In the passages which form the subject of controversy be- 
tween Calvinists and Arminians, Bengel takes the view adopted 
by the latter, and in this respect I do not concur with him. 
But whilst he thus gives an undue prominence, as it would 
seem to me, to the responsibility and freedom of man in these 
passages, yet, in the general tenor of his work, there breathe 
such a holy reverence for God's sovereignty, and such spiritual 
unction, that the most extreme Calvinist would, for the most 
part, be unable to discover to what section of opinions he at- 
tached himself, and as to the controverted passages woiild feel 
inclined to say, " Quum talis sis, utinam noster esses." 

If all were able to read Latin notes fluently, it would not be 
desirable that Bengel's powerful language should be diluted by 
transfusion into another tongue. But as there are many who 
read Latin imperfectly, to whom much of Bengel's meaning is 
lost, — and as there are still more who cannot read Latin notes 
at all, and yet are diligent Bible-students, — I trust that the re- 
hgious public will consider that a debt is due to the spirited 
pubhshers of the present work. Three able scholars — Rev. J. 
Bandiney M.A., of Wadham College, Oxford, Eev. James 
Bryce, late of Aberdeen, and Eev. Dr Fletcher, Head Master 
of the Grammar School, Wimborne, Dorsetshire, — have, along 
with myself, executed the translation with all possible pains 
and accuracy. The Eev. James Bandinel has translated the 
Preface, and Notes on St Matthew ; Eev. J. Bryce has trans- 
lated from Komans to Hebrews inclusive ; and Eev. Dr 
Fletcher from James to Eevelation inclusive ; and my portion 
of translation has been from Mark to Acts inclusive. I have 
revised carefully and edited the whole, and hold myself respon- 
sible for the substance of all that is in the present work, even in 
those parts not translated by me, but only corrected, and where 
the language is, generally speaking, that of my feUow-translators. 

I have introduced additional notes of three kinds : I. Brief 

1 Author of " Sermons,'' Devotional and Practical," " Lufra," and 
" Milton Davenant." 


notes explanatory of Bengel's meaning, where, avoiding diffuse- 
ness, he falls into the opposite error, " Brevis esse lahoro, Ob- 
scurus fio." n. Where he differs from the Received Text, I 
have given the authorities, viz. MSS. Versions and Fathers on 
both sides, leaving the decision to the reader, except where I 
have thought the probabilities on one side decided. III. Where 
Bengel gives differences of Greek synonyms, I have stated what 
I conceive to be the true distinctions, by a comparison of 
Bengel's views with those of able writers of more recent date. 

As to the second class of notes, affecting the Greek Text, it is 
remarkable how Bengel, with, intuitive sagacity, discerned the 
high value of the Vulgate, and laid hold of the true principle of 
textual criticism, so generally now recognised, whereby the few 
ancient authorities are preferred to the numerous MSS., etc., 
which support the " Textus Receptus." It is true the passages 
in question are few, yet the more firmly that we uphold the 
plenary inspiration of all Scripture, the more does it become us 
to seek by all legitimate means to make the closest approxima- 
tion possible to the very words of the Sacred Autographs. 

The Edition of the Gnomon which the present Translation 
follows, is that brought out originally by Ernest Bengel, the 
son of J. Albert Bengel, our author, and subsequently revised 
by J. C. F. Steudel.* The initials E. B. mark the notes of 
Ernest Bengel ; V. g. mark the notes extracted from the Ger- 
man Version of the Gnomon ; Harm., those from the Harmony 
of the Evangelists ; Not. Crit, those from the "Notulse Critics" 
(Appar. crit. Ed. ii. p. 4, No. 14) ; Ed., my own original notes ; 
(J. B.), the notes of the Translator of St Matthew : B. G. V., 
Mr Bandinel's translation from the German Version, and 
B. H. E., those from the Harmony. 

The technical terms and figures, which recur so frequently in 

^ Several misprints in this Edition J have corrected from the 2 Ed. quarto, 
published at Tubingen, 1759; also misprints in the Latin translation of pas- 
sages extracted from the German Version, I have corrected by the help of 
the German original. 

viii editor's PREFACE, 

the Gnomon, are not a mere empty parade of scholastic termi- 
nology to confound the unlearned, but are really notes con- 
densed into a word, to save periphrasis and attain brevity. The 
reader will do well to consult the Appendix at the end, which 
explains fully the force of these terms. The sketch of the life 
of Bengel (in the 5th Vol. of this translation), drawn up by 
me, partly from that written by Ernest Bengel, partly from 
other sources, will, I trust, be read with interest by all who 
revere devoted piety, combined with profound scholarship. 

May He, for whose glory this work was originally written, 
bless the present translation of it, to the promotion of sound 
Scripture-criticism and practical edification among the many 
in England who have heretofore been deprived of the benefit 
of it by the language in which it was veiled I 

I append an Index, First, of the MSS. quoted by me in the 
notes. They are all uncial, i.e. written in capitals, not in cursive 
characters; the latter being of comparatively modem date. 
Secondly, an Index of the Versions, all of a date as early as 
about the first five centuries, and some of them as far back as 
the second century — centuries before our oldest Greek MS. 
They foUow literally not only the words, but for the most part 
the very order, of words of the Greek text. They are, therefore, 
an accurate reproduction of the Greek text of the MSS. which 
they then used. It is strikingly confirmatory of the correctness 
of the few old MSS. we have, as contrasted with the host of 
modern MSS. on which the received text is based, that, the 
more fully we have restored the genuine text of the Versions 
(as in the Vulgate by the Amiatinus Codex ; the pre-Jerome 
Latin by the Vercellensis MS. ; and the Syriac by the Cure- 
tonian MSS.), the more does their text agree with that of the 
old Greek MSS. in our possession, rather than with the more 
recent MSS. and the received text. Thirdly, the Fathers of the 
first four centuries quote nearly all the Greek text, as they then 
had it. Even though some quotations be from mere memory, 
yex others must be trustworthy, viz. where they expressly and 


avowedly quote the words, in such a way, that the point of their 
argument rests on the verbal accuracy of their quotation. The 
old MSS. differ often among themselves ; but this very difference 
makes their witness, where they all agree, the more forcible 
against the received text. Their differences are a surer test of 
genuineness, than the suspicious universal agreement of the 
multitude of modem MSS. : the agreement of the latter is pro- 
bably the result of their mutually copying one aiioilier, the dis- 
agreements being in course of time removed, so as to present 
the uniform text, which is found in the Constantinopolitan 
MSS. The " threefold cord" of the restorers of the true text — 
such as Lachmann, Tischendorf, and TregeUes, of whom Bentley 
and Bengel were, in some degree, forerunners — is the agreeing 
testimony of three classes of independent witnesses, the oldest 
Greek MSS., the oldest Versions, and the earliest Fathers.'^ 

Formerly Sch. and Sen. Classical Moderator, Trln. Coll., 

Dubl., Editor of Terence, Homer's Iliad, I. -VIII. 

Livy, I-III., now Stipendiary Curate of 

Bishop Middleham, Co. Durham, 

July 1, 1857. 

' The Edition of Tischendorf referred to in this work is that of Leipsic, 
1849. Recently he has published an Edition, in which he goes back to many 
t)f the readings of the more modern MSS. and of the Kec. Text. It is argued, 
that some older readings than those of the oldest extant MSS. may be pre- 
served in the modern MSS. It is true that thay maj/. But the question is, 
can we find any satisfactory test of such readings ? Is it not better to aim at 
that which is, in a great degree, positively attainable, viz. the text as it stood 
in the 4th century (at latest, and probably much earlier), rather than con- 
jecture as to a text, which we have now no solid means of establishing, viz. 
that of the autographs themselves ? Tischendorf has perplexed the question 
by bringing in quotations of authorities comparatively modern and void of 
weight. I have, therefore, adhered rather to the few oldest authorities 
given in Lachmann ; adding, however, the very ancient Syriac, Memphitic or 
Coptic, and Thebaic or Sahitic Versions, which Lachmann does not notice. 
A fault also in Tischendorf, which I have avoided, is his not referring to the 
precise passages of the authors whom he quotes. The Edition of Lachm. 
which I use is that of Berlin 1842, in 2 vols. 8vo. 



A = the Alexandrine MS. : in Brit. Museum : fifth century : 

publ. by Woide, 1786-1819 : O. and N. Test, defective. 
B = the Vatican MS., 1209 : in Vat. libr., Eome : fourth cent. : 

O. and N. Test. def. 
C = Ephrsemi Eescriptus : Royal Hbr., Paris : fifth or sixth cent. : 

publ. by Tisch. 1843 : O. and N. T. def. 
D = Bezse, or Cantabrig. : Univ. Hbr., Cambridge : fifth cent. : 

publ. by Kipling, 1793 : Gospels, Acts, and some Epp. 

A = Claromontanus of Paul's Epp. : Roy. libr., Paris : eighth 

cent. : marked D by Tischend. : A by Lachm. 
E = Laudianus : Bodl. libr., Oxford : seventh or eighth cent. : 

publ. 1715 : Acts def. 
G = Boemerianus : Elect, libr., Dresden : ninth cent. : publ. by 

Matthsei, 1791 : Paul's Epp. except Hebrews. 
H = Coisliniana fi-agmenta : Roy. libr., Paris : Paul's Epp. def. : 

sixth cent. : publ. by Montfaucon. 
P and Q = Guelpherbytana : libr. Wolfenbuttel : Gospels def. : 

sixth cent. : publ. by Knittel, 1763. 
T = Borgiana : Veletri : part of John : fourth or fifth cent. : 

publ. by Georgi, 1789. 
Z = Dubliniensis rescr. : Trin. Coll., Dublin : Matthew def. : 

sixth cent. : publ. by Barrett, 1801. 


L = Cod. Reg., Paris, of the Gospels : the text akin to that of B : 

edited by Tisch. 
X — Cod. Monacensis, ft'agments of the Gospels, 


A = San Gallensis : in the libr. of St. Gall : the Greek and 
Latin of the four Gospels. It and G. Boernerianus of 
Paul's Epp. are severed parts of the same book. 

B = Cod. BasiHanus (not the B. Vaticanus) : Eevelation : in 
the Vatican : edited by Tisch., who assigns it to the 
beginning of the eighth centitry. 


a = Vercellensis of the old ' Itala,' or Latin Version before 
Jerome's, probably made in Africa, in the second cen- 
tury : the Gospels. 
b — Veronensis, do. 
c = Colbertinus, do. 

d-= Cantabrigiensis, do. : the Gospels, Acts, and 3d Ep. John 
e — Laudianus, do. : Acts. 
/= Claromontanus, do. : Paul's Epp. 
ff= Sangermanensis, do. do. 
g = Boernerianus, do. do. 
h = Primasius in Apocalypsin. 
F — Fuldensis MS. of Jerome's Vulgate : done at the request 

of Damasus, Pope of Home, 383. 
V = Do., corrected by Victor, Bishop of Capua. 
L = Laurentianus or Amiatinus. These three I do not spe- 
cially quote, except very occasionally, where they mu- 
tually differ, but simply quote * Vulg.' in general, as 
correctly given by Lachmann from these MSS. in his 
Greek Test. 
Memph. = the Memphitic, or Coptic Version from Egypt : third 

cent. : publ. by Wilkins at Oxford, 1716. 
Theb. = the Thebaic, or Sahidic do. : publ. by Woide and Ford, 
from MS. Alex, at Oxford, 1799. 


Syr. = the Peschito Syriac Version : second cent. : publ. and cor- 
rected by Cureton, from MS. of fifth cent. 

Later Syr. = a second Syriac Version, by Polycarpus, in A.D. 


Irenseus (of Lyons, in Gaul : bom about 130 a.d., and died 

about the end of the second century). The Editio Eenati 

Massueti, Parisinse, a. 1710. 
Origen (bom about 186 a.d., died 253 a.d., a Greek father : 

two-thirds of the N. Test, are quoted in his -vmtings). 

Ed. Vine. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759. 
Cyprian (in the beginning and middle of the third century : a 

Latin father). Ed, Steph. Baluzii, Paris, 1726. 
Hilarius Pictavensis (a Latin father: died 368 a.d,) Ed. 

Maurinorum, Paris. 1693. 
Lucifer of Cagliari (a Latin father: died about 370 a.d.) 

J. Dom. et Jac. Coletorum, Venetse, 1778. 











1 "CoNCiNNiTAS — SENSUCM ccELESTiuM," literally, "The symphonious 
harmony — of the heavenly meanings — (I. B.) 

2 « Indicatur." — In allusion to, and explanation of the title Crnomon.— 
See Preface, sect, vii., and note. — (I. B.) 

vol'- I. 




I. The Word of God, written in the books of the Old and 

New Testaments, is the greatest of all His gifts. 
II. It should be rightly handled. 

III. Commentaries were not necessary in primitive times. 

IV. How far they are useful in later times. 

V. The several ages of Scriptural Exegesis distinguished. 
VI. The origin of the present work. 
Vn. The title, " Gnomon Novi Testamenti," explained ; with 

some account of the author's object and design. 
Vin. Suggestions as to how to distinguish the pure and genuine 
Text of the New Testament, and to combine it pru- 
dently with the Textus Receptus. 
IX. The " Crisis" of Gerard von Maestricht examined. 
X. The Text carefully revised, the foundation of the present 

XL And the same Text divided into Sections, and correctly 

Xn. The Style of the ApostoHc "Writings vindicated from mis- 
XTTT. The Books of the New Testament reduced into Synoptical 

* THE author's preface. 

XrV. The inherent force of words considered ; especially of 

the Greek words, and that with due regard to 


XV. The feelings [afFectus, mental affections'] and tone of 

mind [mores, ^'^ij, manners] of the Sacred Writers 


XVI. The various methods of Annotation derivable from 

these considerations. 
XVII. Previous writers are seldom cited in the present work. 
XVIII. What has been contributed in the present lirork espe- 
cially towards the elucidation and illustration of 
each of tlie Gospels ? 
XIX. What towards that of the Acts and Epistles ? 
XX. The Apocalypse again treated of: Dr Joachim Lange's 
agreement and disagreement with the author's 
views thereon : the Ordo Temporum. 
XXI. The Author's Orthodoxy. 
XXII. His desire to assist those also, who do not understand 

XXm. The Sti/le employed in the present work. 
XXrV. The Technical Terms introduced. 

XXV. The usefulness and moderate size of the Gnomon. 
XXVI. Concerning the Author's German Interpretation of 
the New Testament. 
XXVII. An exhortation to the constant and diligent study of 
Holy Scripture. 



The word of the living God, which formed the rule of faith and 
practice to the primitive patriarchs, was committed to writing in 
the age of Moses, to whom the other prophets were successively 
added. Subsequently, those things which the Son of God 
preached, and the Paraclete spake through the apostles, were 
written down by them and the evangelists. These writings, 
taken together, are termed " Holy Scripture ;" and, how great 
soever is their dignity and value, are, in conjunction with this 
very title of theirs, their own best encomium ; for they are called 
" Holy Scripture" because they contain the utterances of God, 
and constitute the Loed's own Book. " The word of our God," 
exclaims the prophet, " shall stand for ever." — (Isaiah xl. 8.) 
"Yerily, I say unto you," says the Saviour Himself, "Till 
heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass 
from the law, till all be fulfilled." — (Matt. v. 18.) And again, 
" Heaven and earth shall pass away ; but Mt words shall not 
pass away." — (Ibid. xxiv. 35.) The Scriptures, therefore, of 
the Old and New Testaments, form a most sure and precious 
system of Divine testimonies. For not only are the various 
writings, when considered separately, worthy of GoD, but, also, 
when received as a whole, they exhibit one entire and perfect 

THE author's preface. 

body, Tinencumbered by excess, unimpaired by defect. The 
Bible is, indeed, the true fountain of ■wisdom, which they, who 
have once actually tasted, prefer to all mere compositions of 
men, however holy, however experienced, however devout, or 
however wise.^ 


It follows, therefore, that those who have been intrusted with 
such an inestimable gift, should make a right use of it. Scrip- 
ture itself teaches what that use is, namely, to perform it. In 
order to perform it, we require knowledge, knowledge which is 
open to all who possess rectitude of heart.^ 


Myriads of annotations were not written in the Church of the 
Old Testament, although the measure of light vouchsafed was 
far more scanty then than now ; nor did learned men think, that 
the Church of the New Testament required to be immediately 
laden with such helps. Every book, when first published by a 
prophet or an apostle, bore in itself its own interpretation, clear 
by its inherent Hght, being accommodated to the then existing 
state of things. The text, which must have been continually in 
the mouth of all, and read by all, maintained itself its own per- 
spicuity and integrity. The saints did not employ themselves 
in diligently selecting the berries, as if the other portions of 
Holy Scripture were fit only for the pruning-hook ; nor did they 
occupy their time in accumulating the encumbrances of com- 
mentaries. They had the Scriptures [and they found them all- 
sufficient]. The unlearned could refer for oral instruction, to 
those who were learned in the Old and New Testaments. 

^ We may add ; They who have not tasted it, give the precedency before 
it to all compositions of mere men, however profane, however vain, however 
wanton, however foolish. " Hinc illse lacrymee." 

^ Comp. Ps. XXV. 14, Matt. xi. 25, John vii. 17 ; i Cor. ii. 14. For 
there is not one of those, who possess rectitude of heart, that will allow the 
saving i^ower of those passages to he snatched from himself by any hermeneutic 
arts whatever 

THE author's preface. 


Writings and commentaries are cMefly available for the fol- 
lowing purposes : to preserve, restore, or defend the purity of 
the text ; to exhibit the exact force of the language employed by 
any sacred vmter; to explain the circumstances under which 
any passage was uttered or written, or to which it refers ; to 
remove errors or abuses which have arisen in later times. — The 
first hearers required none of these things. Now, however, it 
is the oflSce of commentaries to effect and supply them in some 
measure, so that the hearer of to-day, when furnished with their 
aid, may he in a condition similar to that of the hearer in primeval 
times who made use of no such assistance. There is one point in 
which the modems have an advantage over the ancients, namely, 
that they can interpret the prophecies more clearly by the sub- 
sequent event. Whatever things, of whatsoever kind, indivi- 
dual readers themselves derive from the study of Holy Scrip- 
ture, they can and ought all to communicate to each other, 
especially by word of mouth, and also by written compositions ; 
in such a manner, however, as neither to diminish, supersede, or 
interfere with, the perpetual use of Scripture itself. 

Scripture is the foundation of the Church : the Church is 
the guardian of Scriptiu-e. When the Church is in strong 
health, the Hght of Scripture shines bright ; when the Church 
is sick. Scripture is corroded by neglect ; and thus it happens, 
that the countenance of Scripture and that of the Church, 
are wont to exhibit simultaneously, the appearance either 
of health, or else of sickness ; so that it comes to pass that 
the treatment of Scripture corresponds, from time to time, 
with the condition of the Church. That treatment has had 
various ages, from the earliest tunes, down to the present day. 
The first may be called Native or natural; the second. Moral; 
the third. Dry ; the fourth, Revived; the fifth, Polemic, Dog- 
matic, Topical; the sixth. Critical, Polyglott, Antiquarian, Homi- 
letic. That mode, therefore, of examining, expounding, eluci- 


dating, and illustrating Scripture which is offered by Scripture 
itself, has not as yet prevailed to any great extent in the Church. 
Our rankly-abundant discrepancies of opinion, our dulness ot 
sight in interpreting prophecy, prove this beyond aU question. 
We are called upon, then, to advance further, tiU we arrive at 
such a proficiency in the study and treatment of Scripture, as is 
worthy of men and of kings, and corresponds with sufficient close- 
ness, to the perfection of Scripture itself. Men must, however, 
be prepared for this by passing previously through the ordeal of 
difficulties.^ The history and description of those ages, would 
furnish fitting matter for an accurate and useful treatise ; but 
other things are more necessary in this place. 


Whosoever desires to render any help in interpreting Scrip- 
ture, should examine himself, and ascertain by what right he 
ventures to do so. As far as I am concerned, I did not apply my 
mind to writing commentaries from any previous confidence in 
myself; but unexpectedly, by little and little, under the Divine 
guidance, I have been led on to the present undertaking. The 
nature of my pubhc office, which imposed on me for more than 
twenty-seven years, the duty of expounding the Greek New 
Testament to studious youth, induced me in the first instance 
to make some observations [on that Sacred Volume]. As their 
number increased, I determined to commit them to paper, and, at 
the suggestion of a certain venerable Prelate,^ to put the finishing 
hand to them. Exegesis was accompanied by revision of the text ; 
in revising the text for the interpretation of the Apocalypse, I was 
led on to investigate successively different various readings. The 
harmony of the Evangelists, commenced in the mean time, and 
the Exegesis of the Apocalypse, produced the Ordo Temporum. 
Now all these having been in turn carefully examined, are 
corrected, filled up, and blended together in the same Exegesis 

^ Whatever to the contrary those ' literati' may think, who, relying on their 
own powers alone, suppose, that nothing is effected towards the understanding 
of Scripture by trials and by prayer but all by mere meditation. It is 


' Cliristopher Zeller, prelate of Lorch. — (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 9 

of the New Testament. I shall have, therefore, to repeat some 
things which I have already said, concerning each of these 
writings, and to add some remarks, which are entirely new, so 
that this work, now reduced to a single whole, may be rendered 
more complete and unassailable, by the addition of this preface,^ 
armed, as it were, to the teeth. 


I have long since given the name of Gnomon, a modest, and, 
as I think, appropriate, title, to these Exegetical Annotations, 
which perform only the office of an Index -y^ and, I should have 
chosen the term Index, as the title of my work, but for the mis- 
conception which would have arisen, in the minds of most 
persons, from the ordinary and technical use of that term [i.e., 
a Registry or Table of Contents], It is, in short, my intention, 
briefly to point out, or indicate, the full force of words and 
sentences, in the New Testament, which, though really and 
inherently belonging to them, is not always observed by all at 
first sight, so that the reader, being introduced by the straight 
road, into the text, may find as rich pasture there as possible. 
The Gnomon points the way with sufficient clearness. If you 
are wise, the text itself teaches you all things.^ 


Human selections of sayings and examples, taken from Scrip- 
ture, have their use ; the study, however, of the Sacred Volume, 
should not end here ; for it should, both as a whole, and in its 
several parts, be thoroughly studied and mastered, especially by 
those who are occupied in teaching others. In order fully to 
accomplish which, we ought to distinguish the clearly genuine 
words of the Sacred Text, from those which are open to doubt or 

' Prologus galeatus, lit. "Helmeted" Prologue. A prologue, in -which a 
person defends himself against the opponents of a book. Thus, Jerome calls 
the preface to his edition of Holy Scripture. — See Riddle. — (I. B.) 

* In the sense of pointer or indicator, as of a sun-dial, etc. — (I. B.) 

* In the original the last sentence is expressed by the following distich, 

Nonnihil Indicii satis est in Gnomone factum: 
Omnia te Textus, si sapis, ipse docet, — (I. B.J 

10 THE author's PREFACE. 

question, from the existence and auijhority of various readings, 
lest we should either pass by, and thus faU to profit by the 
words of the apostles, or treat the words of copyists as if they 
were those of the apostles. I have endeavoured to furnish such 
a text, with all care and fidelity, in my larger edition of the 
Greek New Testament, pubhshed at Tubingen, and in the smaller 
one pubhshed at Stuttgardt. Both of them appeared in the year 
1734 : and the small one was repubhshed, with a new prologue 
(admonition) in the year 1738, and lastly, entirely revised, in 
the year 1753. — For, I considered it my duty not to suppress, 
but, on the contrary, publish before my death,^ those things 
which the experience of a long intervening period, had supplied. 
Those who desire either to know, or to state, what my Re- 
vision contains, on any passage, must refer to one of these edi- 
tions, and not to any other. He who has been accustomed to 
the first of the smaller editions, will easily, and advantageously, 
observe the differences in the latter edition. The New Testa- 
ment, as revised by me, has come to be considered as one edition 
with this Gnomon, just as if they had been published in one 
volume. This will appear more clearly in the progress of the 
present preface, especially in the eleventh Section. My re- 
cension has obtained the approval of many ; some of whom have 
partially adopted it in translations.^ It has, however, met with 
some impugners, especially two: for Andreas Buttigius'* pre- 

1 During Ms last illness he was occupied in correcting the proof-sheets of 
his German Version of the New Testament, and the preface he had written 
for the Old Testament Gnomon of his son-in-law, Ph. D. Burk. — (I. B.) 

2 In 1745 when the authorized Danish version was revised by order of the 
King of Denmark, the text of Bengel was preferred as thestandard, for that 
purpose. — (I. B.) 

' Andreas Buttigius brought out an edition of the Greek New Testament 
in 1737— entitled 

'H xaiuvi huStixn. Novum Testamentum GriEcum, ita adomatum ut textus 
probatarum editionum meduUam, margo variantium lectionum in suas classes 
distributarum, locorumque parallelorum delectum exhibeat, curante Andrea 
Buttigio. Lipsise ex officina Weidmaniana. 

Le Long subjoins it to his Editiones Bengelii, with the following obser- 
vations — 

Jungimus priccedentibus merito banc editionem, quae nil nisi iterata est 
textfis Bengeliani editio, quod ipse, quamvis in rubro Bengelii nomen silentio 
prffitermissum sit, in prsefatione fatetur editor. Textus idem est. sed more 

THE author's preface. 11 

face agrees for the most part with my views, and, where it differs, 
I have given the explanations in the Prologue, which I have just 
mentioned. What, however, others have said upon individual 
readings, we shall examine in their proper places. To those 
two, therefore (whose names I need not mention on the present 
occasion),' I have put forth two defences. One was printed in 
German, with the Harmony of the Evangelists, a.d. 1736, at 
Tubingen, and afterwards, in a separate and more convenient 
form, in Latin, with some additions, a.d. 1737, at Leyden. In 
this, I showed that I had not acted timidly ; m the other, that I 
had not acted with temerity. That other, was written in answer 
to an attack upon truth, exceedingly prejudicial in the case of 
the ignorant, and inserted a.d. 1739, in the New Tubingen Mis- 
cellany.'' It was reprinted in a separate form the same year, and 
again at Ulm, a.d. 1745. Hhe former defence has become now 
nearly obsolete : for, he against whom it was directed, has made 
the " Crisis Mastrichtiana," so far as he has corrected it, entirely 
conformable to my views ; and the learned LilienthaP states, in 
his Bibliotheca Exegetica, pp. 1263, 1264, what is the opinion 
entertained by others, of the matters in dispute, between us. So 
much the more, therefore, do I wish that they who are desirous 
of avoiding temerity, yet of ascertaining the truth, would care- 
fully examine my second Defence. All, at least, by whom I know 
that pamphlet to have been read, acknowledge that I have 
exerted myself laboriously, and in a religious spirit, to obtain 
a pure text of the New Testament. And that very society, in 

consueto in versiculos distinctus et bipartitis columnis inscriptus. Variantes 
lectiones a majori editione mutuo sumptse sunt, appositis notis valoris earum, 
et tabula, qua signa ipsa explicantur. Loca parallela editor ex eodem opere 
descripsit. — Bibliotheca Sacra, Pt. I., cap. II., sec. I., § 62, n. 7. — (I. B.) 

^ The first of these was J. J. Wetstein, Bengel's great critical rival — the 
other an anonymous writer, probably John George Hager, m.a. of Leipsic, 
whose attack was inserted in " Early Gathered Fruits." — See p. 12, f n. 1. 
-(I. B.) 

' A periodical publication, entitled, New Literary Notices from Tubingen. 

• Michael Lilienthal, a Lutheran divine, a learned historian and 
philologist, and an able writer, born in 1686 at Liebstadt, in Prussia, mem- 
ber of theAcademy of Berlin, and honorary professor of that of Petersburg ; 
he established himself at Kbnigsberg, where he was pastor and professor up 
to the time of his death, which occurred in 1750. — (I. B.) 

12 THE author's PREFACE. 

whose name my censor previously acted, has not, as far as I 
know, though repeatedly challenged by me to do so, brought 
forward, in " The Early Gathered Fruits"^ one single instance, in 
which I have altered, by innovation, even a syllable of the Sacred 
Text.^ This silence furnishes the desired proof of admitted truth. 
Part of my Defence is reprinted in the present work, at the com- 
mencement of my annotations on the Apocalypse. 

Most learned men entirely neglect the spirit, and, conse- 
quently, do not treat even the letter rightly. Hence it arises, 
that up to the present time, the most confused and contradictory 
opinions prevail, as to the mode of deciding between confficting 
readings, and on the method of combining such decision with 
the Received Text. One reHes on the antiquity, another on the 
mnnber of Manuscripts, nay, even to such an extent, as to 
exaggerate their number : one man adduces the Latin VrJgate, 
another the Oriental Versions : one quotes the Greek Scholiasts, 
another the more ancient Fathers : one so far relies upon the 
context (which is truly the surest evidence), that he adopts 
universally the easier and fuller reading : another expunges, if 
so inclined, whatever has been once omitted by a single Ethiopic 
— I will not say translator, but — copyist : one is always eager to 
condemn the more received reading, another equally determined 
to defend it in every instance. Not every one who owns a harp . 
can play upon it.^ We are convinced, after long and careful 
consideration, that every various reading may be distinguished 

* The following remarks had occurred in a journal bearing that name 
(No. 4 of the year 1738) 

" If every bookmaker is to take into Ms head to treat the New Testa- 
ment in this manner, we shall soon get a Greek text totally different from the 
received one. The audacity is really too great for us not to notice it, especi- 
ally as such vast importance, it seems, is attached to this edition. Scarcely 
a chapter of it has not something either omitted, or inserted, or altered, or 
transposed. The audacity is unprecedented." — (I. B.) 

* With some exceptions, in the Apocalypse, a book peculiarly circum- 
stanced, he had not admitted into the text a single syllable, which had not 
been abready embodied with it in printed editions. This is accounted for, 
and explained afterwards. — See Section X. of this Preface.— (I. B.) 

3 " Non omnes, qui citharam habent, sunt citharaedi." This proverb is of 
very ancient date. It is quoted by Varro, who died B.C. 28, in his treatise 
de Be liustica, lib. II., cap. 1. — (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 18 

and classified, by due attention to the following suggestions 
(Mbnita) : — 

1. By far the more numerous portions of the Sacred Text 
(thanks be to God) labour under no variety of reading deserving 

2. These portions contain the whole scheme of salvation, and 
establish every particular of it by every test of truth. 

3. Every various reading ought and may be referred to these 
portions, and decided by them as by a normal standard. 

4. The Text and Various Eeadings of the New Testament 
are found in Manuscripts and in Books printed from Manu- 
scripts, whether Greek, Latin, Grseco-Latin (concerning which 
I have expressed the same opinion in my Apparatus Criticiis,^ 
pp. 387, 642 [Second Edition, pp. 20, 319, 320], as Ludolf 
Kuster" has of the Boemerian,^ the most important of them in 

^ " Patria eorum est Britannia." — App. Crit. p. 20. — (I. B.) 
2 Ludolf Kuster reprinted Mill's Greek New Testament, with alterations 
at Rotterdam, 1710.— (I. B.) 

* The Codex Boeenebianus derives its name from Dr Christian 
Fkedbrick Boerner, to whom it once belonged : it is now deposited in the 
royal library at Dresden. It contains St Paul's Epistles, with the exception 
of that to the Hebrews, and is written in Greek and Latin; the Latin, or old 
ante-Hieronymian version being interlined between the Greek, and written 
over the text, of which it is a translation. Semler supposed that the Latin 
was written since the Greek ; but Professor Matthsei, who published a copy 
of this manuscript, suggests that the uniformity of the handwriting, and 
similarity in the colour of the ink, evince, that both the Greek and Latin 
texts proceeded from the same transcriber. It frequently agrees with the 
Codex Claromontanus. The time when this manuscript was written, has 
not been determined with precision. That it is ancient, appears (says 
Michaelis) from the form of the characters, and the absence of accents and 
marks of aspiration. It seems to have been written in an age when the 
transition was making from the uncial to small characters ; and, from the 
correspondence of the letters r, s, and t in the Latin version, to that form 
which is found in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet. Bishop Marsh infers, that this 
MS. was written in the west of Europe, and probably between the 8th and 
9th centuries. Kuster, who first collated this MS., supposed it to be 
British ; Doederlein, Irish. The learned reviewer of Matthtei's edition of this 
MS., in the Jena Literary Gazette, decides that it could only be written in 
Germany or France ; because, in the margin, many passages are noted contra 
yoSiiaxay^Koii, apparently because they are contradictory to the opinion of 
Gottschalk, a celebrated monk, who disputed concerning predestination, in 
the 9th century, but whose tenets excited little attention, except in those two 

14 THE author's PREFACE, 

his preface to the New Testament), Syriac, etc., Latinizing 
Greek, or other languages, the clear quotations of Irenmus, etc., 
according as Divine Providence dispenses its bounty to each 
generation. We include all these under the title of Codices, 
which has sometimes as comprehensive a signification. 

5. These codices, however, have been diffused through 
Churches of all ages and countries, and approach so near to the 
original autographs, that, when taken together, in aU the multi- 
tude of their varieties, they exhibit the genuine text. 

6. No conjecture is ever on any consideration to be Kstened to. 
It is safer to bracket \tutius seponitur] any portion of the text, 
which may haply appear to labour under inextricable difficulties. 

7. All the codices taken together, should form the normal stand- 
ard, by which to decide in the case of each taken separately. 

8. The Greek Codices, which possess an antiquity so high, 
that it surpasses even the very variety of reading, are very few 
in number : the rest are very numerous. 

9. Although versions and fathers are of little authority, where 
they differ' from the Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament; 
yet, where the Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament differ 
from each other, those have the greatest authority, with which 
versions and fathers agree. 

10. The text of the Latin Vulgate,' where it is supported by 
the consent of the Latin Fathers, or even of other competent 
wdtnesses, deserves the utmost consideration, on account of its 
singular^ antiquity. 

countries. The writer in question thinks it probable that this MS. was 
written by Joannes Scotus, who lived at the court of Charles the Bald, 
King of France, and was the most celebrated opponent of Gottschalk. The 
MS., however, could not have been written later than the 9th century ; for, 
in the beginning of the 10th, the Gottschalk dispute had lost all its import- 
ance. There is a transcript of this MS. in the library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, among the books and MSS. left by Dr Bentley, who probably 
procured it for his intended edition of the Greek Testament. Professor 
Matthsei published a copy at Meissen, in Saxony, in ]791, in quarto, which 
was reprinted at the same place in 1818, also in quarto. — (I. B ) 

' The Latin Vulgate was corrected with the help of ancient Greek MSS., 
then in existence, by Jerome, in the fom-th century, from a version, known 
as the Vetus Itala, supposed to have been executed in the second century. 
-(I. B.) 

^ Singular is here used in its strictest sense, q. d. unique. — (I. B.) 


11. The Number of witnesses, who support each reading of 
every passage, ought to be carefully examined : and to that end, 
in so doing, we should separate those Codices which contain only 
ih.Q Gospels, from those which contain the Acts and the Epistles, 
with or without the Apocalypse, or those which contain that 
book alone ; those which are entire, from those which have been 
mutilated ; those which have been collated for the Stephanie^ 
edition, from those which have been collated for the Compluten- 
sian,^ or the Elzevirian,^ or any obscure edition ; those which 
are known to have been carefully collated, as, for instance, the 
Alexandrine,* — ^from those which are not known to have been 

' The Stephani (called in French Etienne, or Estienne, in English 
Stephens) were the most famous and learned printers of their day. Henry 
Stephens had three sons, Robert, born a.d. 1503; Francis, and Charles. 
Robert had also a son named Henry, born A.D. 1628. They were perse- 
cuted at Paris by the Sorbonne, and ultimately forced to fly to Geneva, in 
1552. Robert published his first edition of the Greek New Testament in 
1546, a second in 1549, and a third in 1561, to which his son added another 
in 1669— (I. B.) 

^ i.e.. The Sixth Volume of the Complutensian or Alcala Bible, so called 
from Alcala, in Spain, where it was printed. The full title of the work is, 
"Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, complectentia Vetus Testamentum, Hebraico, 
Grseco, et Latino Idiomate ; Novum Testamentum Grsecum et Latinum ; et 
Vocabularium Hebraicum et Chaldaicum Veteris Testamenti, cum Gram- 
matics Hebraica, nee non Dictionario Grseco ; Studio, Opera et Impensis 
Cardinalis Francisci Ximenes de Cisneros. Industrie Arnaldi Gulielmi de 
Brocario artis impressoriae magistri. Compluti 1514, 1515, 1517. 6 Vols. 
Folio." It cost the Cardinal Ximenes 50,000 ducats.— (I. B.) 

' Printed at Leyden, at the celebrated Elzevir press. The first edition 
appeared in 1624, the second, which is considered the best, in 1633. The 
Elzevir text claimed to itself, par excellence, the title of Textus Beceptus; a 
phrase, however, which is not always confined to that recension. In the 
preface to the edition of 1633, occurs the arrogant assertion : " Textum, 
ergo habes nunc ab omnibus receptum ; in quo nihil immutatum aut cor- 
ruptum damns." — (I. B.) 

* The CODEX ALEXANDRINUS, now in the British Museum, a manu- 
script of the fourth or fifth century. A facsimile of it has been published 
by G. Woide, 1786. This codex consists of four folio volumes ; the three 
first contain the whole of the Old Testament, together with the Apocryphal 
Books, and the fourth comprises the New Testament, the first Epistle of 
Clement to the Corinthians, and the Apocryphal Psalms, ascribed to Solomon. 
It was sent as a present to King Charles i., from Cyrillus Lucares, a native 
of Crete, and Patriarch of Constantinople, by Sir Thomas Rowe, Ambassador 
from England to the Sublime Porte, in the year 1628 (I. B.) 

le THE author's preface. 

carefully collated, or which are knovra to have been carelessly 
collated, as for instance the Vatican MS.,^ which, othei-wise, 
would be almost without an equal. 

12. And so, in fine, more witnesses are to be preferred to 
fewer; and, which is more important, witnesses who differ m 
country, age, and language, are to be preferred to those who 
are closely connected with each other ; and which is most im- 
portant of all, ancient witnesses are to be preferred to modem 
ones. For, since the original autographs (and they were written 
in Greek), can alone claim to be the weU-spring, the amount 
of authority due to codices, drawn from primitive sources, Latin, 
Greek, etc., depends upon their nearness to that fountain-head. 

13. A reading, which does not allure by too great facility, 
but shines with its own native dignity of truth, is always to be 
preferred to those which may fairly be supposed to owe their 
origin to either the carelessness or the injudicious care of 

14. Thus, a corrupted text is often betrayed by alliteration, 
parallelism, or the convenience of an Ecclesiastical Lection,^ 
especially at the beginning or conclusion of it ; from the occur- 
rence of the same words, we are led to suspect an omission ; 
from too great facility, a gloss. Where a passage labours under 
a manifold variety of readings, the middle^ reading is the best. 

15. There are, therefore. Jive principal criteria, by which to 
determine a disputed text. The Antiquity of the witnesses, the 
Diversity of their extraction, and their Multitude ; the apparent 
Origin of the corrupt reading, and the Native colour of the 
genuine one. 

1 The CODEX VATICANUS, No. 1209, in the Vatican Lihrary at 
Rome, a manuscript of the fourth or fifth century. No accurate collation of 
it has yet been published. Originally this MS. contained the entire Greek 
Bible, including both the Old and New Testaments. At present the Old Tes- 
tament wants the first forty-six chapters of Genesis, and thirty-two Psalms ; 
and the New Testament wants the latter part of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
and also the whole of the Epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, and the 
entire Book of Revelation.-^(I. B.) 

2 i.e., a portion of Scripture appointed to be read in any Church Service. 
-(I. B.) 

' " Ubi non modo duplex, sed multiplex occurrit lectio, media est optima. 

Ex hac enim una tanquam ex centre discessum est in ceteras," etc App 

Crit., p. 17.— (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 17 

16. When these Criteria all concur, no doubt can exist, 
except in the mind of a sceptic. 

17. When, however, it happens that some of these Criteria 
may be adduced in favour of one reading, and some in favour 
of another, the critic may be drawn sometimes in this, some- 
times in that direction ; or, even should he decide, others may 
be less ready to submit to his decision. When one man excels 
another in powers of vision, whether bodily or mental, discussion 
is vain. In such a case, one man can neither obtrude, on 
another his own conviction, nor destroy the conviction of 
another; unless, indeed, the original autograph Scriptures 
should ever come to light. 

18. It is not the best style of criticism, which may be resolved 
into the following shape, — "Erasmus, and the Stephani, and 
almost all the printers, have printed it thus : thus, therefore, it 
must remain, even to the end of time, without the minutest 
variation. Monuments of antiquity, as far as they support this 
reading, are to be admitted ; as far as they call it in question, 
with however universal consent, they ought to be rejected." 
We must speak the truth : this is a most summary and unsatis- 
factory kind of criticism, and entirely imworthy of men who 
have reached years of discretion. It encourages an obstinate 
and credulous attachment to the more received text, and a per- 
verse and jealous distrust of ancient documents. They who 
declare that, without such support as this, the safety of those 
portions of the sacred text, which are free from all variation, 
and, consequently, of Scriptm-e and Christianity itself, would 
be endangered, are themselves dangerous thinkers, and know not 
the meaning of faith. We have recorded in our Apparatus^ 
(p. 401 ; i.e., Ed. ii., p. 35, Obs. xix.) the most just judgment 
of Calovius,^ far removed from the typographical superstition, 

' sc " Modernos Graecos codd. quorum integritatem asserimus, non esse prae- 
cise editiones Graecas neotericas, hujus vel illius opera divulgatas, seclusis 
codicibus manuscriptis antiquioribus et probatioribus : sed respici hie universos 
cod. Graecos et manuscriptos et typis editos. Crit. sacr., p. 492." — (I. B.) 

2 Abraham Calovius, a celebrated Lutheran divine, one of the ablest 
opponents of the Socinians. He was born at Morungen, in Brunswick, a.d. 
1612: studied at Konigsberg and Rostock, and became successively Pro- 
fessor at Konigsberg, Rector at Dantzic, and Professor of Theology at Wit- 
temberg, where he died, 1686.— (I. B.) 

VOL. I. B 

18 THE author's PREFACE. 

which some at the present day entertain. Even before the 
invention of printing, Scripture was entire ; nor has Divine 
Providence, ever watchful over Holy Scripture, bound itself 
down to the typography of the sixteenth century, the era, 
within whose narrow limits, the whole of the text defended by 
these zealots, was collected and defined, 

19. We maintain, however, the purity and integrity of nearly 
the whole of the printed text, not because it has gained authority 
by its prevalent use, but because it excels in those Criteria 
which we have here laid down ; and we rejoice that such is the 

20. The text of the Greek New Testament, which was printed 
by Frobenius,' and, after Luther's death, by the Stephani and 
Elzevirs, differs frequently from Luther's version ; as may be 
seen, by referring to the table of passages from the New Testa- 
ment, added to the Hebrew, Greek, and German Bibles, pub- 
lished at Zullichau.^ It is allowable, however, to embrace the 
genuine text with delight, wherever it agrees with that of 
Luther. We ought, indeed, laying aside all party feeling, to 
seek for an entire and unadulterated text ; which many, how- 
ever, disgraceful though it be, care less for than a patched 

21. It would be highly desirable to produce an edition of the 
Greek Testament, in which the text itself should in every in- 

■ Probenius, or Proben, was a famous German printer. He was a great 
friend of Erasmus, and printed his works, as also some of the fathers, 
Jerome, Augustin, etc. — (I. B.) 

' Muthman and Steinbart had agreed to publish at ZuUichau, a German 
original Bible, with the Greek New Testament, according to Bengel's re- 
vision, annexed, and had announced their intention, in proposals dated 1st 
Oct. 1738 : but they were so violently attacked from various quarters, re- 
specting this appendage, that they changed their purpose, and, instead of 
the text of Bengel, chose that of Reinecciua. By the appearance, however, 
of Bengel's defence, the alarm was so far allayed, that they applied to him 
to compose, for their work, a tabular index, displaying, in parallel columns 
the more important variations between the text of Luther, the Greek text 
of Reineccius, and that of Bengel. This table was very serviceable in 
showing the correctness of Bengel's revisions ; so that none could help 
seeing, that they supported Luther's version much more closely, than did 
the readings, which had hitherto been most commonly adopted. (L B.) 


stance clearly exhibit the genuine reading, and leave not a 
single passage in dispute. The present age, however, cannot 
accomplish this ; and the more nearly any one of us has ap- 
proached to primitive genuineness, so much the less does he 
obtain the assent of the generality. 

22. I have determined, therefore, in the meanwhile (until 
a fuller measure of light be vouchsafed to the Church), to 
construct as genuine a text^as possible, by a judicious selection 
from approved editions. In the Apocalypse alone^ I have 
introduced some readings here and there from MSS. [as 
opposed to printed editions], the reason of which I have fre- 
quently stated. 

23. Some very few passages, however, of the Textus Receptus, 
I have separated by brackets from the rest of the text, as being 
either doubtful or corrupt ; and thus they are noticed as such in 
the text itself, without any injury to truth. 

24. These passages being excepted, and only for a while, as 
it were, sequestrated, even the unlearned may rely firmly on, 
and use for his salvation, the whole of the rest of the text. 

25. On the other hand, some most precious readings, drawn 
out from their previous obscmity, ai-e recognised as genuine, to 
the advantage and increase of truth. 

26. Readings which ai*e not to be found in the Textus Re- 
ceptus, whether equally probable or evidently genuine, should 
not be introduced immediately into the text itself, but indicated 
in the margin, especially if they are not supported by many 

27. This [mai'ginal] indication of readings may be accurate!}' 
exhibited, if the vai-ious marginal readings be divided into 
classes. For every various reading (so far as the question can 
be decided at any pai'ticulai" time) must have claims, which are 
either equal, superior, or inferior to those of its rivals, and this 
again, with either a greater or less amount of marked difference. 
All readings, therefore, firm, plausible, or doubtful, — whether 
placed in the text or the margin, may be reduced analytically to 
five deerees, though I consider it an ascertained fact, that other- 
wise [if minutely defined, just as in the relative magnitude of the 

' See Section X. 

20 THE author's PREFACE* 

stars, etc.] they are innumerable. I have therefore denoted 
these degrees by the Greek letters, a, (3, y, d, e. 

No one, I conceive, can be so obstinately hostile, or so slavishly 
devoted to the more received text, as to object to these sugges- 
tions (Monita). Some of them are more fully explained here- 
after, with the addition of examples, in various parts of the 
epistle to the Eomans, that of St James, and the Apocalypse. 
I do not, however, advance anything new. I have always en- 
tertained and expressed the same views. Theophilus a Veritate' 
says, that the warnings, which the learned have found it necessary 
to give against my edition of the Neio Testament, are well Mown. — 
See his Beleuchtung, p. 27. I suppose he means those learned 
men, to whom I replied in my Second Defence. I wish, there- 
fore, that he would weigh it carefully, and also refer to and ex- 
amine my edition with regard to those charges, which he brings 
against me in p. 58, and at the end of p. 64. He will then 
discard the exception, which he employed in declaring his can- 
dour towards me. I do not think that I need or ought to defend 
myself very laboriously for the future, lest I should seem to prize 
inadequately the support of those men, distinguished by their 
piety, zeal, orthodoxy, and literary eminence, who defend me 
by their well-known judgments and vindications, and repel and 
vanquish those who are otherwise disposed, whilst I remain 
quiescent. And now I wiU rather proceed to show the real 
value of those guides, whom most men follow. 


In the year 1711, there appeared at Amsterdam, together 
with the Greek New Testament, the Crisis or Gerard von 
Maestricht,^ in which he undertook to decide every various 

1 Count Zinzendorf had made a translation of the New Testament, and 
had issued printed specimens of it, in which he acknowledges that he had 
availed himself of Bengel's revised Greek text as his principal standard for 
the work. This acknowledgment provoked a great outcry against the 
Count's new version, especially through a publication entitled Theophili a 
Veritate, or BibUcal Scandal, given by Zinzendorf. — (I. B.) 

« The title in full was H KAINH AIA0HKH, Novum TESTAHENicif 

THE author's preface. 21 

reading by Forty-three Critical Canons. This Crisis received 
the highest tributes of praise from the learned, not only in Ger- 
many, as from J. G. Baier,^ in his dissertation on the Use and 
Abuse of the Various Eeadings of the New Testament (p. 18, 
etc.), but also in other countries, as from the Englishman, An- 
thony Blackwall,^ in his " Sacred Classics Defended and Illus- 
trated," — (pp. 6, 17, etc.) I have shown, however, in my 
Apparatus, pp. 440, 441, 442 [Ed. ii., pp. 76, 77, 78], that the 
Crisis, taken as a whole, is far removed from the truth ; and 
when, in the year 1735, that same Crisis reappeared at Amster- 
dam, vdth a few alterations, I instituted a second examination of 
it in my former Defence, already mentioned, s. s. xxvi., xxx., 
xxxiii., xxxvii. It is right that they, who place reliance on the 
Crisis, should examine my Apparatus and Defence.* In that 
Defence, published in Latin, I added these words : " We shall, 
at a future time, examine those celebrated forty-three Canons of 
Gerard von Maestricht, singly, in order, modestly, and truly." 
Novv, I almost repent of my promise, and would gladly be 
spared the trouble of such an examination at the present day, as 
I know that there are some who will like this work of mine the 
more, the less that it contains of the Crisis. But, since many are 
still caught by those Canons, and I do not know of a more suit- 
able occasion for discussing them than the present, I will do so at 

post priores Steph. Curcellaei, turn et D.D. Oxonensium labores ; quibus 

parallela Scripturse loca nee non variantes lectiones ex plus 0. MSS 

Codd. et antiquis versionibus coUectae exhibentur. — Accedit tantus locor : 
parall : numerus, quantum nulla adhuc, ac ne vix quidem ipsa profert praes- 
tantiss: Editio Milliana; variantes praeterea ex MS°- Vendobonensi ; ac 
tandem Crisis perpetua, qua singulas variantes earumque valorem aut origi- 
nem ad XLIII Canones examinat G.D. T. M.D. cum ejusdem Prologomenis, 
et Notis in fine adjectis. Omnium Indicem quaere ad calcem Praefationis 
Amstelaedami, ex Offlcina Wetsteniana clalo CCXI. The text was that of 
the Elzevir Editions. — (I. B.) 

' John William Baier, son of the distinguished writer of the same name, was 
born in 1675, and died in 1 729 : he was a Lutheran divine, and learned Philo- 
logist of the Academy of Altorf, — and author of many learned works. — (I. B.) 

2 Anthony Blackwall.— See 1st. fn. to Section XI.— (I. B.) 

3 It forms number IV. of the Appendix or Fourth Part of the App. Orit. : 
Ed. II. It is thus entitled there : " Defensio Prior, excusa cum Harmonia 
Evangelistarum, Germanice, Tubinffae, A. 1736, et Latine, scorsum, coin- 
raodius paullo auctior, A. 1737, Lugduni Batavorum (I. B.) 

22 THE author's PREFACE. 

once, quoting the Canons themselves in full (by which I shall 
assuredly obtain the favour of those who admire them), accom- 
modating my observations to both editions of the Crisis, endea- 
vouring to be both easy and brief, and taking heed not to lose 
sight of becoming moderation, amongst the thorns [i.e. whilst 
employing pointed arguments] which are required to arouse 
some persons from sleep. 

Canon 1. Various Readings, as all must admit, result from 
the negligence, carelessness, haste, ov foul play of transcribers. A 
Various Reading is, in our opinion, a departure of a transcriber 
from Scripture, or fi'om the meaning of the author whom he 
transcribes. This general description recognises every depart- 
ure fi'om the original, even that of the least letter, as a various 
reading. It would be better to refer the former sources of 
various readings rather to error, the latter one to design, which 
may therefore be considered as a various reading. For not 
every departure from Scripture involves necessarily a departure 
from the mind of the author : which by far the greater part of 
these Various Readings (in the Oxford Edition of the New Testa- 
ment, A.D., 1675,^ and thence in the Amsterdam Edition), nay, I 
may venture to say, three-fourths of them, will prove to demon- 

Observation on the above. We acknowledge this to be true, 
with the caution (which will be given when we consider the 
eighth Canon) concerning the meaning or mind of the sacred 
writer. These remarks, however, do not furnish any criterion by 
which to give the preference to one reading of a passage over 

1 Dr John Fell, Bishop of Oxford, published in 1675, a small edition of the 
Greek New Testamant, -with the various readings at the foot of the page, 
with the authorities by which they were supported ; those taken from Cur- 
cellaens, of course, had only the abbreviation of his name as their authority. 
Besides MSS., the margin contains citations from the Coptic (Memphitic) 
and Gothic versions. Bishop Fell gave the readings of some MSS. previously 
uncollated, and in his appendix, he added what has been called the 
Barberini collection of various readings from twenty MSS. This collation 
was found by Poussin in the Barberini library at Rome ; and he published 
it at the end of a Catena on St Mark, in 1673. In it the MSS. are not 
cited separately, but merely so mainy as agreeing in any particular reading. 
The collation had been made by Caryophilus of Crete, about Sfty years 
before.— (I. B.) 


another. Never, to my remembrance, is this canon cited by the 
author in his margin, although, like many others, it deserves the 
name rather of an observation, than a Canon. 

2. Transcribers have frequently erred, through carelessness, 
fancying, when repetitions of words occurred either in the same 
or in the following verse, that they had transcribed the preceding 
or the succeeding words. Henpe have arisen omissions, or else 
variations, the intervening or following word or sentence having 
been left out. The same thing might arise when a copy is made 
from dictation. 

A good Canon, and one which ought to be frequently em- 
ployed, but one which has seldom been employed by the author. 
It ought to have been adduced, for example, in favour of the 
marginal readings in Luke x. 11, and 1 John ii. 23. 

3. Hence also arise sometimes interpolations, or the repetition 
of a word or sentence, which ought only to occur once, when the 
transcriber's eye has fallen again upon the same word or sen- 
tence, or has passed over any thing. 

A good Canon, which ought to be frequently employed, but 
has seldom been employed by the author. The cause of error, 
which is mentioned in it, produces not only interpolations, but 
also changes of words. It ought, therefore, to have been ad- 
duced, for example, in support of the marginal reading in 2 Pet. 
ii. 2. 

4. Transcribers frequently made a mistake, or introduced a 
various reading, when they had written a word before that which 
preceded it, and were unwilling to erase it lest they should im- 
pair the beauty of the Manuscript. Hence has arisen the trans- 
position of words which ought not to produce a various reading, 
if the sense remain uninjured. The same thing has happened, 
when they had omitted a word, which they were afterwards un- 
willing to insert. 

A true observation : but we must determine from other soiurces 
which reading is genuine. 

5. Transcribers had fi-equently read a sentence, and having 
forgotten the original word or words of the text, substituted an 
equivalent, or ahnost equivalent word or phrase, or some otJier, or 
omitted it altogether, and have afterwards been unwiUing to 
change, erase, or supply it, lest they should blot the copy. This 


must not be considered as a various reading, nor is the text to be 
altered on such a ground. 

When equivalent phrases occur, this observation does not en- 
able us to determine, which is that of the original autograph, 
which that of the Greek copyist or paraphrast, nor does it dis- 
tinguish an omission from an addition. 

6. Transcribers have often been guilty of changing or omitting 
single letters, especially those consisting of only one member;^ 
also of interchanging syllables, which resembled each other in 
sound (an alteration which frequently occurs in transferring 
proper names from one language to another) ; and as these 
changes frequently left the sense intact, they were unwilling to 
correct them for fear of marring the neatness of the copy. This 
again ought not to be considered as a Various Beading, but as a 
neglect of the transcriber. Such must also be our decision, when 
changes have occurred in the instance of tenses, moods, verbs, 
cases, genders, etc. 

This observation touches indeed the origin of the variation, 
but not so as to arrive at a solution of it. 

7. Transcribers have often been guilty of omitting, adding, or 
varying particles, pronouns, adverbs, prepositions, etc, — a mal- 
practice which has frequently occurred also in the case of conv- 
pound verbs. — This, however, does not constitute, nor ought it to 
be considered, a various reading : A thousand, and a thousand 
times has this error been committed. 

The same remarks apply to this, as to the Canon immediately 

8. That reading which, whether by addition, subtraction, or 
mutation of words, or even by variety of construction, does 
not alter the sense of the passage, is not (even though it be 
found in three or four MSS.), to be considered as a various 
reading, nor even allowed a hearing, in opposition to the very 
many other MSS. of good or better mark. For we are not 
bound, in such a case, to prefer the various reading to the 
received text. 

When you have once exceeded the number of three or four 
MSS. (which we shall consider when examining Canon 11), 

' Such for example as i. — (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 2fi 

this observation does not in any case give the preference to one 
reading over another. It must also be remarked, that those 
instances are few indeed, where addition, subtraction, or muta^ 
tion leave the sense precisely the same. If I perceive no diffe- 
rence, it is, perchance, perceived by another : if I see it not 
to-day, I may have seen it yesterday, or I may see it to-morrow. 
If there be no difference as to doctrine, there may be as to 
elegance, simplicity, emphasis, connection, or some kind of 

9. A single manuscript does not establish a various reading, 
because it argues merely the carelessness of the transcriber, 
especially in the case of omission ; provided only that the received 
reading is according to the analogy of the faith, — otherwise. 
Canon 22 comes into play. 

In Canons 9-12, and 40—43 (compare his Prolegomena 
n. 108), our author treats of the number of manuscripts. But, 
in the first place, the antiquity and diverse origin^ of MSS. is 

^ " Bengel," says Tregelles, " clearly observed the difference existing in 
MSS. and versions, so that he saw that in a general manner they belonged 
to two different families. The one embraces the most ancient documents 
whether MSS. or versions, the other comprises the greater part of those 
that are more recent. It was thus that a ground-plan of a division into 
Alexandrian and Byzantine families was laid down : these were termed by 
him, African and Asiatic." 

Bengel thus expresses himself in his App. Crit. Ed. II , pp. 425, 426, — 

"1. Codices, Versiones, et patres in duas discedunt familias, Asiaticam, 
et Africanam. 

" 2. Ex Africana est cod. Al. psene solus ; (quia codices Africani fere deleti 
sunt), at quamlibet multis par : cum versione Jith. Copt. Lat. Ex Asia- 
tica ceteri fere testes. Latinse version! subordinantur cod. Graecolatini et 

"3. Lectio familise Africanse semper antiqua est, sed tamen non semper 
genuina : priBsertim ubi aberratio in proclivi erat. 

" 4. Codices Asiatici, quamvis multi, exiguum saepe pondus habent : nulla 
praesertim antiqua versione stipati. 

" 6. Africana lectio s^pius excessum Asiaticum redarguit ; Asiatica lectio 
interdum medetur hiatui Africano. 

" 6. Consensus plurium vel certe prsecipuorum testium ex utraque familia 
magnum est genuinse lectionis criterium* 

" 7. Prseclarum esset adjumentum, si duo testes, insignis codex Gr^cus, et 
insignis aliqua versio, sumerentur : quorum consensio primum, deinde dis- 
crepantia non ipsam quidera ubique decisionem daret, sed tamen iter ad 

26. THE author's PREFACE. 

of more importance than their number, which he adopts in- 
discriminately ; and, in the second place, he leaves the very 
number in great obscurity and confusion — in one instance, sup- 
posing that there are in support of a reading many Mteo., 
where there are few or scarcely any — in another instance, that 
there are few, when in reality there are a sufficient number, 
or more, or even very many in its favour. For most of the 
codices (a list of which is prefixed to his Canons) contain only 
the Gospels, a few the Acts and Epistles, a very few the 
Apocalypse; in addition to which they are occasionally im- 
perfect, not examined with equal care, collated with editions 
which are at variance with each other; but our author is 
accustomed to attribute to the reading of his margin only 
the MSS. expressly cited in the margin, whilst he ascribes 
almost all the remaining MSS. (which he enumerates) in 
such a manner to his text, as though he supposed it to be 
supported by hundreds of MSB., even in the case of the 

The second edition of the " Crisis" rightly denominates this 
a manifest and great error ; and the formula, therefore, concern- 
ing hundreds of MSS., etc., has been expunged ; but the rest 
of its tenor remains unaltered. So much the more necessary, 
therefore, is it to warn those, who fancy that this Crisis has 
been now purged of all its errors. Anthony Blackwall has 
committed a similar error in his " Sacred Classics Illustrated," 
p. 594, where he has cited a hundred and twenty MSS. on 
Acts ii. 24, and 1 John iv. 3 ; though, before his time, not so 
many as forty MSS. had been collated for the Acts and Epistles 
of St John ; and he has also mistaken the sixteen MSS. of 
Stephens (for I suppose he would have it read thus, not sixty), 

earn paulatim patefaceret. Duo huiusmodi testes debebant, 1. totum com- 
plectiN. T. ; 2. antiquitate excellere ; 3. et de lectionibus eorum liquids 
constare. Ex versionibus nulla est, quse cum Latina conferri possit. Naiii 
etiam Syriaca diversis temporibus est adornata : et de ceteris abstrusioribus 
multa sunt ambigua. Latina versio est ex familia Africana : cui si unus 
aliquis codex Grsecus Asiaticus jungi posset, plus esset facilitatis. Nunc 
quum ejusmodi nuUus prsesto est, Alexandrinus tantisper adsciseendus venit. 
Huic unum Vaticanum opponi passim video : sed id judicium vanum esse, 
ostendi in Gnom." — (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 27 

which embrace different parts of the New Testament, for MSS. 
of the wJiole New Testament, pp. 600, 617, 618, 636. In the 
Oxford Excerpts,^ wliich Maestricht has subjected to his Crisis, 
one, two, three, or four MSS. are often said to have a read- 
ing, which is in reality supported by many witnesses. With 
Maestricht himself, the reading of the text, however weak, can 
never lose — that of the margin, however genuine, can never 
gain — the cause. 

As far as the Ninth Canon is separately concerned, in cases 
where the number of MSS. is small, a single MS. may make a 
various reading ; nay, as in the case of Erasmus's^ edition of the 
Apocalypse, a single MS. has been known to sustain the whole 
text. The greater, however, that the number of MSS. is, the 
more rarely can a single MS. support a Various Reading with 
any show of probability. Maestricht has, however, frequently 
mentioned only one MS. when in reality there are many. This 
Canon is cited, for instance, on Matt. xxvi. 35, and Mark ix. 40, 
though the marginal reading in those passages is supported not 
merely by one MS., but by nearly all. In Kev. iii. 12, all the 
MSS. known, and all the editions printed before Beza,^ have 
mSj ; those, therefore, who have compared the MSS., have not 
indicated any various reading, in this place. In Beza's edition 
XaCj was substituted for ma by an error of the press : Beza 

' " Wetstein and Smith, publishers and printers at Amstei-dam — in the year 
171 1 had brought out an edition of the Greek Testament, in which a selec- 
tion of the various readings [called by Bengel Excerpta Oxoniensia] given 
by Mill and Kiister were repeated ; and at the end an attempt was made to 
repudiate the greater part of them, as not worthy of notice by means of 
the application of certain canons of Gerard von Maestricht, the editor." — 
Tregelles. — (I. B.) 

" Erasmus's first edition of the Greek New Testament appeared 1st 
March 1516. For the Apocalypse he had but one mutilated MS., bor- 
rowed from Reuchlin, in which the text and commentary were intermixed 
almost unintelligibly. And thus he used here and there the Latin Vulgate 
for his guide, re-translating into Greek as well as he could. This was the 
case with regard to the last six verses, which, from the mutilated condition 
of his MS., were wholly wanting. — (I. B.) 

' Theodore Beza, the successor of Calvin at Geneva, was born at Vezelay, 
in France, a.d. 1519. — His first edition was published at Geneva in 1555, 
and was repeated in 1576. A third appeared in 1582, a fourth in 1589, and 
a fifth in 1598.— (I. B.) 


observed, and subsequently corrected, the mistake : one Huiss, 
however, who collated the Codex Alexandrinus with a copy of 
Beza's edition printed with the mistake Xafi, noted vaif) as a 
various reading of the Codex Alexandrinus. On which ground 
Maestricht has by this Canon condemned the reading vaffl, as if 
it were found in only one MS., though it is really found in all, 
and is undoubtedly the true reading. These mistakes could 
not have been committed by Maestricht, unless his Crisis, taken 
as a whole, were erroneous. The last words of this Canon, " pro- 
vided the Eeceived Text," etc., needlessly imperil the reading 
of the Eeceived Text. 

10. Nor should two Codices establish a Various Reading, in 
opposition to the reading received and published and of sound 
sense : since it merely argues the carelessness of two tran- 
scriptions, executed by two transcribers, or perhaps by the 
same hand. This holds good, more especially in the case of 
omission, when it is generally sufScient to say, " it has been left 


This Canon is cited on Eev. xiv. 1 and xvii. 4, though the 
marginal reading of those passages (which refutes the mistake 
introduced by Erasmus, and received by the Stephani and so 
many others) is supported not by merely two, but by all Manu- 
scripts. And yet there are those, who dare to limit the 
exercise of Divine Providence in preserving the integrity of the 
New Testament exclusively to the Stephanie Press, and cease 
not to bring the charge of audacity against all, who endeavour 
to employ earnestly and reverently, for the common edification, 
all the helps, which Divine Providence has vouchsafed to the 
age in which they live. 

11. Nor should three or four MSS. establish a Various 
Eeading (especially in the case of an omission) in opposition to 
twenty or more MSS. 

This Canon is cited, for example, at Luke xiii. 35 ; but the 
marginal reading in that passage is supported, not by three or 
four, but by very many witnesses, and those too of high character. 
Thus in Matt. ii. 11 and xxviii. 19, the marginal reading is 
supported, not by merely three or four MSS., but by so manv, 
that the reading of the Text is not firmly supported by the tes- 
timony even of one. 


Where ililP (says Maestricht in tlie last section of his pro- 
legomena) adduces many Manuscripts, Versions, or Fathers, 
there, hy a slight change in the number of Codices, three or four 
may, for example, he increased to six or seven : but not even that 
number ought to establish a various reading, in opposition to a 
hundred (Ed. ii., the vast majority of) other MSS. or witnesses. 
We tave already spoken of his " hundred" or " vast majority." 
The difference is very trifling between three or four and six or 
seven : but the difference is in reality far greater, as any reader 
may learn, by comparing Maestricht's marginal readings with 
our Apparatus Criticus, on any disputed passage. 

12. A great number of MSS. (twenty or more, for example), 
establishes beyond question the common reading of the Textus 
Receptus, provided it be of sound sense. This holds good 
especially in the case of omission. 

A Reading " of sound sense," generally received before the in- 
vention of printing, or even from that time forward, is confirmed 
by a just number of MSS. ; but, from various causes, a just 
number may consist sometimes of more, sometimes of fewer 
MSS. : and the antiquity of witnesses, together with the diversity 
of their origin, is of more weight than their mere number. 

13. The Various Readings adduced by Stephen Courcelles' 
must not be admitted as Various Readings, because he does not 
indicate the Codices from which they are obtained, or whether 
they are obtained from MSS. or from printed copies. They 
may even be considered as a single Codex. 

I have spoken of Stephen Courcelles in my Apparatus Criti- 
cus, p. 440 (Ed. ii., p. 76).* Maestricht expresses his astonish- 

' John Mill, D.D. A learned divine. Born at Shap, Westmoreland, 
1645. Entered as Servitor of Queen's College, Oxford, 1661. Became 
Rector of Blechington, Oxon., 1681, Principal of St Edmund's Hall, 
1685, and Prebendary of Canterbiury, 1704. He died 1707, the same year 
in Tvhich his edition of the Greek New Testament, which had occupied him 
for thirty years, was published. — (I. B.) 

^ Stephen Courcelles, known also as Stephanus Curcellaeus, was born at 
Geneva, a.d. 1586. He became a follower of Arminius. After residing 
some time in Prance, he settled at Amsterdam, where he succeeded Epis- 
copius as Divinity professor. He died, a.d. 1858. He was an able writer, 
and a great linguist. — (I. B.) 

' sc. Courcelles has seldom admitted anything into his margin, which has 

80 THE author's PKEFACE. 

merit, in his Notes on 1 Cor. vi. 5, that Courcelles should alone 
have been cited by the Oxford Editors, although Mill was in 
possession of thirty Manuscripts. It escapes him, therefore, that 
such things occur frequently, as, for example, on Matt. v. 48, and 
James ii. 18. Those even, who are devoid of the sense of sight, 
may ascertain, by the touch, that the Oxford Excerpts, which 
Maestricht has subjected to his Canons, are utterly unsuit- 
able to them ; and also that he has not collated the editions with 
proper care. For he imagines that Courcelles is cited alone, or 
almost alone, where Courcelles quotes the text of printed 
editions, and sometimes the best text, as in Eom. vii. 6, 1 
Peter ii. 21, and Rev. xxii. 15. 

14. Even the most ancient versions, when differing from edi- 
tions and Manuscripts, should not establish a Various Reading, as 
neither should printed books ; but they rather show the careless- 
ness of the translator, or the corruptness of the copy, which he 
employed. The first Complutensian Edition, that of 1514, being 
extremely exact, and printed from various MSS. (resembling 
even in its type the ancient MSS. of Scripture), is of nearly 
as great authority as an actual Manuscript : on which accoimt 
its various readings are indicated in the Oxford edition of 

What may be the weight of Versions, where they agree with 
editions and Manuscripts, with some of them at least, we do 
not learn from this Canon. They certainly far surpass in an- 
tiquity the Greek MSS. which we at present possess, and 
scarcely ever agree in supporting a manifestly corrupt reading. 
They are therefore of the very greatest weight where the Greek 
MSS. differ from each other. The Oxford margin cites a single 
Coptic version, with some Gothic fragments, and that only to the 
Gospels. This is a great defect. Nor, again, should printed 
books be denied the privilege of estabKshing a various reading, 

not already been given by the first editors, or Grotius. Wherever he has in- 
troduced anything new, he may be supposed to have obtained it from the MSS. 
which he mentions in his preface. He placed, however, his conjectures not 
in the Margin, but in the Appendix, certainly in his first edition, and dis- 
tinguished them from various readings. He is, therefore, very unjustly 
accused of having placed them on a footing of equality, or mixing them 
together.— (I. B.) 


where it is ascertained that their editors made use of Manu- 
scripts. The author of the Canons approves of the Compluten- 
sian edition ; but he very frequently rejects its best readings. 

15. From the character of the Manuscripts we must observe 
the character of the transcribers and their transcriptions, whether 
they are accustomed to err by omission, or by addition. See 
also Canons 30 and 31. 

This character does little towards the actual Decision ; since 
that never depends on the character of one MS. 

16. But if other words, or changes of words, inflexions, etc., 
occur in the parallel passages of the other Evangelists, as dis- 
tinguished from the Evangelist whose text is under consideration, 
it is probable, that the various reading has crept in from thence. 

This Canon has nothing different from Canon 24. 

17. Citations by the Fathers of the Text of the New Testa- 
ment ought seldom to establish a Various Reading,; because, 
quoting as they frequently do from memory, they often employ 
not the very words,^ but such as are equivalent to them. 

There is not a single citation from the Fathers in the Oxford 
Margin : this 17th Canon therefore, and the three that foUow 
it in this Crisis, remain dormant. The Fathers too are seldom 
cited even in the Notes : another great defect. For though, 
where the Fathers differ from the MSS., their words are not to 
be pressed, yet where the MSS. differ from each other, those 
MSS. have the greatest weight, which agree with the Fathers : 
and the more ancient the Fathers are, the greater weight is due 
to their support. It is frequently difficult to ascertain, what 
was the reading of the text, which the Fathers employed : it is 
often clear beyond question. The distinction is explained in the 
Apparatus Criticus, pp. 389, 390 (Ed. ii. p. 23). 

18. Thus the Fathers frequently omit, what does not bear 
upon their present purpose. 

In such a case, no man of sense will reject what the Fathers 

19. The Fathers also, from slip of memory, ascribe sometimes 
tc one writer, what really belongs to another. 

• For some very interesting information on this and kindred subjects, see 
H. WssTcoTT on the Canon of Scripture, pp. 154-169. — (I. B.) 

82 THE author's FREFACK. 

No genuine reading has ever yet sustained injury from any 
such slip of memory. 

20. The Fathers also very frequently quote passages, which 
are not anywhere to he found. 

Let your reliance in each case depend upon the quoter.^ 

21. Those which are considered as real Various Eeadings by 
the Critics, and which alter the sense, — are not to be examined 
or decided by these Canons : but their origin, their cause, and 
their character are to be examined and discovered : to which 
investigation the reader is directed by the twenty-third Canon. 

This is a methodical schoUum, not a Canon. 

22. A Eeading which is absurd, and which is convicted of 
absurdity by the context, either immediately preceding or fol- 
lowing, must be rejected. 

A Reading, which is manifestly absurd, has seldom the sup- 
port of more than one MS. : so that this Canon is superfluous. 
Sometimes the absurdity is not in the MS. itself, but in the 
misquotation from it {e.g. Matt, xviii. 20, collated by Mill), or in 
the mistranslation of a various reading, as in Matt. xxi. 32, 
where according to the Cambridge MS.,^ in opposition to the 
interpretation of others, the Pharisees repented of believing. — 
Often also that Reading is really absurd, which does not appear 
so ; that Reading not really absurd, which does appear so. 
Amongst the twelve Canons, with which Pfaff' concludes his 
dissertation on the Various Readings of the New Testament, the 
eighth is remarkable, " A Reading, which appears at first sight 

' " Fides semper esto penes citantem" — a similar plirase to that of Pliny, 
" Penes auctores sit fides" — which Cooperi Thesaurus renders, "I reporte 
niee to the authoures whether it be true or no. As for the truth thereof I 
refer you to the authoures." — (I. B.) 

2 The CoDBX Bez^, or Codex Cantabrigiensis, is a Greek and Latin 
MS., containing the greater part of the four Gospels and the Acts of the 
Apostles. It is deposited in the Public Library of the University of Cam- 
bridge, to which it was presented by the celebrated Theodore Beza, in 1581. 
It is conjectured to have been written in the sixth or seventh century. A 
fac simile was published in folio by Kipling, at Cambridge in 1793 
-(I. B.) 

3 Christopher Matthew PfafF, D.D., a learned Lutheran divine, was born 
at Stuttgard in 1686, Professor of Divinity at Tubingen in 1717, and died 
in 1760.— (L B.) 


absurd, is not to be immediately rejected, nor one, which 
carries with it an obscurity of style : for such Eeadings are not 
wont to be manufactured." 

23. See the Notes. 

See the Apparatus Criticus ; for there we have considered 
these Notes, as far as was necessary. 

24. Whenever the origin of the Various Reading is known, 
the Various Reading itself generally falls to the groimd : as for 
instance, when an expression or a sentence has been introduced 
from one Gospel into the parallel passage of another, which was 
not an uncommon practice, with the view of making the 
accounts of the different Evangelists consistent with each other. 

A remarkable Canon. It should have been adduced in favour 
of the marginal reading in Luke iii. 19, etc., and also in other 
parts of the New Testament as well as the Gospels, as e. g. in 
Eph. V. 9. 

25. A gloss.' 

This is contained in Canon 35, to which the Reader is there- 
fore referred. 

26. Transcribers have, frequently, for the sake of brevity 
omitted words, which they considered as superfluous, or un- 
necessary, especially where the omission did not change or 
disturb the sense. Such omissions must not be admitted as 
Various Readings, but imputed to the audacity of the trans- 

Omission is generally the result of chance, seldom of design, 
as Hauber^ rightly judges, whose criticism in other respects 
agrees with the spirit of this Canon, as we have observed on 
Acts XV. 34. By what means, however, omissions are to be dis- 
tinguished from additions, the author of the Crisis does not 
indicate : so that the matter is left still in uncertainty. 

27. On the other hand, when the meawm^ of a passage ap- 
peared to the transcribers elliptical, obscure, or imperfect, they 
frequently supplied the noun, verb, or pronoun, etc., from the 
context. This also is audacity. 

' " Glossema." The meaning is, that where Canon 25 is cited in the 
Crisis, the author considers the reading in question a gloss. — (I. B.) 

* Eberhard David Hauber, a learned Lutheran divine of the last century, 
was author of " Harmonic der Evangelisten." — (I. B.) 

VOL. I. C 

M THE author's PREFACE. 

This Is also contained in Canon 35, to which the reader is 
therefore referred. 

28. It frequently occurred, that when transcribers had changed 
a previous expression, verb, number, case, or tense, being unwill- 
ing to erase what they had written, and thus blot the copy, 
they have adhered to their mistake throughout the whole pas- 
sage. Innumerable examples of such continuous alteration 

The principle of this Canon is identical with that of the 
fourth, to which the reader is therefore referred. 

29. The Beading of the Eeceived Text is to be the more 

The genuine reading is always the most effective : but effi- 
ciency, the companion of native simphcity, must be distinguished 
from that false colouring so pleasing to the Greeks. Thus, in 
Matt, xxiii. 8 ; 2 Cor. viii. 8 ; Eev. xi. 17, this Canon, though 
brought by Maestricht in defence of the Text, fights bravely in 
support of the marginal reading. 

30. Every Manuscript usually omits something. 

An useless Canon. It is clearly contaiaed in Canon 9. 

31. Every Manuscript usually adds something. 
A Canon of the same value. 

32. Differences of punctuation (or commas and full stops 
placed differently), as well as the conjunction or division of 
words, which occur in MSS., do not amount to a diversity of 
reading, because in ancient MSS. the text is frequently un- 
punctuated, and the words run into each other. Hence have 
frequently arisen the fusion of two words into one, or the division 
of one word into two. But this belongs rather to the inter- 
preters and explainers of the text, than to criticism. 

This is not a Canon at all. 

33. An omission or variation has frequently occurred, when 
the construction of a verb or preposition might be equally ap- 
plied to the words farther off, or to the nearer words. Trans- 
cribers have frequently erred from this cause. 

As far as Variation is concerned, this Observation does not 
determine, which is the genuine Reading. We have already 
spoken of omission, when considering the twenty-sixth Canon. 

34. Refer also the number or numbers of the Canons, which 

THE author's preface. 35 

are affixed to this (sc. the thirty-fourth) Canon, to the imme- 
diately preceding Eeading, and from that Canon, or those 
Canons, deduce the value of that Eeading.^ 

The author rightly calls this a Monitum. It is not a Canon. 

35. Transcribers have frequently wished to express some- 
thing more clearly than it stands in the Received Text. Such 
readings must not be too hastily adopted. This error has very 
often occurred. These should generally be considered as 

This Canon is by far the most excellent ; but our author has 
neglected to employ it, where it was most wanted, e.g. Mark vii. 2, 
and Acts x. 21 ; xxiii. 9 : nay, he has too often adduced the op- 
posite Canon 26, instead of it, as in Matt. iv. 12, and Mark xii. 32. 
Greek copyists have often interpolated 'O'ljiwDj and other words, 
especially at the beginning of an ecclesiastical lection. There 
is much weight in what Eeineccius^ says, in the preface to his 
tetraglott' New Testament, — "The great importance of the 
matter in hand demands the utmost attention and circumspec- 
tion, lest any of the words of God should be rejected amqngst 
the scholia of men, or any of these words of men be circulated, 
as the words of God." And dangerous as it is to take away, 
it is stUl more dangerous to add anything, as I have shown in 
my Apparatus, Part I., section 21 (Ed. ii. p. 17) : wherefore I 
consider it essential to inculcate also this, — " A bland facility of 
style, adopted by many transcribers, but those only of modern 

' i.e., when this Canon is cited, such is the course to be pursued. See 
note on Canon 25. — (I. B.) 

* Christian Reineccius was born in Saxony, a.d. 1668. He studied at the 
Universities of Rostock and Leipsic. He afterwards became Rector of the 
Gymnasium and Councillor of the Consistory at Weissenfels. He died a.d. 
1752. He was a man of great learning and wrote many works. — (I. B.) 

' The full title of the work is — Biblia Sacra Quadrilinguia Veteris Testa- 
menti Hebraici, cum versionibus e regione positis, utpote versione Grseca 
Lxx Interpretum ex codice manuscripto Alexandrine, a J. Em. Grabio 
primum evulgata — Item versione Latina Sebast. Schmidii noviter revisa 
et textui Hebraeo accuratius accomodata, et Germanica beati Lutheri, ex 
ultima beati viri revisione et editione 1544-45, expressa. Adjectis textui 
Hebraeo Notis Masorethicis et Grsecae Versioni Lectionibus Codicis Vati- 
cani ; notis philologicis et exegeticis aliis, ut et summariis capitum ac locis 
parallelis locupletissimis ornata. Accurante M. Christ. Reineccio. Lipsise, 
1760. 3 vols, folio. Hartwell Home speaks of it in high terms. — (I. B.) 

as THE adthok's preface. 

date, is frequently the sign of a reading, that has been tampered 
with : brevity of style, together with antiquity of witnesses, is 
indicative of a genuine text." The men of this generation are 
so averse, and, in their own opinion, reUgiously opposed to con- 
demning glosses, that there is considerable danger, lest many 
should reject the genume text of the New Testament in very 
important passages, from a desire to amend it, and hear and 
follow any of Maestricht's Canons, rather than this golden one. 
But, though it be of little use, to warn writers, many of whom 
give themselves httle space for thmking,' each sensible reader 
should exercise more caution and prudence in his own quiet 

36. CJianges of tenses, cases, moods, numbers, and degrees 
of comparison, occur so frequently in executing a copy, that this 
cause has given rise to the great majority of Various Readings. 
This may be referred also to Canon 6, except that the present 
is stricter. 

This observation also does not enable the reader to decide 
between two readings of the same passage. 

37. Something is frequently omitted in. a Manuscript, be- 
cause the transcriber thought that it had been already suffi- 
ciently expressed, either actually in the passage itself, or in the 

Transcribers have often erred from this cause, especially the 
more learned ones. 

See my remarks on Canon 26, as this differs nothing from 

38. When any Various Readings are discovered or observed, 
let not any of them be introduced into the Text, but let the 
Reading of our printed copies remain intact, especially that of 
the Comptutensian or Stephanian editions. The Various Read- 
ing should be indicated in the Notes of the Commentator. 

This is not a Canon enabhng the reader to decide on a con- 
troverted text : the author calls it a ' Monitum.' 

39. When the text of the printed editions exhibits no Various 
Reading, but yet there appears a difficulty in the meaning, on 
account either of the language, or the subject, — the question is 

' But on that very account, so much the greater license in judging E u. 


one rather for the commentator to expound and reconcile, than 
for the critic to decide. 

My last ohservation appHes to this also. There are, however, 
many important Readings, no trace of which is to be found in 
Maestricht's Edition, See my Apparatus, p. 142 (Ed. ii. p. 78), 
where I have drawn attention to Mark x. 14, and other pas- 

40. This Canon indicates,^ that Various Readings may be 
found in the greatest part of those MSS. which have hitherto 
been discovered and collated. 

In no instance, that I am aware of, has this Canon been 
cited by the author; though it might have been cited very 
frequently, very usefully, and very rightly, in favour of the 
marginal Reading. And, instead of it, he cites passim Canons 
41, 42, 43, nay, 12, 11, and 10, nay even 9. In not a single 
instance, does the author of the Crisis ascribe the true number of 
manuscripts to a genuine Reading, whether of the Elzevir Text 
(which happens to be that, which he employs) or of the Margin. 
But, in every case, where it is in the Text, he claims for it too 
many MSS., where in the Margin too few. 

41. This Canon indicates, that an equal number of MSS. 
may support the Published and the Various Reading. 

This Canon might frequently have been employed with ad- 
vantage ; but it is seldom adduced. It is cited, indeed, ex. gr. 
on Matt. xxvi. 74 ; but there the MSS. with the greatest un- 
animity, support the marginal Reading. 

42. This Canon indicates, that the third part of the MSS. 
known to us, say thirty or more than thirty, may support the 
Various Reading. 

Frequently in this work is that accounted only a third part of 
the MSS. which is in reality a far greater number, as in Matt, 
xvii. 14 ; Mark vi. 33 ; Luke viii. 43 ; Acts xxiv. 20 ; Gal. v. 
7 ; Phil. i. 23. 

43. This Canon lastly indicates, that a fourth or lesser part 
of the MSS. known to us, say twenty or less than thirty, may 
support a Various Reading. 

lia fine, that is frequently in this work accounted as only 

* For this and the tvo following Canons, see notes on Canons 26 and 31. 
.-(1. B.) 

38 THE author's PREFACE. 

the fourth part, or even less, which is so far from being 
less, that it is really much greater, e.g., Acts xx. 28, and 
xxi. 15. 

Such being the case, it is evident, what little value can be 
attached to that examination of Various Eeadings on Matt, xxv., 
which the author of the Crisis has given as a specimen, in his 
Prolegomena, Nos. 94-98. Nothing ought to be more severely 
examined than Rules ; for all other things depend upon them. 
This Crisis, then, which we have been examining, (1) rests 
upon an utterly false number of MSS. ; (2) passes by the most 
important witnesses to the genuine Text ; (3) applies its Canons 
to passages, where they are not applicable, and neglects to apply 
them, where they were of the most value, etc. I do not wish to 
injure the reputation of a distinguished man : his Crisis is, how- 
ever, "an unsatisfactory defence of the more received text, 
where sound, and a vast hindrance to its purification, where 
corrupt." Oh that they, who follow this Crisis, like an unrea- 
soning herd, would at length awake, so as to use their own 
senses. They, who treat the whole subject of criticism with 
contempt (provided they do not do so, from contempt of the 
Divine Word itself), are far more endurable, than those, who 
esteem the critic's vocation highly, yet both exercise it ill them- 
selves, and keep others in ignorance, or lead them into error. 
Here also " overweening confidence is the principal means, by 
which a bad cause is defended, and eked out." 

Daniel Whitby^ also has laid down certain Rules in his ex- 
amination of the Various Readings of Mill (Preface, fol. 8), 
quoted by J. G. Carpzov^ in his preface to the critical commen- 

^ Daniel Whitby, D.D., was bom a.d. 1638, at Kushden or Rusden, in 
Northamptonshire ; admitted at Trinity College, Oxford, 1653, elected 
Scholar 1655, and Fellow 1664. He became Prebendary of Salisbury in 
1688, and Precentor in 1672. 

He obtained also the Rectory of St Edmund's Church, Salisbury. He 
died 1726. He was a man of great learning and untiring industry. In his 
last days he became an Arian. He wrote numerous works, amongst which 
was "A Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testament," in the first 
volume of which is to be found his " Examen variantium lectionum Johannis 
Millii in Novum Testamentum." — (I. B.) 

'^ John Gottlob Carpzov (known also as J. G. Carpzovius), was born at 
Dresden 1679, and died 1767.— (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 39 

tary of Eumpaeus.^ As far as these rules treat of the value of 
ancient authorities, they are excellent : tut the author does not 
always decide rightly in the case of particular passages of the 
N. T. He frequently blames Mill with justice, but, as often 
happens, falls himself into the opposite extreme. From not ob- 
serving this distinction, many, who admire Whitby, make a bad 
use of him. To use him rightly, you should always hear the 
other side, i.e. Mill. We have made some remarks also on 
Whitby, in our Apparatus, pp. 443, 787, 788 (Ed. ii., pp. 79, 
498, 499), and in our Second Defence. Very lately, Charles 
Gottlob Hofmarv' has pubhshed eight Canons, of considerable 
merit, on Pritz's' Introduction to the Study of the New Testa- 
ment, cap. 29. The substance of these Canons, as well as that 
of others by different authors, is contained in the Monita, 
which we have given in Section Vm. 

All good men will, I trust, acknowledge the principles of my 
revision to be imassailable. And though, in some of the most 
difficult passages, opposite conclusions may be drawn from those 
principles — yet in the case of by far the greater number of 
various readings, a clear and unhesitating decision may be 
arrived at by their means. For although I have reserved to 
myself the liberty of changing my opinion, it has seldom re- 
quired to be changed. Some such instances will be easily 
found in this Gnomon by those who think it their interest to 
find them. 

Most of the Eeadings, however, which we approved formerly, 
we still maintain. The Text of my Revision (which must again 
and again be asserted, in opposition to unfounded suspicions), 
adheres, without the change of a single letter, in the Apocalypse 

• Justus Wesselus Rumpaeus, a Lutheran divine of the last century, must 
not be confounded with Bumphius, the Dutch botanist. — (I. B.) 

2 Charles Gottlob Hoffmann, a Lutheran divine, and learned Philologist, 
born 1703, died 1774.— (L B.) 

3 John George Pritz (called also Pritius), a learned Lutheran divine, 
was born at Leipsic in 1662, died at Frankfort in 1732.— (L B.) 

40 THE author's PKEFACE. 

to the most and best MSS., in the other Books of the N. T. 
to the best printed editions. But the Exegesis (which is the 
subject at present principally under consideration), is based, and 
that rightly, upon the genuine Reading, as far as it can be as- 
certained up to the present time, whether I have placed that 
Reading in the Text or the Margin : which was what I under- 
took to show in Sections VIII and IX. On the other hand, a 
tnie Exegesis will show, that the selection of an edition of the 
Greek New Testament, with a text correctly revised, is not a 
question of mere curiosity. 


There is great advantage in distinguishing, without dividing, 
the text into greater and smaller sections, which was first made 
clear by Anthony Blackwall,^ and his laborious editor, Christo- 
pher WoUius." — See Sacred Classics, Vol. 11. Part ii., chap. i. 
With that view I have, in my edition, distinctly marked the 
beginnings of the greater Sections, whilst leaving the Sections 
themselves continuous, and unbroken. I have revised with 
great care the full stops, colons, commas, accents, and breathings 
(concerning which I have made some very essential remarks in 
my annotations on Rev. i. 5), according to the meaning of the 
words themselves. Many editors promise these things, few perform 
them. Hence, as I fancy, it arises, that no reliance is now 
placed even on the word of one, who affirms it with truth. He 
who has fairly observed, in the daily use of my edition, the 
greater and lesser divisions (examples of which are to be found 
in the sixth section of the Preface to my small edition of the 

1 Anthony Blackwall, an elaborate and learned writer, was born in Derby- 
shire, 1674, and educated at E. College, Cambridge, where he took his 
degree of m.a. in 1698. Soon afterwards, he became master of the Free 
School, Derby, and in 1772 of the Grammar School, Market Bosworth. 
He became Rector of Clapham, Surrey, in 1726, and died 1730. The work 
here alluded to, is, " The Sacred Classics Defended and Illustrated ; or an 
Essay proving the Purity, Propriety, and True Eloquence of the Writers of 
the New Testament." 2 vols. 8vo, 1727-1731.— (I. B.) 

2 Christopher Wollius, a Lutheran divine, and philologist, born at Leipsic 
1700, died 1761.— ri. B ^ 


Greek New Testament) will perceive that this statement 
has not been made without reason, and will, I trust, derive 
thence very great advantage. I should be unwilling, however, 
that any one should estimate my edition of the Greek New 
Testament from that which has been printed in imitation of it 
beyond the limits of Wirtemburg :^ for the verses are very 
differently disjoined and conjoined in that edition from what 
they are in mine. We scarcely ever give a different punctua- 
tion in the present work from that which we have given before : 
sometimes, however, we have done so, and drawn attention to 
the fact, as in the remarkable passage, Rom. viii. 31. 


The first requisite for making a Commentary is a knowledge, 
and appreciation of tlie style, employed by the writers of the New 
Testament. On this subject there has long existed a great diversity 
of opinion, and John Lamius^ has collected and digested much 
information regarding it, in his book on the Learning of the 
Apostles. We shall say what is necessary. The wisdom of 
God employs a style undoubtedly worthy of God^ even when 

' The edition here alluded to is that brought out in 1737, at Leipsic, by 
Andreas Buttigius. See p. 10, f.n. 3. — (I. B.) 

^ Giovanne Lami, Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of 
Florence, and keeper of the Recordi Library, born in 1697, died 1770, was 
a scholar of great research, and author of many learned works. — (I. B.) 

3 " Some appear to disparage the style of Scripture, as barbarous. Some 
apologize for it, as the work of illiterate and unlearned men. Surely these 
notions are false and dangerous. The diction of Scripture, it is true, is not 
the language of any other composition in the world. The Greek of the New 
Testament is not the Greek of Xenophon, Plato, or Demosthenes. It is a 
language of its own. And we need not scruple to affirm, that in precision of 
expression, in pure and native simplicity, in delicacy of handling, in the 
grouping of words and phrases, in dignified and majestic sublimity, it has no 
rival in the world. The more carefully it is studied, the more clearly will 
this appear. ' Nihil otiosum in sacra Scriptura' (Origen). Every sentence 
— we might almost say, every phrase — is fraught with meaning. As it is in 
the Book of Nature, so is it in the pages of Holy Writ. Both are from the 
same Divine Hand. And if we apply to the language of Holy Scripture, the 
same microscopic process, which we use in scrutinizing the beauties of the 


by means of His instruments He accommodates Himself to the 
grossn6ss of om* perceptions. It is not, however, our part 
arrogantly to define, but humbly to believe what is worthy of 
God, 1 Cor. ii. 1, and xiv. 21. The holy men of God, both in 
the Old and New Testaments, exhibit, not only an exact know- 
ledge of the Truth, but also a systematic arrangement of their 
subject, a precise expression of their meaning, and a genuine 
strength of feeling. Beyond these three requisites nothing need 
be desired. The result of these three qualifications was, that 
the writers of the New Testament, however unlearned, wrote 
always in a style becoming their subject, and, raised far above 
the technical rules of Greek Ehetoricians, produced an eloquence 
truly natural, and devoid of all study after mere effect. We 
shall describe these characteristics one by one, indicating at the 
same time what has been observed concerning them in the 
present work. 


The arrangement of subjects, contained in each book, is exhi- 
bited in the several Tables, which I have prefixed to each of 
them; not merely with the view of assisting the reader's 
memory, but that I might also show the plan of the sacred 
writer, as accurately as possible. Any one, who has impressed 
those tables upon his mind, will perceive their utility. No one 
would have wished for an argument of each chapter, at its com- 
mencement. The division of the New Testament into chapters, 
now in use, was made in the dark ages, after the selection of 
portions for ecclesiastical readings, which frequently therefore 
run on from one chapter into another. That division frequently 
separates things which are closely connected, and joins together 
things which are really distinct. The arguments of the chap- 
ters, therefore, are more rightly to be sought for in the tables, 

natural world, and which reveals to us exquisite colours, and the most grace- 
ful texture in the petals of a flower, the fibres of a plant, the plumage of a 
bird, or the wings of an insect, we shall discover new sources of delight and 
admiration in the least portions of Holy Writ." — Chbistopher Wokds- 
WOBTH. — (I. B.) 


already mentioned, which do not preserve that division. Where 
the divisions given in the tables are rather large, subdivisions 
(but not too many in number), are supplied in the notes. The 
tables at once utterly confute the ignorance, in some cases 
impious, of those who maintain that the Apostles gave im- 
mediate utterance to whatever chanced to occur to them, with- 
out any plan or design. In the Works of God, even to the 
smallest plant, there is the most entire symmetry : in the Words 
of God there is the most systematic perfection, even to a letter. 

It is the especial office of every interpretation, to exhibit 
adequately the force and signification of the words which the 
text contains, so as to express every thing which the author in- 
tended, and to introduce nothing which he did not intend to 
express. The two chief excellences of a good style are depth, 
and ease (facilitas). They are seldom combined in the case of 
human authors : and, as each man writes himself, so do others 
seem to him to write also. He, who himself weighs every word, 
is in danger (when studying the work of another) of fancjdng 
here and there, that he discovers a meaning which the author 
did not design ; he, who writes with less precision himself, in- 
terprets the words of others too vaguely. In the Divine Scrip- 
tures, however, the greatest depth is combined with the greatest 
ease (facilitas) ; we should take care, therefore, in interpreting 
them, not to force their meaning to our own standard; nor, because 
the sacred writers are devoid of anxious soUcitude, to treat their 
words as if employed without due consideration. The Divine 
language far, very far, surpasses all human elegances of courtly 

God, not as man, but as God, utters words worthy of Himself. 
Deep and lofty are His thoughts : His words, which flow from 
them, are of inexhaustible efficacy. In the case also of His in- 
spired interpreters, although they may not have received human 
instruction, their language is most exact. The expression of 
their words corresponds exactly with the impression of the things 
in their minds ; and it is so far from being beneath the compre- 


hension of those who hear it, that, rather, they seldom attain to 
its entire meaning. The Apostles frequently deduce conclu- 
sions, more weighty than the world itself, from an epithet, from 
a grammatical accident, or even an adverb, as we have shown 
in our Apparatus, Part. I., . Section I. Chrj^sostom interprets 
the particle xal with emphatic precision in the writings of St 
Paul, and he, as well as the other fathers, render many other 
things in a similar manner, as we have remarked upon his book 
on the Priesthood, §§ 136, 441. It is right to follow these 
traces. In this spirit Luther says. The science of theology is 
nothing else, but Grammar, exercised on the words of the Holy 
Spirit;^ — a sentiment which has often been repeated since then 
by other theologians. This observation involves the examina- 
tion of emphatic expression, ia which the original signification of 
the words sometimes increases, sometimes decreases in intensity. 
Many modes of expression were emphatic in Greek, which are 
not so in German, as, for example, the employment or omission 
of the personal pronouns, seldom omitted by us, frequently so 
by the Greeks ; middle verbs, too, which are unknown in Ger- 
man or Latin, but which are distinctively expressed in Greek ; 
and verbs simple or compound, such as yitxigxco' and cmyiviiexu,' 
which are expressed by one word in Latin or German, but 
which are different words in Greek ; and the article, which has 
no existence in Latin. 

On the other hand, it frequently happens, that the apparent 
exceeds the real emphasis, as ou /iij^ with the subjunctive ; as in 
the verb ex^dXXoi,* as in the preposition svrhg,^ as in the com- 

' "Ml aliud esse Theohgiam, atque Qrammaticam, in Spiritus Sancti 
verbis occupaiam." — (I. B.) 

' y/i/icrxa = to know, to be aware of, etc. For a full explanation of all 
the meanings and shades of meaning of the simple and compound verbs, 
see Schleusneri Lexicon in voc, where the first occupies five, and the latter 
two columns. — (I. B.) 

3 ou ^^ a double negative frequent in classical as well as Scriptural Greek. 
With Fut. Indie, it forbids : with the Subjunctive, it denies ; but, in Eccle- 
siastical Greek, often less emphatically. See Buttman, Matthirei, Kuhner, 
etc., on the subject. — Ed. 

* ix.fiaKh.a = lit. to cast forth, often no more than " to put forth * 

* iinos = within, often used in a weaker sense, than the literal.— Ed. 

THE author's preface. 45 

pounds sx'Teipd^ta,^ sKVopnCu, u'lrimvrlog, v'7roiilxvv//,i, x.r.X., the mean- 
ing of which does not in the Septuagint differ from that of the 
simple verbs, from which they are derived. Any degree what- 
ever of acquaintance with the Greek New Testament is useful 
and laudable : but they, who are less expert therein, frequently 
see false instances of emphasis, seize on them with eagerness, 
and publish them abroad, whilst they pass by those which are 
genuine. This renders it the more necessary that we should 
all help each other in turn. Even dull eyes can make use of 
light for the chief purposes of life : but he, who has a peculiarly 
strong sight, perceives many things more accurately than others 
do. Thus is it also in Scripture : all see [or may see] as much 
as is necessary to salvation, but the clearer that the believer's 
sight is, the greater is his profit and delight : and that which 
one believer once sees, others who of themselves saw it not, are, 
by his direction, enabled to perceive. I have exposed the fallacy 
of many instances of supposed emphasis, brought forward by 
other writers; many others I have passed over in silence: 
genuine instances, which offer themselves spontaneously, I have 
not neglected. If, however, I should be thought to dwell at 
times too minutely, and too long, upon these matters, I shall be 
readily acquitted by those who have observed the perpetual 
analogy of accurate and universally self-consistent expression, 
which pervades ahke every portion of Scripture. 

In order to weigh precisely the force of the words, it is essen- 
tial to observe the Hebraism with which the language of the 
Greek New Testament is tinged. It is beyond question, that 
the Apostles and Evangelists were accustomed to speak and 
write in such a style as was especially suited to the Helleniz- 
ing^ Jews resident in Asia and elsewhere, who had introduced 
the spirit of the Hebrew language into their ordinary Greek 

' For the convenience of those readers who are unacquainted with Greek, 
it may be as well to explain that Ixvufial^i,) and the words which follow are 
derived, respectively, from vtipal^a, to tempt ; ■jropuiva, to debauch or prosti- 
tute ; ii/auTios, over against; hixuvpn, to show. — (I. B.) 

" i.e. those who from having resided for some generations in countries 
where Greek was the common medium of intercourse, spoke that language 
(with some jdiomatic peculiarities) as their mother tongue : they are spoken 
of in Acts vi. 1, as "Hellenists," which E. V. renders " Grecians." — (I. B.) 


discourse, and to whom the Gi-eek translation of the Old Testa- 
ment (which Hebraizes to a \en- great degree) was e\ ideiuly 
familiai-, — that translation, which acted in subsor\ ience to tlio 
Di\ine design of making the liivok language tlie vehicle of tlie 
Divine Woni. The ^Vpostles and Evangelists, tlieivtbre, weiv 
right in introducing into tlie stvle of the Ne\\ Testament what- 
ever peculiarities of idiom existed in the translation of the Old 
Testament, or in the spoken Greek of the Ilellenizing Jews : 
and the more familiar that the reader of the Greek New Testa- 
ment is with the Soptnagint, and the Hebrew Syntsix, the 
greater protieieney will he attain to in his sacred stadies. The 
Paraclete conferred tlie most copious faoiHty of speaking lan- 
guages on tlie holy meJa who wix)te the Scriptures of tlie New 
Testament : but it was necessary that tliey should descend to 
the level of their immediate aiiditoi-s and earliest readers. It 
any of the ^Vpostles were sent to-day to liarbai'ians or Greeks, 
he would (wisely, as I think) employ the most rugged tongues 
of the Barbarians, or the prx^sent vernacular Greek, however 
corrupt it be. The style of the New Testament has, in different 
passages, phrases which agree with the most appreved Cii-eek 
writers, even where you would least expect it. But tlie whole 
and perpetual spirit of the language employed by the writers of 
the New Testament is distinctively Hebraizing, and diflei-s in 
this respect decidedly frem the style of other C<reok authors, 
though here and there resemblances are to he found : nor is tliis 
to be wondered at, since the volume of the New Testament is 
so small when compared with the vast mass of profane CJivek 
writings; besides tliat even these authors have somotinics let 
fall expressions which might not altogether please them, and 
which are eagerly caught at by philologists of much reading, and 
compared with the style of tlie Greek New Testament. See 
also my notes on John vi. 37, and xii. ; and l\ev. xi. 5. 

Such being the ease, I luwc not had far to go to explain the 
language of tlie Greek New Testament, tor I ha\e generally 
found an explanation close at hand. Thus, lor example, in .any 
passage of tlie Epistle to the Ivoimuis, I have compared it lirst 
Avitli tlie immediate context, then with the remainder of the 
Epistle, then with tlie otlier Epistles of 8t Paul, then with tlie 
Greek Fatliers, who, being themselves Greeks, studied both tlie 

THE author's preface. 47 

Greek New Testament and the ancients ; lastly, and that very 
rarely, with profane authors. Where passages of the Old 
Testament are cited in the New, I have given in fuU the words 
of the Lxx., especially those from which the New Testament 
differs, that the comparison might be the more easy. Where 
any difficulty has been experienced as to the intei-pretation of 
words in the New Testament, which occur also in the Septua- 
gint, I have compared them with the corresponding expressions 
in the original Hebrew :^ by which method I have ascertained 
the true meaning of rpo'7ro(popiiii,' Iroz/iaff/a,' XKpaXlg ^i^Xlou,* x.T.X. 
I have endeavoured, indeed, to introduce into these annota- 
tions, as many explanations and illustrations as can be derived 
from the LXX. No one will expect to find in the Gnomon what 
can be obtained from a Grammar or Lexicon of the Greek 
Tongue. Sometimes, however, when anything of moment is 
involved, or when others labour under a hallucination, we 
descend to such matters. 


Earth produces nothing which can be compared with holy 
feelings.* They comprehend, however, what the Greeks call rci 
^^}},^ which we are obliged to express in Latin by the less suit- 

^ i.e. where there is any doubt or difficulty about the meaning of a word 
used by any of the writers of the New Testament (whether in a quotation 
from the Old Testament, or in any other case), which word is used also by 
the LXX., Bengel has examined the passages of that version in which it 
occurs, and compared it in each instance with the Hebrew word for which it 
stands. — (I. B.) 

' See Gnomon on Acts xiii. 18, 19. — (I. B.) 

2 See Gnomon on Ephes. vi. 15. — (I. B.) 

* See Gnomon on Heb. x. 7. — (I. B.) 

' The words of the original are — " Cum affectibus Sanctis, quod comparari 
possit, terra nihil alit." — (I. B.) 

' Every student of Aristotle has probably shared the difficulty which 
Bengel frankly acknowledges. Twining, in the notes to his translation of 
the Poetics, says, " The word, sj'Su, taken in its utmost extent, includes 
everything that is habitual and characteristic; but it is often used in a 
limited sense, for the habitual temper or disposition." It might be para- 

4« THE author's PREFACE. 

able word " Mon-.i."^ The Feelinc/s, absolutely so called, are 
vehement : the " Mores" axe calmer feelings quiet and composed. 
I would recommend the reader to peruse on this subject, Quin- 
tilian VI. 2 : for tlie whole disquisition cannot bo introduced 
into this Trefocc^ The styles of the -wi-itei-s of the Now Testa- 
ment have, in common with all other styles, their own peculiar 
Subjects, Feelings, and ^' Mores." E\-ery one treats of the Sub- 
jects ; those who ai"e wiser and endued with spiritual experience 
pay due regai'd to the Feelings ; the " Aforcs" (let me say it 
without oifence), have been almost entirely lost sight of, except 
that the Modest)/^ of Seripture has been sometimes mentioned. 
And yet these "Mores" pervade in a wonderful manner all tlie 
discourses and epistles of tlie New Testament, forming a certain 
continual recommendation* of him who acts, speaks, or writes, 
and realizing in a pre-eminent degree the "Decorum."' Wo 

phrased here by " Moral sentiments,'' " Subjective moral principles,'' or ex- 
pressed chemically as " Moral principles held in solution," or reiulerod, per- 
haps, " Moral tone ;" but none of these phrases are the exact counterparts 

of the original (I. B.) 

1 The word Mores, when used as it is by Bengcl in the present passage, 
is as impossible to render as the expression which it is intended to represent : 
the expression " Les moeui-s," with the force which it frequently has in 
French philosophical writings, comes probably as near to it as any modern 
phrase. Montesquieu (Esprit de loix xix. 16), says, " II y a cette difference 
entre les Loix et les Moeurs, que les Loix reglent plus les actions du 
Citoyen, et que les Moeurs reglent plus les actions de I'homme. II y a cettc 
difference entre les Moeurs et les Manicres que les premieres rcgardent plus 
la conduite intcrieure ; les autres I'exterieure." 1 give this, however, rather 
as an illustration than an explanation. — (I. B.) 

^ I cannot, however, forbear quoting the following passage : — " Qunrc in 
iis quoj verisimilia esse volcmus simus ipsi similes corum, qui ver6 patiun- 
tur, affectibus ; et a tali animo proliciscatur oratio, qualem facile judicem 
volet. An ille dolebit, qui audiet me, cum hoc dicam, non dolentem ? Iras- 
cetur, si nihil ipse qui in iram concitat, idque oxigit, simile patictur ? Siccis 
agenti oculis lacrymas dabit ? Fieri non potest. Ncc incendit nisi ignis, 
nee madescimus nisi humore, ncc res uUa dat altcri colorcm quern ipsa non 
habet. Primum est igitur, ut apud nos valeant ea quto valere apud judicem 

volumus, afficiamusquc antequam afficere conemur. Quint. VI. 2 § 3 

(I. D.) 

' See the Gnomon on Acts ii. 30, and Rom. i. 26. — (I. B.) 

■• See Aristotle on the ■jrlara iSoci), Rhot. 1. 2, §§ 3, 6, II. 1, § 6, etc.— (I.B.) 

' Decorum, the neuter of the adjective Dtcorus, a, vni ; derived from the 

THE author's preface. i9 

have dropped Bomething on this subject in our App. Crit. p. 
372 (i.e. Sect. 1 of the Introduction to the Criticism of the New- 
Testament, Ed. II., pp. 4, 5), and more in our Harmony of the 
Four Evangelists, pp. 57, 103, 111, 214, 216, 242, 278, 281, 
282. (Ed. n., A.D. 1747, pp. 56, 69, 171, 183, 340, 342, 380, 
382, 451, 454, 455) : but in the present work I have bestowed 
fuller consideration on the "Mores" as well as the Feelings. 
These " Mores" are for the most part of such a kind, that you 
can more easily reach them by a perception of the heart than by 
a circuit of words. And this wiU be a principal reason why our 
Commentary may be considered frequently too subtile, frequently 
too frigid. I doubt not, however, that those who have by de- 
grees become accustomed to it wiU agree with me in my admira- 
tion of the language of the sacred writers. The painter by the 
most delicate stroke of his brush, the musician by the swiftest 
touch of fleeting notes, exercises the highest skiU of his art : and 
in the perfection of anything whatever, those minate particulars 
which escape the ears and eyes of the ignorant and unrefined, 
bestow the most exquisite delight on those who are capable ot 
appreciating them, — a delight springing from the very root and 
essence of the thing itself. Such is the case with Holy Scrip- 
ture. Let each one, then, take in what he is capable of re- 
impersonal verb Decet, it becomes, or is becoming : used in the sense ot 
Aristotle's TO nPEIION, which signifies that which is becoming, proper, 
or suitable, to the person, character, office, condition, or circumstance, under 
consideration. — (I. B.) 

"Id, quod Grsece ■jrpiwou dicitur, decorum dici Latine potest; hujus vis ea 
est, ut ab honesto non queat separari." — Cic. Off. I. 27. — (Ed.) 

" Caput artis est," says Quinctilian, " decere." " The first principle ol 
art is to observe decorum ." No one should ever rise to speak in public, 
without forming to himself a just and strict idea of what suits his own age 
and character ; what suits the hearers, the place, the occasion ; and adjust- 
ing the whole train and manner of his speaking on this idea. All the 
ancients insist much on this. Consult the first chapter of the eleventh book 
of Quinctilian, which is employed wholly on this point, and is full of good 
sense. Cicero's admonitions in his Orator ad Brutum, I shall give in his 
own words, which should never be forgotten by any who speak in public : 
"Est EloquentisB, sicnt reliquarum rerum, fundamentum, sapientia; ut 
enim in vita, sic in oratione nihil est difflcilius quam quod deceat videre," 
etc.— Blair, Lecture XXVII. 

See also Explanation of Technical terms in voc. — (I. B.) 

VOL. I. D 

60 THE author's PREFACE. 

ceiving, and abstain fi'om meddling with what he is uiiablo to 


There are many classes of those who undertake to illustrate 
the Sacred Books by Commentaries : and it sometimes happens 
that they despise each other's plans and love only their own. 
For my part, I do not act exclusively as a Paraphrast, a Gram- 
marian, a Scholiast, an Antiquary, a Logician, a Doctrinal 
Expositor, a Controversialist, or an Inferential Commentator; 
but I take all these characters by turns, vnthout stint or distinc- 
tion. Each of these indeed has its own use : when that use is 
carried too far it degenerates into abuse : and this abuse may 
again be remedied by a just estimation and judicious employ- 
ment of all the means at our disposal. I do not pass by without 
notice decisions, the authority of which has been generally re- 
ceived {Dicta Classica) ; I do not ignore difficulties which are 
the subject of wide discussion ; but I examine vnth equal care 
the rest of Scripture, Avhich is equally worthy of consideration. 
In each individual case I employ that kind of annotation which 
the part or passage under consideration may require to exhibit its 
force, to explain its words and phrases, to draw attention to 
the habit of mind of those who speak or of those whom they 
address, to bring out the true or refute the false doctrine, to 
elicit those maxims of piety or Christian prudence which are in- 
volved or suggested by. the sacred text, to examine quotations 
from the Old Testament, occurring in the New, and other 
parallel passages, — or to indicate the weight, and unravel the 
connection of the arguments employed by the sacred writer. 
And all these things are laid before the reader in such a manner, 
as to give him the opportunity and inducement to pursue the 
train of thought further himself. At each separate annotation 
the Gnomon must be supposed to say " The Text runs thus, not 
otherwise. This, and no other, is the noun ; this, the verb ; 
this, the particle ; this, the case ; this, the tense ; this is the 
arrangement of the words ; this is the repetition or interchange 


of words ; this, the succession of arguments ; this, the emotion 
of the minds, etc.'' 


He who comprehends the intention of this work, will not ex- 
pect to find differences of opinion carefully enumerated and 
laboriously refuted, with the names of their advocates and the 
titles of their works. It is expedient indeed that some should 
undertake that office, and deduce the history of Scriptural inter- 
pretation from century to century; few, however, possess the 
opportunity or the capacity for performing such a task ; though 
there are many who can search out and bring together many 
particulars for the general advantage. It is better, however, for 
the weak to be wholly ignorant of opinions which are in them- 
selves foolish, and would scarcely enter into the mind of any one, 
than to have them recorded in connection with the passages to 
which they refer [even though in each instance they be carefully 
and successfully refuted]. We should fare badly, if, in order to 
ascertain the royal road of truth, it were necessary for us to obtain 
an accurate knowledge,* and make a personal survey of all the 
tracks which lead away from it. — ^In fact, the true interpretation 
is more fi-equently buried than assisted by a multitude of con- 
flicting opinions. I have, however, guarded the reader against 
some erroneous interpretations of modem date, without either 
naming the authors or quoting their words. The reader who is 
unacquainted with them will not perceive the allusion, nor is it 
necessary that he should do so ; whereas, he who is acquainted 
with them will understand what I mean. I touch also upon 
some rather probable interpretations as yet little discussed ; and 
where my own opinion might appear paradoxical, I support it 
by the consent of others, especially the ancients. 

' « In numerate habere," Quint. VI. 3, iii., " To have in readiness." — Ed. 
Said to be an expression of Augustus. The phrase originally refers to 
" numeratum argentum" — i.e. money paid doten — actually counted out — See 
Andrews, Ainsworth, Riddle, etc. — (I. B.) 

6J THE author's PREFACE. 


Nothing is more frequent in commentaries than the title 
" Harmonia Evangelica.'' Under this title, however, I have felt 
it necessary to produce something exceedingly different from the 
generality of compositions which have hitherto appeared with 
this name. The hasis of my Harmony is the recognition of the 
fact that there were Three Passovers, and Three only, between 
our Lord's Baptism and His Ascension, — a fact frequently ac- 
knowledged by the ancients, and of late years by Timotheus 
PhUadelphus ; ^ though most writers of recent date lay down a 
greater number of Passovers. I have combined and arranged the 
Four Gospels in accordance with the determining standard of 
the Three Passovers in my Harmony of the Four Evangelists, 
published first, a.d. 1736, and again with emendations, a.d. 
1 747 : and the consideration of the separate Gospels in the pre- 
sent work is intimately connected with that treatise. I will, 
therefore, quietly repeat the points, which are most necessary for 
my purpose. 

1. The Nativity of our Lord cannot be placed later than two 
months before the death of Herod the Great. 

2. The death of Herod the Great cannot be placed sooner or 
later than the month of Febniary, in the third year before the 
Dionysian Era.^ This is proved by the eclipse of the moon, 
mentioned by Josephus, and the events, which he relates, as 

1 Author of a work, published in 12rao, at Stuttgard, a.d. 1728, and en- 

" Grundveste der wahren Kirchen." 

Bengel, in the Preface to his Exposition of the Apocalypse, says—" All the 
systems we have of the Apocalypse maybe divided into these six classes ; of 
each of which I will subjoin one example— 1. Some go in a metaphysical azid 
theosophical way ; for instance, Timotheus PhUadelphus." (I. B.) 

2 The Dionysian Era, now in general use, so called from Dionysius 
Exiguus, a native of Scythia, who pubUshed his chronological system about 
the year 532. He is considered to have placed the birth of Christ four 
years too late; so that to obtain the exact nnmber of years which have at 
any time elapsed since that event, we must add four years to the date of the 
current year. — (I. B.) 

THE author's PKEFACE. 58 

having happened between that phenomenon and the Passover of 
that year. 

3. The fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius cannot begin 
before the month Tisri/ of the twenty-seventh year of the 
Dionysian Era. 

4. Our Lord, when He was about thirty years old, was bap- 
tized, and, after forty days, tempted of the Devil, some time 
before the Passover of the twenty -eighth year of the Dionysian 

5. In that same year, and no other, could the Temple have 
been said to have been forty-six years in building. — See John 
ii. 20. 

6. Our Lord was crucified in the thirtieth year of the Diony- 
sian Era ; for this particular year, and not one of the years 29, 
31, or 32, had the Passover at the end of the week : but the 
year 33 is too late, and is refuted by all the opinions of the 
Ancient Church. 

7. Therefore the whole course of events recorded, fi-om the 
Passover mentioned in John ii., to that mentioned in John xviii., 
is included in the 28th, 29th, and 30th years of the Dionysian 

This makes three, and only three Passovers. 

These statements, if taken singly, may possibly appear to 
leave the matter in doubt : but, when taken together, they are 
clear and unquestionable; and necessarily prove, that there were 
only three Passovers. 

My Harmony has found a most courteous opponent in 
Hauber,' of whose present opinions on the subject, I am entirely 
ignorant : but certainly, in his great work, which is entitled 
Deutsche Original Bihel (German Original Bible), he has 
adopted the main features of my Harmony, adding his own view 
of the details. And very lately Walchius,* in his observations 

' The month Tisri comprehended part of September and October, though 
corresponding nearly with the latter. — (I. B.) 

» See f.n. 1, p. 39.— (I. B.) 

' John Ernest Immanuel Walchjus was bom at Jena in 1726, and attain- 
ed to a high station in the University there. In 1749 he published at Jena 
his " Einleitung in die harmonic der Evangdisten." He died in 1778. — 
(I. B.) 

64 THE author's PREFACE. 

on the Life of our Lord Jesus Christ, frequently finds fault 
with me ; but neither of them has brought into play the chrono- 
logical mainsprings of the Gospels. 

The Gospel chronology has been studiously treated of, in our 
day, by Campegius Vitringa,^ Peter AlUx,^ Count Camillus de 
Sylvestris,' Nicasius,* J. J. Hottinger,' C. G. Hoffinan,' 
Leonard Offerhaus,' etc. These all diifer widely from each 
other, but if you compare them together, and abridge them into 
one, you will find, that, whatever truth is contained in any of 
them, confiims, at times against their will, the ternarian hypo- 
thesis (that, namely, which supposes three Passovers, and three 
only) : nor can they, who pretend four, not to say more Pass- 
overs, avoid doing violence to those chronological data so em- 
phatically laid down by the Evangelists themselves. The 
quatemarian hypothesis, (that, namely, which supposes four 
Passovers), doubles, or even trebles, with manifest inconvenience, 
the long series of passages from the fourth to the thirteenth 
chapters of St Matthew (repeated in the parallel passages of St 

^ Campegius Vitringa, a learned Protestant divine, born in Friesland 
1659, died 1722, became successively Professor of Oriental Languages, 
Divinity and Sacred History, at Franckaer. — (I. B.) 

" Peter AUix, a learned French divine, born at Alen9on 1641, was suc- 
cessively minister of the Protestant Church at Rouen, and at Charenton. 
At the revocation of the edict of Nantes, he retired to England, where he 
became Canon of Windsor, and Treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral. He died 
in 1717.— (I. B.) 

^ Count Camillus de Sylvestris, a learned writer, was born at Padua in 
1645, studied at Rovigo, and became honorary member of most of the 
Universities of Italy. He died in 1719.— (I. B.) 

' The writer apparently intended is Claud Nicaise, born at Dijon in 1623, 
and died at Velay in 1701. He took orders in the Roman Church, and be- 
came a learned Philologist and Archaeologist. — (I. B.) 

' John James Hettinger, eldest son of the celebrated John Henry Holtin- 
ger, was born at Zurich in the sixteenth century, published various works in 
1706, 1708, 1720, etc., and died in 1735 (I. B.) 

« See f.n. 4, page 39.— (I. B.) 

' Leonard Offerhaus, a celebrated scholar, was born at Ham, in West- 
phalia, in 1699. In 1720, he gave the first earnest of his future cele- 
brity in a disputation on the public and private life of our Lord. He 
died at Groningen in 1779, after having filled for more than half a 
century the chair of eloquence and history there with distinction — 



Mark and St Luke), the identity^ of which is recognised by the 
Three Passover system. The ternarian hypothesis admits, in 
the history of merely a very few months, the principle of chrono- 
logical transposition,^ either in Matthew, or in Mark and Luke, 
especially the two latter, and that with great advantage : the 
quatemarian, under the appearance of order, introduces confvr- 
sion. Lightfoot, in his Chronicles^ of the Old and New Testa- 
ment (although he advocates the four Passover system), labours 
advisedly to show, that chronological transpositions occur in the 
Gospels and other parts of Scripture. The ternarian hypothesis 
agrees exactly with the seventy weeks of Daniel, and with the 
Lessons from Moses and the Prophets, read in the synagogues on 
Sabbath and Holy days — ^lessons which are clearly and frequently 
alluded to by the EvangeHsts ; and it attributes to the Saviour's 
course a suitable rapidity:* the quatemarian hypothesis oblite- 
rates all these things. A fuller demonstration of these points is 
to be found in my Harmony, sect. 12, and Ordo Temporum, 
ch. 5. Hence, I with justice draw the following conclusion, — 
Wliosoever places more than three Passovers between the baptism, 
and ascension of our Lord, his labour on the Gospels, as far as it 
relates to a Harmony of them, and to the life of our Saviour, 
ought to be considered utterly vain and held in little honour, by 
all who do not swallow error as readily as truth. The Gnomon 
refers the reader, here and there, to the Harmony framed on the 
basis already mentioned, and to the Ordo Temporum, which 

1 And singleness [as opposed to the series being regarded as twofold or 
threefold.]— Ed. 

2 '■'■Trajeetio" as for example in the accounts of our Lord's temptation, in 
one of which there must be a chronological transposition. — (I. B.) 

' The works referred to are, " Chronicle and Harmony of the Old Testa- 
ment, with Notes," — and, " Harmony, Chronicle and Order of the New Testa- 
ment. The Text of the Four Evangelists methodized, the Story of the 
Acts of the Apostles analyzed, the Order of the Epistles manifested, the 
Times of the Revelation observed, all illustrated with a variety of observa- 
tions, etc."— (I. B.) 

* " Cursuique Salvatoris celeritatera convenientissimam tribuit" — i.e. does 
not represent the time of our Lord's Ministry as having been longer than it 
really was ; represents Him as reaching His goal with sufficient fleetness. 
A metaphor taken from the race-course. Cf. 1 Cor. ix. 24, 25, etc. — 

66 THE author's PREFACE. 

render the remaining consideration of the Gospels so much the 
easier. The Harmony has a table (a Monotessaron ' as it were), 
compiled from all the Evangelists ; but the Gnomon exhibits the 
separate Gospels in the tables, severally accommodated to them* 


The Acts of the Apostles are intimately connected with the 
Epistles, especially those of St Paul, and are principally illus- 
trated by them. In the Epistles, our annotations are not con- 
fined to those portions which are more abundantly full of 
doctrine : but they are carried on equally throughout, and are 
almost perpetual. The sum and series of events is given in the 
Ordo Temporum, cap. 6. 


The principles, upon which we have treated the Apocalypse, 
are stated in the annotations to that book, as well as in the 
Prowmium prefixed to it. For as our exposition of it exists 
separately in German, so is it also added at the end of this work. 
The celebrated theologian, Dr Joachim Lange," has lately issued 
a critical examination (Beurtheilung) of the German edition : and 
Frederick Eberard Eambach, has added it to W. Sherlock's' 

' It is subjoined to the end of the Harmony, and occupies twenty-five 
pages.— (I. B.) 

^ Joachim Lange was born in 1670, in the territory of Brandenburgh. He 
was a distinguished theologian, philologist, and historian, of the Academy of 
Halle. He died in 1744.— (I. B.) 

» William Sherlock, d.d., Dean of St Paul's, must not be confounded with 
his son, Thomas Sherlock, Bishop of London, nor with Dr Richard Sherlock, 
author of " The Practical Christian." He was born in Southwark about 
1641, educated at Eton, and thence removed to Peterhouse, Cambridge, 
1657. He became Rector of St George's, Botolph Lane, London, in 1669 ; 
after which he was made successively Prebendary of St Pauls, Master of the 
Temple, Rector of Therlfleld, Hertfordshire, and in 1691 Dean of St Pauls. 
He died a.d. 1707. He was a learned divine, a clear, polite, and forcible 
writer, and an eloquent preacher. — (1. B.) 


" Preservative against Popery," which he has translated into the 
vernacular tongue, nnder the title of" Mantissa^ Apocalyptica." 
The " Critical Examination" however, coincides with what the 
author has said on the subject in his Latin Commentary on the 
Glory of Christ. I have thought it expedient, therefore, to take 
the present opportunity, to examine the principal sinews of his 
commentary, and reply to his " Critical Examination." As soon 
as I heard of the appearance of that " Critical Examination," I 
determined to yield to truth, if established by that most accom- 
plished commentator, with no less delight than that with which 
I should defend it, if found on my own side. Having made 
myself master of the treatise, I found some things culled from 
my work and touched upon, which either pleased or displeased 
this author. I in my turn will explain, in what portion that 
distinguished man has delighted me by his assent, or by his dis- 
sent invited me to reconsider my opinion ; and as he has exer- 
cised the greatest courtesy towards me, so will I maintain the 
greatest respect towards an old man, whose hospitality I shared 
in 1713, and whose friendship I have enjoyed ever since. 

1 . He disagrees with me especially concerning the Beast, and 
the Whore.— ^QQ pp. 371-405. 

Answer. — There is, I grant, a great difference between them: 
but in what that difference really consists, we have considered 
in our annotations on Revelation xiii. 1. 

2. He infers thence (referring the reader to his former com- 
mentaries), that I, no less than Vitringa, am generally mistaken 
in the interpretation of the Seven Seals, and Seven Trumpets, 
and, therefore, of the whole booh. — See p. 405. 

Answer. — My interpretation of the Beast and the Whore, 
being vindicated, reciprocally supports, and is supported by the 
remaining portions of my exposition. There are many things, 
of which the " Critical Examination" has given plausible ex- 
planations (pp. 371, stjq., 394, sqq., 400, sqq.), but they do not 
interfere with me ; for I myself acknowledge them as true. A 
discussion of the matters in dispute would have been much more 
desirable. I find, however, something which astonishes me. I 
had examined in my book, pp. 500—504, the main features of 
the Apocalyptic system set forth by Dr Lange, mentioning the 
* Mantissa, a Tuscan word : a make-weight, and so, a gain. — Ed. 

68 THE author's PREFACE. 

author by name, and I had written there these words — " Whoso- 
ever seeks tlie truth, should most diligently examine this." And 
yet, he is entirely silent on the whole of that my examination, 
nor does he even touch upon pp. 107, 108, 123, 124, 214, 215, 
285, 295, and by far the greater part of those, which I had col- 
lected in the seventh section of my Preface. He says, that he 
has read the book through : otherwise, I should have thought it 
clear, that he had only gleaned some portions of it in a cursory 
manner. I indeed desire, that those passages, referred to above, 
should be considered as entirely and formally reasserted on the 
present occasion : for they presuppose that I had carefully ex- 
amined the commentaries of this distinguished author, and dili- 
gently avoided the errors which he refutes in Vitringa. Besides 
which, I have temperately stated in my annotations on the 
Apocalypse, contained in the present work, what is the nature 
of that distinguished man's interpretation on the Seals, the 
Trumpets, and the other parts, where it possesses any sinew. — See 
the Notes on iv. 1, etc. 

3. He thinks (p. 406), that I have placed the commencement 
of the three woes, especially of the third woe, too early. 

I have answered this objection in the Notes on Kev. viii. 13. 

4. He agrees with me, on the Two Witnesses, the Great City, 
and the Kingdom,. — See pp. 406, seqq. 

5. He approves of my exposition of ch. xii., as far as regards 
the future : as far as regards the past he does not (p. 408) ap- 
prove of it. 

Concerning the past, see my Notes on xii. 5. 

6. He cordially adopts (pp. 409-421) my views on the Con- 
version of the Nations, the Future Millennium (though he only 
admits one) and the First Resurrection. And in this part espe- 
cially, he has freed the prophecy from the Equuleus Hermenew- 
ticus,^ which he so frequently speaks of. He seeks, however to 
vindicate the consistency of the language, used in Scripture con- 
cerning the last times (which are described both as bad and 
good), by asserting a twofold advent of Christ ; conceiving, that 

' Equuleus Hermeneuticus — A quaint expression signifying literally " An 
instrument of torture applied to the interpretation of prophecy." The 

Equulms was so called from its being shaped like a horse. (I. B.) The 

interpreter's rack. — ^Ed. 

THE author's preface. SO 

the bad will be before the first of these two advents, the good in 
the Millenniiim (see his commentary on the Apocalypse, p. 239) : 
although that consistency cannot be maintained (if we are to 
retain our belief in the unity of Christ's advent), except by 
supposing two periods of a thousand years each, concerning which, 
see my Notes on Eev. xx. 4. 

7. He says (p, 421), that he cannot understand what I have 
said on the other periods of time, compared with that of a thousand 

He has forgotten the results of my exposition (pp. 127, 644, 
etc.), obtained by a correct analysis of the different periods. 
Those, who acknowledge the accuracy of this analysis, perceive 
that the examination of prophecy is especially necessary for the 
present age (cf. Beurtheilung, pp. 409, 410) : those who do 
not acknowledge the accuracy of that analysis, float about [with- 
out chart or compass] in a long expanse of ages : for that hypo- 
thesis, which is chiefly maintained by the Theologian of Halle, 
involving the notion, that the forty-two months of the Beast 
denote three and a half common years, defers those three and a 
half years, and the subsequent flourishing state of the Church, 
two centuries and more. — See Erhldrung Offenbarungs, pp. 503, 
504. Were such an expectation well-founded, it would be more 
profitable as yet to meditate upon other points, and to give our 
attention to those prophecies, which refer to the present time. 

8. The venerable theologian has condescended to quote long 
passages fi:om my book concerning those chapters, in which he 
finds that I agree with him, and justly declares the victory of 
truth. — See p. 422. That it is not, however, an examination of 
my whole work, the heads just mentioned clearly show : for they 
deal with very few chapters of the Apocalypse, and leave the 
remainder almost untouched. He was at liberty to take his own 
course in the matter ; but it is the reader's interest to know that I 
have treated there of many other subjects, such as The Flux of 
things from the Invisible to the Visible, and their Reflux from the 
Visible to the Invisible; the difference of the Seven Angels, Churches, 
Seals, Trumpets, Phials; the Division of the Septenaries into Fours 
and Threes ; the Progress of affairs from East to West, etc. On 
account of the subjects so ably handled by the venerable divine in 
question, I should not myself have pubhshed an exposition of tho 

60 THE author's PREFACE. 

Apocalypse, had I not felt sure that somewhat had trickled from 
the inexliaustible fountain of Apocalyptical Wisdom into my 
channel, which it became my duty to communicate to the world 
at large. 

9. With singular kindness he declares his opinion (p. 428), 
that I may be able to produce something towards interpreting 
the prophecies of the Old Testament. He adds, however, and 
I acknowledge it, that my system requires to be more carefiiUy 
finished off. By the assistance of the Apocalypse, which is not 
sealed, Daniel who was sealed, and the other prophets, who 
described the mystery of GoD, will be laid open. But those 
particulars, which he thinks I ought to retract, will never prevent 
the true comparison of that book with the prophecies of the Old 

10. I am the more firmly convinced of this by my Ordo Tem- 
fonrni, which he so warmly welcomed. That compendium has 
an intimate connection with both my expositions of the Apoca^ 
lypse, having been published between the two, exhibiting, as it 
does, one chain of historic and prophetic periods, perpetually 
intertwined with each other. 

I have evoked all my iliri'l%iia, and docility, that I might be 
ready even now to abandon with a good grace any error which the 
aged interpreter should prove me to have adopted. I find myself 
unable, however, without flattery, which I know him to abhor, 
to change my opinion : and, if such be the will of God, I mil 
hereafter submit for his consideration some observations, in the 
German language, which we have both of us made use of, 
together with the Latin. For there is a just, and shortly to be 
satisfied expectation, of certain things, by which the application of 
prophecy to our age will be rendered more distinct, and a facility 
be afforded of combining many useful things in one composition. 
We both search sincerely for truth : his affection for me, and 
my reverence for him, are augmented instead of being diminished, 
by the candour of the one, and the forbearance of the other. 
Nor is our very disagreement on the interpretation of certain 
chapters without its advantage : for in proportion as our adher- 
ence to our several opinions, where they differ, is the more im- 
bending, so much the more ought our agreement on other points 
to induce the spectators of this most friendly contest to examine 

THE author's preface, 61 

the whole matter in question ; and whosoever shall consider the 
arguments of this veteran interpreter to be satisfactory in this 
instance, will be the less easily terrified by the attacks of others 
on my Apocalyptical views. The matter will become clearer 
hereafter as I had said ^ in sec. xv. of the Preface to the work 
under consideration. In the meantime I wish from my heart, 
that the Theologian of Halle in his Biblia Parenthetica, or any 
other subsequent commentaries, may by the grace of God be 
enabled to explain, in accordance with the Divine meaning, these 
portions of prophecy. And I wish, since so many depend on his 
authority, that, after considering the matter more maturely, as 
far as his precious hours permit, he would declare whether he 
wishes to be considered by a more enlightened posterity, as the 
assailant or supporter of those parts of my system, which he has 
condemned in his Beurtheilung. I am not influenced in this 
matter by any spirit of ambitious contention, but by the gravity 
and urgency of the matter. He will deserve as well of the 
Church by writing a single sentence, as a volume on this ques- 
tion. I shall feel no shame at the triumph of truth. In con- 
clusion, I will put forward a thing, which alone wiU be sufficient 
to decide the matter : his too eager interpretation of the half- 
hour,' for a millennary period (firmly established in its proper 
place), has plainly introduced the whole system, of which the 
Theologian of Halle is so strenuous a defender. If that inter- 
pretation falls to the ground, this system will yield to truth. 

The opinions, which others have expressed with regard to my 
commentary on this book, are exceedingly various. With some, 
I shall scarcely be able to redeem, by my other labours, the blame 
which they consider me to have incurred by my prophetical re- 
searches. Some are said to be dissatisfied with my calculations: 
they seek, forsooth, mathematical prae-excellence^ and soar far 
above our humble path : for we are satisfied with the rudiments 

^ " A greater degree of knowledge awaits posterity. To them much that 
is now made little account of will serve for a foundation on which to build 
more ; much that is now current will no longer pass ; and many proofs that 
to most men seem not sufficient now, will then he more than enough." — 
Loc. cit. Robertson's Translation. — (I. B.) 

2 See Eev. viii. I.— (I. B.) 

' In the original, — " Sublimitatem videlicet mathematicam quserunt."— 
(I. B.) 

62 THE author's PEEFACE. 

of Arithmetic, provided the fractions be carefully observed. 
Many others, nay by far the greater number, laying aside the 
labour of investigation, proceed with greater ease and celerity, 
and fancy that they are riding in port, when in reality they are 
at sea with their eyes shut. Let them consider well what they 
are about ; Truth is of too noble a nature to force herself upon 
the notice of mankind. I have nothing new to say on her be- 
half. I still employ this defence ; Pray, place the Holy Scrip- 
ture before you on the desk of your heart, and acquaint yourself 
with the WHOLE matter, before you arrive at a decision. " Happy 
is he, that speaketh in the ears of them, that will hear." — Eccle- 
siasticus xxv. 9. 


No one has as yet called my orthodoxy in question. Who- 
ever has examined my writings, must acknowledge that I have 
followed Scripture, not only in doctrines, but even in words, with 
a religious exactness, which even to good men seems scarcely 
removed from superstition. For I consider, that no aberration 
from the line of Truth laid down in Scripture, however slight, 
is so unimportant, but that the full and simple recognition of 
the Truth, corresponding with the knowledge of Grod, expressed 
according to His direction, and agreeable to His glory, is to be 
preferred to it. — Truth is one; [incapable of diminution, or 
division] and consistent with itself in its greatest, and in its 
least parts. It is the reader's duty, therefore, to think weU of 
me, until I am proved guilty of error by some one who does not 
err himself in accusing me. It too frequently happens, that one 
man attributes to another a pernicious opinion, which both 
equally abhor, and thus by a short and hasty assertion places a 
stumbling-block in the way of a thousand others. What I con- 
sider the reader's duty, what my own, in such a case, I have 
declared in sect. xiii. of the preface to my German Exposition 
of the Apocalypse. 


Those, who have learnt, or are learning Greek, cannot fail to 
derive great advantage from the present work. I wish, how- 


ever, to be of service also to other lovers of truth. And they 
will see, that I have endeavoured to hinder them, as Httle as 
possible, by the introduction (at times necessary) of Greek words. 
For I have prefixed the Greek words of the text, without the 
Latin, to those annotations only, which are of a merely verbal 
class ; whereas I have introduced the Latin, as well as the Greek, 
where they concern the subject : in some instances, the Latin 
words are put instead of the original Greek, in some instances 
added to explain it. The Latin words of the text have been 
taken from the Vulgate and other translations, or employed now 
for the first time to express those of the original, and they are 
generally put in that case, which the Latin context requires, 
although it be different in the original Greek : — and I have 
selected such words and phrases, as, even with some derogation 
fi:om pure Latinity, would render the native force of the Greek, 
as closely as possible.^ 


In the rest of my language, throughout this work, I have used 
that form of Latin expression, which seemed best suited to this 
kind of commentary, without either too rude a contempt or too 
servile a devotion to Latinity, which is frequently violated by 
those who profess to cultivate it most fondly, to the extreme 
disgust of those who are at all really acquainted with classical 

' I have, when it seemed advisable, put the Greek words where Bengel 
had put only Latin, and in every case where it was possible to do so, I have 
given an English translation of the Greek words even when no translation 
is givsn by Bengel. In these cases I have derived, as elsewhere, great as- 
sistance from Bengel's own German version of the New Testament, which I 
succeeded in obtaining after a long search. In these as well as other in- 
stances, it has been my endeavour to render the word, phrase, or particle, 
not as I should render it, but as Bengel would have done. I have also 
added interpretations to the Hebrew words, etc., cited by Bengel, where he 
has omitted to do so, and in every instance I have selected those renderings 
which appeared most in accordance with Bengel's own meaning and inten- 
tion, without the slightest regard to the opinions of other commentators 


' In the original, — " Qui aliquid vemaculsB latinitatis olfecerunt.'' — (I. B.) 

£4 THE author's PREFACE. 


Technical terms ' occur throughout this work, such as Aniliy- 
pophora, Apodioxis, Asyndeton, Iv bia, SuoTt, Epiphonema, Epitasis, 
Ethopoeia, Hypallage, Litotes, Mimesis, Oxymoron, Place, Ilfo- 
'dipa.'Trila, xat ' Em^ipa.'jrsiu, Prosopopoeia, Sejugatio, Zeugma, etc. : 
in which cases, the reader must be warned, not to pass by with- 
out consideration an annotation, reduced to a compendious form 
by technical terms, but more useful than he supposes : as for 
example that on John x. 27, 28. Especial advantage, however, 
is obtained from a consideration of the oratio concisa, or semidit- 
plex derived from the Hebrew style, and the ^lae/^hi, which is of 
the greatest service in explaining the economy of the whole epistle 
to the Hebrews. The Index contains examples of both figures. 
It would have taken too much space to have expressed such 
things in every instance by a periphrasis. Those, therefore, 
who are at fault with any figure, must seek for its meaning else- 
where. The Annotations are written either in the person of the 
anther (i.e. of him, whose words are contained in the text'), or 
in that of the commentator. 


Where there is any difficulty, I am sufficiently diffiise : for 
the most part, however, I am brief, because the subject is fi:e- 
quently plain and easy, especially in narratives, — because I 
usually introduce observations illustrative of many passages, not 
in every passage to which they apply, but in the first which 
occurs, — because I have already treated elsewhere of many 
things, which it was unnecessary to repeat here (See Sections 

1 I have endeavoured to get rid of them wherever I could do so consis- 
tently with conciseness and accuracy, as they often serve only to encumber 
the text, and would, I fear, remind the general reader of the Bourgeois 
Gentilhomme's astonishment at finding that he had been all his life speaking 

A full explanation of all the technical terms which occur in the course of 
the work is given in the Appendix to the last volume (I. B.) 

THE author's preface. 65 

viii., xix., xxi.), — because many things, whicli relate to the division, 
connection, and punctuation of the Text, may be discovered by 
merely looking at the Text itself, or my revision of it (See Sect. 
xi.), — because those things, which regard the Analysis of each 
book, are clearly set forth in the tables prefixed to them, and 
cannot be easily repeated in the notes (See Sect, xiii.), — because 
I usually declare the simple truth, without a labyrinth of many 
opinions (See Sect, xvii.), — because many things are compressed 
into small compass by the aid of technical terms (See Sect. xxiv.). 
Hence it comes to pass, that this volume, though intended to 
illustrate the whole of the New Testament, is small in size, and 
less in weight, than many commentaries on single books of the 
New Testament. I have not thought it necessary to subjoin 
Practical applications, " usvs" as they are termed, to each 
chapter ; for he who submits himself to the constraining influence 
of Divine Love in the search after Divine Truth, imbibes from 
the Divine Words, when he has once perceived their meaning, 
all things profitable for salvation, without labour, and without 
stimulus. They, however, who read rightly, that is to say, so as 
carefully to weigh aU things, and are simply occupied vnth the 
Text, instead of being led away fi-om it, wiU find some assistance, 
we trust, from this work, in arriving at the ftdl meaning of 
Scripture, and more especially with regard to those matters, 
which we have spoken of in sect. iv. Nor will the Indexes at 
the end of the work be without their use. I will not add more, 
either in commendation, or excuse of my work. I will only 
make this one request to you, Eeader ; — ^if you should ever meet 
with an exegetical commentary on the whole New Testament, 
or any part of it, beside which our Gnomon appears to you 
superfluous, compare the two works together on a single portion 
or chapter, e.g. Matthew xxiv. ; Acts xiii. ; Komans xii. ; 
Hebrews xii. ; 1 Peter iii. ; or Revelation x. ; and then, and not 
tfll then, form your judgment. I must mention in this place 
Philip David Burk,^ who has not only greatly assisted me, both 

1 This individual (author of the Gnomon to the twelve minor prophets, 
published at Heilbronn in 1753, and at present pastor of the Church of 
Markgruningen, and special superintendent of the neighbouring parishes) 
has revised this second edition of the Gnomon of the i^ew Testament, has 
added the author's latest labours from his manuscript sheets, carefully exa- 
VOL, I. E 

66 THE author's PREFACE. 

.by neatly transcribing my Apocalyptical Treatise, Ordo Tem- 
porum, and Gnomon, and by his dexterity in making researches 
and solving difficulties, so that I have been enabled to explam 
many things with more facility, than I otherwise should have 
done ;— but who has also become so fully acquainted with my 
thoughts and feehngs, by the daily intercourse of many years, 
that he is fuUy competent to answer in my stead as Ui-^txyxoi^ on 
various subjects, if apphed to even after my departure by those 
who will perhaps take a greater interest in them then, than they 
do now. 


In the Preface to my Larger Edition of the New Testament, 
I thought it advisable to divide my Exegetical Notes so, as to 
explain philological questions in Latin, practical matters in Ger- 
man. I have since found that the one class of subjects could 
not be separated from the other, without great difficulty and 
inconvenience : and I have therefore joined them together in 
this Gnomon. It is consequently less necessary for me to hurry 
the pubhcation of the German work, which I have in contem- 
plation : for I have determined to bring out in German,^ anno- 
tations on the whole New Testament, suited more exclusively 
for mere edification. What may be the progress, what the result 
of this undertaking, whether I hve or sleep, — ^I commit to GoD. 
As to the rest, I should not now venture to commence any 
new work of length. Many examples have lately occurred of 

mined, and introduced through the work many valuable annotations from 
the Clavicula which the New Prologue to the New Testament had pro- 
mised : he now commends this work to the grace of God and the kind and 
careful consideration of the Christian reader. — 26th February 1769. — NoU 
to the Edition q/' 1759. 

The Clavicula Novi Testamenti, literally Zittle Key of the New Testament, 
is published as number XIII. of the Appendix or fourth Part of the Second 
Edition of the Apparatus Criticus. — (I. B.) 

' Itto-^vxo; — from i'aos equal, and -^vxit, soul — i.e., one whose soul is equiva- 
lent to my own. — (I. B.) 

' This German version of the New Testament with annotations suited 
rather for mere edification, was published at Stuttgard a.d. 1753, shortly 
after his death. — Note to the Edition of 1759. 

THE author's preface. 67 

men, who, after a life spent in literary avocations, have been 
overtaken by imbecility. Wbatsoever remains to me and my 
contemporaries of life or strength, I recognise as a debt overdue, 
and I adopt the words of David — " Grant that I may recover 
myself, before I go hence, and he no moreP 


The multifarious abuse, or I should rather say nefarious con- 
tempt of Holy Scripture has, in our days, reached its climax, and 
that not only -with the profane, but even with those, who in their 
own opinion are wise, nay spiritual. The rE'rPAllTAl, " It is 
WRITTEN," wherewith the Son of GoD Himself, in His single 
combat with Satan, defeated all his assaults, has come to be held 
so cheap, that those, who feed upon Scripture whole and alone, are 
considered to dote or to want soul. Thus will the False Prophet, 
at his coming, find the gates standing open. And well-inten- 
tioned writers too emulously produce practical treatises, prayers, 
hymns, soliloquies, religious tales. Singly, they may be exceed- 
ingly useful : but the mass of them when taken together, draws 
away many from the Book op God, that is the Scripture, which 
in itself combines, in the utmost plenitude and purity, all that 
is serviceable to the soul's health. Let those, who prove aU 
things that are best, preserve the Heavenly Deposit, which God, 
by writings gradually increasing in clearness and exphcitness, 
has given, not in vain, from the time of Moses down to that o4* 
the Apostles. Then, if any one thinks, that he has received from 
this work of mine any aid towards the saving treatment of Scrip- 
ture, let him employ it for the glory of God, for his own edifica- 
tion and that of others, — and pray for a blessing upon me. 



N.B. — ^I have very great pleasure in acknowledging my obli- 
gations to the following very valuable works, from which I have 
translated, copied, abridged or compiled many of the Foot-notes 

68 translator's NOTE. 

appended to The Author's Preface and The Commentary on St 

DictionNaiee Historiqiie, Critique, Chronologique, Geogra- 
phique et Literal De La Bible. Calmet. 4 vols. 4to. 
Geneva, 1730. 

BiBLioTHECA Sacra. Le Long. 4vo1s. 4to. Halle, 1781. 

Christophoei Saxii Onomasticon Literaeium, sive 
Nomenclatoe Histoeico-Ceitious. 7 vols. 8vo. Maest- 
richt, 1790. 

DicTiONNAiEE TJniveesel, Histoeique, Ceitique, etBlB- 
LIOGEAPHIQTTE. Neuvifeme Edition. 20 vols. 8vo. Paris, 

A Memoir of the Life and Writings of John Albeet 
Bengel. By the Eev. John CnEisTLiN Feedeeick Buek, 
translated from the German by Eobeet Feancis Walkee. 
8vo. London, 1837. 

An Introduction to the Critical Study and E[nowledge of the 
Holy Scriptures. By Thomas Haetwell Hoene. Ninth 
Edition. 5 vols. 8vo. London, 1846. 

The Life and Epistles of St Paul. Lewin. 2 vols. 8vo. 
London, 1851. 

Ctclop^dla Biblogeaphioa. Daeling. London, 1854. 

It would be wrong to mention this admirable work without 
acknowledging the promptitude and courtesy with which Mr 
Darling has allowed me the use of his valuable and extensive 

TeEgelles on the Printed Text of the New Testament. 
London, 1854. 

The New Testament of our Lord and Savioue Jesus 
Christ in the Original Greek, with Notes. By Chr. Words- 
worth, D.D. Part I.— The Four Gospels.— 4to. London, 

Wherever I have derived my information or remarks from 
other quarters, I have acknowledged them specifically, except 
where they have been furnished from private sources or are the 
result of my own studies. — (I. B.) 



The name of New Testament is sometimes given to that collec- 
tion of sacred writings, in which the New Testament, strictly so 
called, is described. What the New Testament, strictly so 
called, reaUy is, we have explained in our notes on Matthew 
xxvi. 28. This collection may be divided into two parts, one of 
which contains the writings of the Evangelists and Apostles, 
whilst the other consists singly of the Apocalypse of Jesus Christ. 
The former exhibits firstly, the history of our Lord from His 
coming in the flesh, to His ascension into heaven ; secondly, the 
external and internal history of the Church, as constituted by 
the apostles after the ascension. In the latter, a revelation, 
which stands entirely alone, teaches us the future history of 
Christ, the Church, and the whole world, even to the consum- 
mation of all things. In brief, there are the Evangelists, the 
Acts and Epistles of the Apostles, and the Apocalypse. The 
connection and relation which exist between these various 
writings, afford a satisfactory proof of their perfection. We 
have shown in our Ordo Temporum, at about what time each 
of them was written. 




The Evangelists contain the rudiments of the New Testament. — 
(See John xvi. 12.^) Concerning their authority/ see Ephes. 
iv. 11 ; and 1 Peter i. 12. They are four in number — two of 
them, namely John and Matthew, were themselves apostles, and 
took part, therefore, in the things which they relate : the other 
two, Mark and Luke, afford, in their own persons, an example 
of faith, having derived their sure and accurate knowledge of 
the Gospel from others. Mark, however, presupposes the exist- 
ence of Matthew, and, as it were, supplies his omissions ; Luke 
does the same for both of them ; John for all three. Matthew, 
an apostle wrote first,^ and thus estabhshed an authority for both 
Mark and Luke. John, also an apostle, wrote last,^ and con- 

1 The Evangelists, from the earliest days of Christianity, were reckoned 
to hef(mr; very many pseudo-evangelists, whose writings were not in con- 
sonance with the pure faith, having been rejected. Those, who choose to 
apply the four cardinal rivers of Paradise, and many such-like fourfold 
types, especially that one which has the sanction of hoar antiquity, viz., the 
Lion, Ox [or calf^ Man, and Flying Eagle [the Cherubim, Eev. iv. 7], as 
typical of the fourfold Gospel, are entitled to have the credit of the sug- 
gestion, whatever amount of credit is due. If you desire an exact definition 
of an Evangelist, my definition would be a holy man of God, who publicly, 
and with an irrefragable testimony, sets forth to men a history of Jesus 
Christ, either by word of mouth or in writing. — Harm. Ev., Ed. ii., p. 
34, etc. 

2 « In which they are inferior to the Apostles and Prophets, but superior to 
Pastors and Teachers." — Harm., p. 35. 

^ " .4 fact, which is evident from this, that the title iiyiftai), expressed by 
Luke once, ch. iii. 1, but never by the rest, is, in the history of the passion, 
continually assigned by Matthew to Pilate." — Harm., p. 37. 

* " And yet, as is plain from his ch. v. 2, John did not defer writing till 
so late as after the destruction of Jerusalem." — Harm., p. 38. 


firmed to mankind, more Mly, the works of Mark and Luke, 
already sufEciently'firm in themselves.^ Matthew wrote especi- 
ally to show the fulfilment of the Old Testament Scriptures, and 
to convince the Jews. Mark produced an abridgement of 
Matthew, adding at the same time many remarkable things 
which had been omitted by his predecessor, and paying particu- 
lar attention to the noviciate of the apostles. Luke composed a 
narrative of a distinctly historical character, with especial refer- 
ence to our Lord's office as Christ. John refuted the impugners 
of His divinity. All which is recorded by either of these Four, 
was actually done and said by Jesus Christ. But they severally 
drew firom a common treasury those particulars, of which each 
had the fullest knowledge, which corresponded to his own 
spiritual character, and which were best suited to the time when 
he wrote, and to the persons whom he primarily addressed. 
Chrysostom, at the commencement of his second homily on the 
Epistle to the Komans, says, — Moses has not prefixed Ms name 
to the five books which he wrote. Nor have Matthew, John, Luke, 
nor Mark, to the Gospels written hy them. Why so ? Writing, as 
they did, for those who were present, it was not necessary for 
them to indicate themselves, being also present. 

The term Gospel has several significations, which, though 
cognate, are not identical. (1.) The Good News itself concern- 
ing Jesus Christ, which was communicated by Jesus Christ 
Himself, His forerunner. His apostles, and other witnesses, first 
to the Jews, then to the whole human race. (2.) The whole 
office and system of propagating that Good News, either by 
preaching or writing : in which sense, for example, we find the 
expression " my Gospel," sc. that of Paul, in 2 Timothy ii. 8. 

^ " Although there is a generally prevalent, but not well enough established 
opinion, that Matthew wrote in the eighth year after the Ascension, Mark in 
the tenth, Luke in the fifteenth, and lastly John, in the thirty-third." — Harm., 
p. 37. 

2 Moreover, if you join together the testimonies of John and Matthew, 
and also those of Mark and Luke, you will have the full range of the whole 
conversation, acts, and words of Jesus Christ, the beginning, progress, and 
end, as also all the alternations [vioissitudines], which one may observe, in 
the disciples, in the people, in His adversaries, and, owing to the different 
treatment these needed, in the Saviour Himself, if only you pay attention to 
method, — Harm., pp. 38, 39. 


(3.) By a still further metonymy,^ the written remains of those 
who have committed the Gospel narrative to writing. If you 
wish, in Greek, to name at once the four hooks, which TertuUian 
styles the Gospel Engine (Evangelicum Instrumentum), you ought 
in strictness to make use of the singularnumber, and say, rJ xa,T& 
Mar^aTov, xa,T& Mdpxov, x.r.X. 'Evcx.yysXiov (the Gospel according to 
Matthew, according to Mark, etc.^), not in the plural (ra x.t-X. 
'Eva.yyiXia., the Gospels), except perhaps for the sake of brevity. 
For the subject of all four is one and the same ; though treated 
in one manner xa,T& Mar^aTov, i.e., as far as Matthew is concerned, 
according to Matthew, by Matthew, as Matthew treated it ; in an- 
other manner xa,r& Mdpxov : etc. — Cf. xara,, Acts xxvii. 7, fin. — 
Nevertheless, as in Genesis, the first word which occurs is 
Bereschith (which was afterwards adopted as the title), so the 
first word written by Matthew was iS//3Xoff, Booh, or Roll (see 
Gnomon on Matthew i. 1) ; by Mark apyii, the Beginning (see 
Gnomon on Mark i. 1), and so on. The appellation, however, 
of Gospel, as a title for the book itself, occurs in the most 
ancient fathers. By the same authorities, Matthew is said to 
have written his Gospel in Hebrew. Why should he not have 
written the same work, the same without the slightest varia- 
tion, in Greek as well as in Hebrew, even though he did not, 
strictly speaking, translate it from the one language into the 
other ? — Cf. Jeremiah li. 63, xxxvi. 28, and the annotations of 
Franzius' on that passage (De Interp. S.S., p. 504); see also 
La Vie de Madame Guion,* pt. ii., p. 229. — We now proceed 
to give the following 

1 See explanation of technical terms. See also Home's Introduction, 
vol. ii., pp. 464-461.— (I. B.) 

^ i.e., There is but one Gospel, with ^jbwrfold aspect. — Ed. 

' Franzius, Wolfgang, D.D., a Lutheran divine. Born 1564. Educated at 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and afterwards removed to Wittemberg, where, in 
1598, he was appointed Professor of History, and afterwards of Theology. 
Died 1628. He wrote, besides other works, Tractatus de Interpretatione S. 
Scripturarum. — (I. B.) 

* Her life is said to be written by herself, but believed to have been 
compiled from her papers by the Abbe de Brion. Querard says of her, in 
La France Litteraire, " Guyon (Mme. Jeanne-Marie Bouvieres de la Mothe) 
celebre par sa mysticit^ et plus encore par la dispute qu'elle fit naitre entre 
Bossuet et Fenelon sur le quietisme : n^e d Montargis en 1648, morte a 
Blois le 9 Juin, 1717.— (I. B.) 




'I. The Nativity, and the matters immediately 

a. The Genealogy : . • . C 

/3. The Generation : . 
7. The Magi : . . • 

i. The Fhght and Eetum. . 

II. Our Lord's Entrance on His Ministry, 
a. John the Baptist : 
/3. The Baptism of Jesus : 
y. His Temptation and Victory. 

m. The deeds and words, by which Jesus proved 
Himself to be Christ. 

'At Capernaum : . 

Where must be remarked, 

1. His Preaching, 

2. The Call of Peter, Andrew, James, 
and John, 

3. His Preaching and Healing, the 
conflux of Multitudes, 

4. The Sermon on the Mount, . v.- 

5. The Leper, 

6. The Centurion and his servant, 
I 7. Peter's mother-in-law, 
1^8. Many sick persons. 

/3. TThe voyage across the sea; the two in- 
dividuals warned concerning following 
Christ ; the command exercised over 
the wind and the sea : the devils 
migrating from men into swine. . 

. i. 
















. 1-4 








Again at Capernaum, 

1. The Paralytic, . . Ch. ix. 1-3 

2. The call of Matthew, Intercourse 

with Sinners defended, . 9, 10—13 

3. Fasting, . . . 14-17 

4. The girl dead, and, after the heal- 
ing of the woman who had an issue 

of blood, restored to life, . 18—26 

5. The Two BHnd Men, . 27-31 
6.. The Demoniac; . . 32-34 

7. Our Lord goes through the cities 
and villages, and commands labourers 

to be prayed for, . . 35—38 

8. He sends and instructs labourers, x. 1—42 
and preaches Himself: . xi. 1 

9. John's message to our Lord : 2-6 

10. Our Lord praises John, denounces 
woe against the refractory cities, 

invites those that labour : . 7—30 

11. The ears of com rubbed : . xii. 1—8 

12. The withered hand healed : 9-13 

13. The Pharisees lay snares : Jesus 

departs : . . . 14-21 

14. The Demoniac is healed: the people 
are amazed : the Pharisees blas- 
pheme : Jesus refutes them, . 22—37 

15. He rebukes those who demand a 

sign, . . . 38—45 

16. He declares who are His, . 46—50 

17. He teaches by Parables, . xiii. 1-52 
'At Nazareth, . . 53—58 
At other places 

1. Herod, after the murder of John, 
hearing of Jesus, is perplexed: Jesus 

departs, and is sought by the people, xiv. 1-13 

2. He heals ; and feeds five thousand : 14-21 

3. The sea voyage, and cures in the 

land of Genesareth, . 22-36 


bengel's gnomon. 

c 4. Unwashen hands ; . . Ch. xv. 

5. The woman of Canaan ; 

6. Many sick healed ; 

7. Four thousand fed ; . 

8. In the coasts of Magdala, those who 

demand a sign are refuted ; 39— xvi. 

9. The warning concerning leaven, 

IV. Our LorcHs Predictions of His Passion and 

'The First Prediction. 

1. The preparation by confirming the 
primary article, that Jesus is the 

2. The Prediction itself delivered ; and 
the interference of Peter rejected. 

°- TThe Second Prediction. 

1. The Transfiguration in the Mount ; 




silence enjoined ; . . xvu. 

2. The Lunatic healed ; 

3. The Prediction itself; 

4. The Tribute-Money paid ; 

5. Who is the greatest ? 
^6. The duty of forgiving injuries 

The Third Prediction. 

1. The Departure fi-om Galilee ; 

2. The question concerning Divorce ; 

3. Kindness to little children, 

4. The Eich Man turning back ; 
And thereupon discourses, 

On the Salvation of the Eich, 

On the rewards of following Christ, 

On the Last and the First. xx, 

5. The Prediction itself; 

6. The request of the sons of Zebedee ; 
humility enjoined. 

7. The two Blind Men cured. 


















aV. The Events at Jerusalem immediately before 
the Passion. 

a. r Sunday : 
J 1. The Eegal Entry, . . Ch. xxi. 1-11 

L2. The Cleansing of the Temple ; 12-17 

/3. ( Monday: 

JThe Fig-tree. . . . 18-22 

7. Tuesday. Occurrences — 
A. In the Temple : 

1. The Interference of the Chief Priests, 
i. Eepulsed, 

a. By the Question concerning 
John's Baptism, . 23—27 

b. By two Parables : 

(1) The Two Sons, . 28-32 

(2) The Vineyard, . 33-44 
ii. Proceeds to lay snares for Him. 45—46 

2. The Parable of the Marriage 
Feast: . . . xxii. 1-14 

3. The Questions of our Lord's Ad- 

i. Concerning Tribute, 
ii. — ^- — the Resurrection, 
iii. — ^-^ — the Great Command- 
4. Our Saviour's question in return 
concerning David's Lord, 
His warning concerning the 

Scribes and Pharisees, 
His denunciation against them. 
And against the city itself: — 
.B. Out of the Temple. 

The Discourse concerning the De- 
struction of the Temple and the 
End of the World. 










a VI. The Passion and Resurrection. 
A. The Passion, Death, and Burial, 
'a. Wednesday. 

a. Our Lord's Prediction, Ch. xxvl. 1, 2 
/3. The Deliberation of the Chief 

Priests, . . 3—5 

7. The agreement of Judas, of- 
fended at the anointing of our 
Lord, to betray Him. . 6-16 

b. Thursday. 
a. By Day ; 

The Passover prepared. . 17—19 

iS. At Evening. 

1. The Betrayal indicated, 20-25 

2. The Lord's Supper. . 26-29 
y. By Night. 

1. The offence of Peter and the 
Disciples foretold ; . 30-35 

2. The Agony in Gethsemane ; 36-46 

3. Jesus is taken, forbids the 
employment of the sword, 
rebukes the crowd, is de- 
serted by His disciples : 47-56 

4. Is led to Caiaphas : false wit- 
nesses are unsuccessful : con- 
fesses Himself to be the Son 
of God : is condemned to die : 
is mocked. . . 57-68 

5. Peter denies ; and weeps. 69-75 
s. Friday. 

'a. The Passion consummated, 
'i. In the Morning. 

'1. Jesus is delivered to Pilate, xxvii. 1, 2 

2. The death of Judas. 3-10 

3. The kingdom of Jesus : 
His silence. . 11-14 

4. Pilate ; warned in vain by 
b c d e ^is wife releases Barabbas, 



d e and delivers Jesus to be 
crucified. . 
.5. Jesus is mocked and led forth, 
ii. The Third Hour. 

The Vinegar and Gall : the 
Cross : the Garments di- 
vided: the Inscription on the 
Cross : the two Thieves : 
the Blasphemies, 
iii. From the Sixth to the Ninth 
hour : the Darkness : the De- 
iS. The Death. 

The Vail Rent, and the great 

The Centurion wonders : the 
Women behold. 
7. The Burial. 
l^d. Saturday. 

The Sepulchre guarded, 
B The Resurrection : 

a. Announced to the "Women. 

1. By the Angel, 

2. By the Lord Himself, . 
/3. Denied by His Enemies, 
y. Shown to His Disciples. 









xxviii. 1-8 






1. BijBXos Vivisitiis — the Book, or Roll, of the Generation) A 
phrase employed by the Lxx. in Genesis li. 4 and v. 1, The 
books of the New Testament, however, being written at so 
early a period, abound with Hebraisms : and the Divine Wis- 
dom provided, that the Greek version of the Old Testament 
should prepare the language, which would be the fittest vehicle 
for the teaching of the New. This title, however, the genealogy,^ 
refers, strictly speaking, to what immediately follows (as appears 
from the remainder of the first verse), though it apphes also to 
the whole book, the object of which is to prove that Jesus is the 
Christ, the Son of David, etc., [m whom, as being the promised 
Messiah, the prophecies of the Old Testament have received their 
fulfilment. Hence it is that from time to time the evangelist fre~ 
gitently repeats the formula, " That it might be fulfilled." — ^Vers. 
Germ.] See ver. 20, and ch. ix. 27, etc. For Scripture is wont 
to combine with genealogies the reasons for introducing them. 
See Gen. v. 1 and vi. 9. — ^Iridou Xpigrou, of Jesus Christ) The 
compound appellation, Jesus-Christ, or Cheist-Jesus, or 
the simple one of Christ, employed by antonomasia,^ came into 
use after the Pentecostal descent of the Holy Spirit. The 
four Gospels, therefore, have it only at their commencements 

' Recensio OrtHs. Tabuke recensionis was an expression applied to the 
Censor's Register. Ortus signifies both origin by descent and birth. 

2 See Appendix on this figure. The substitution of an appellatiye term 
of designation, instead of a proper name.— £d. 

VOL. I. P 


and conclusions, the other writings everywhere. — See Notes ou 
Eom. iii. 24 and Gal. ii. 16. Comp. ver. 16 below. — uhu AavlS,^ 
■uiou 'Al3pa,dfi,, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham) Our Lord is 
called the Son of David and the Son of Abraham, because He 
was promised to both. Abraham was the iirst, David the last 
of men to whom that promise was made ; whence He is called 
the Son of David, as though David had been His immediate 
progenitor. — (See Ehenferd^ Opera Philologica, p. 715.) Both 
of these patriarchs received the announcement with faith and 
joy (See John viii. 56 ; and Matt. xxii. 43). Each of those 
mentioned in the following list was acquainted with the names 
of those who preceded, but not of those who came after him. 
Oh, with what dehght would they have read this genealogy, in 
which we take so little interest ! An allusion is here made by 
anticipation to the three Fourteens (afterwards mentioned in the 
17th verse), of which the first is distmguished by the name of 
Abraham, the second by that of David, whilst the third, com- 
mencing, not like the others with a proper name, but with the 
Babylonian Captivity, is crowned with the name of Jesus Christ 
Himself : for the first and the second Fourteen contain the pro- 
mise, the third its fulfilment. The narration, however, in the 
first verse goes backward fi-om Christ to David, from David to 
Abraham. And so much the more conveniently is Abraham 
put here in the second place, because he comes on the scene 
immediately again in the following verse. St Mark, however, 
in the opening of his Gospel, calls Jesus the Son, not of David, 
but of GOD, because he begins his narration with the baptism of 
John, by whom our Lord was pointed out as the Son of God. 
Thus each of these evangelists declares the scope of his work in 
the title. The former part of this verse contains the sum of the 
New Testament — ^the latter part, the recapitulation of the Old. 

' E. M. Aa/3iS. — This variation occurs all through, and will not there- 
fore be noticed again. Bengel alway writes A«t/JS. — The Exemplar Millia- 
num always has Aa/3(S. — Tregelles and Tischendorf prefer Aavti. — ^Lach- 
mann, Anviii. — Wordsworth also writes the word AauiS. — (I. B.) 

2 James Rhenferd, a celebrated Oriental scholar, born at Mulheim, in 
Westphalia, 1654. Educated at the College of Meurs, in the Duchy of 
Cleves. Rector of the Latin College in Francker, 1658 ; removed to 
Amsterdam 168a Professor of Oriental languages at Francker, 1683. 
Died 1712.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW I. 2-B. 83 

2. ' A^gad/i, Abraham) St Matthew, in enumerating our Lord's 
ancestors, adopts the order of descent (though he employs that 
of ascent in ver. 1), and begins also from Abraham, instead of 
Adam, not however to the exclusion of the Gentiles (cf. xxviii. 
19), since in Abraham all nations are made blessed. — xal roiig 
adeXipois axiroZ, and his brethren) These words are not added in 
the case of Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob, though they also had 
brethren, but only in that of Judah : for the promises were 
restricted to the family of Israel. 

3. xal Tov Zapdi, and Zara) the twin-brother of Pharez, — ix 
r^5 Qd/Mip, of Thamar) St Matthew, in the course of his genea- 
logy, makes mention of women who were joined to the race of 
Abraham by any peculiar circumstance. Thamar ought to have 
become the wife of Shelah (see Gen. xxxviii. 11, 26), and 
Judah became by her the father of Pharez and Zara : Rahab, 
though a Canaauitess, became the wife of Salmon : Ruth was 
a Moabitess, yet Boaz married her. The wife of Uriah became 
the wife of David. 

4. Naafftftiv, JVaasson) Contemporary with Moses. The silence 
regarding Moses preserved throughout this pedigree is re- 

5. rhv Boh^ ix rni 'Pa;^a|3, Boaz of Rahab) Some think that 
the immediate ancestors of Boaz have been passed over ; but it 
stands thus also in Ruth iv. 21 : nor can the first Fourteen, the 
standard of the two others, admit of an hiatus. More correct 
is their opinion, who maintain that, in such a length of time, 
some of the ancestors mentioned lived to a great age. The 
definite article, r^s, placed before the proper name 'Pa;^a/3, 
shows that Rahab of Jericho is here meant ; nor does the 
orthography of the word 'Paj/a/3 interfere with this hypothesis : 
for both 'Pad^ (Raab or Rahab) and 'Paj/a/3 (Rachab) are 
written for 3rn. See Hiller's'^ Onomasticon Sacrum, p. 695. 
The Rahab of Jericho was very young when she hid the spies 
(Josh. vi. 23) : she outlived, however, Joshua and the elders 
(Ibid. xxiv. 29, 30) ; and her marriage with Salmon must have 
taken place still later, as it is not mentioned in that book, though 

* Matthew Hiller, a Lutheran divine and learned Orientalist, bom at 
Stuttgard, 1646. Successively Professor at various universities with great 
reputation. Died 1725.— (I. B.) 

84 iST MATTHEW I. 6-8. 

It is recorded that she dwelt in Israel (See Josh. vi. 25). In 
Ruth i. 1, the earliest times of the Judges seem to be meant, so 
that the verb DStJ* (which might otherwise be supposed redun- 
dant) may have an inceptive^ force, as in like manner 'pd' often 
signifies he took the kingdom, or began to reign : and Naomi must 
have gone into Moab, before the Moabite domination mentioned 
in Judges iii. 12. Eahab might therefore have been, as she 
actually was, the mother of Boaz. He did not marry Kuth 
till he was far advanced in life (see Euth iii. 10) ; and their 
grandson, Jesse, was very old (see 1 Sam. xvii. 12, 14), when 
he became the father of David. — Cf. concerning Jehoiada, 
2 Chron. xxiv. 15. 

6. Aau/3 Ss ^aaiXeiig, but David the King) The appellation 
^aeiXeiii (the King), has been omitted by some early editors, but 
wrongly.' The kingship of David is twice mentioned here, as 
is the Babylonian captivity afterwards. The same title is under- 
stood, though not expressed, after the names of Solomon and his 
successors, as far as ver. 11. David is, however, called especially 
the King, not only because he is the first king mentioned in this 
pedigree, but also because his throne is promised to the Messiah. 
—See Luke i. 32. 

7. eyivvTjgi, begat) Bad men, even though they are useless 
to themselves in their lifetime, do not exist in vain ; since by 
their means the elect even are brought into the world. 

8. 'lapA/j, Be symrtdi rh 'Oi^lav, but Jorarn begat Josiah) 
Ahaziah (who is the same as the Joahaz of 2 Chron. xxi. 
1 7, and xxii. 1), Joash, and Amaziah (mentioned in 1 Chron. 
iii. 11, 12), are here passed over : so that the word ey'mties 
(begat) must be understood mediately* instead of immediately : 
as fi-equently happens with the word vlos (son), as in the first 

' Bengel means, that B^isBSn ubtti (translated in the E. V. the Judges 
ruled, taarg. judged) ought to be rendered the Judges began to judge, so as 
to indicate with greater exactness the date of the event, at the commence- 
ment of the era of the Judges (I. B.) 

' 'i'-? !T^?^— (1) io reign, to be king ; (2) to become king, 2 Sam. xv. 10, 
•svi. 8 ; 1 Kings xiv. 2.— Gesenhjs (I. B ) 

« B, the best MSS. of Vulg., the Memph. and Theb. and Syr. Versions 
omit o' fituri-Ktis. But Aac agree with Rec. Text and Beng. in retaining the 
words. — Ed. 

* i.e., There being mediate or intervening persons. — Ed 

ST MATTHEW I. 8, 85 

verse of this chapter, where our Lord is called the Son of 
David, who was His remote ancestor. In like manner Joram is 
here said to have begotten Josiah, who was his great-grandson, 
— that is to say, he was his progenitor. Thus, by referring to 
1 Chron. vi. 7, 8, 9, we find, that six generations are left out in 
Ezra vii. 3, between Azariah and Meraioth. St Matthew 
omitted the three kings in question, not because he was ignorant 
of their having existed (since the whole context proves his 
familiar acquaintance with his subject), but because they were 
well known to all : nor did he do so with any firaudident inten- 
tion, since, by increasing the number of generations, he would 
have confirmed the notion that the Messiah must have already 
appeared. Nor did he omit them on account of their impiety, 
for he has mentioned other impious men, as e.g. Jechonias, and 
him with especial consideration, and he has passed over several 
pious ones. But, as in describing roads and ways, it is neces- 
sary to be especially careful with regard to those points where 
they branch off in different directions, whereas a straight road 
may be found without any such direction, so does St Matthew 
in this genealogy point out with particular care those who have 
had brothers, and who, in contradistinction to them, have propa- 
gated the stem of the Messiah. He has indeed carried this so 
far that, having a reason^ for not naming Jehoiakim, he has 
assigned his brothers to his only son ; whilst he has passed over, 
without inconvenience, Joash, who was the only link' in his 
generation, together with his father and son. Furthermore, as 
in geography the distances of places from each other are, with- 
out any violence to truth, described sometimes by longer, some- 
times by shorter stages, — so is it with the successive steps of 
generations in a pedigree ; nor is the practice of Hebrew gene- 
alogists an exception to the general custom in this matter. The 
writers of the New Testament are accustomed also rather to 
imply than assert circumstances already well known on the 
authority of the Old Testament, and not liable to be mistaken, 
employing a brevity as congenial to the ardomr of the Spirit, as 

1 See Jer. xxii. 30 (I. B.) 

2 In the original, "qtu unica sui temporis scintilla fuerat." — (I. B.) 
« The only spark in his generation to prevent the line being extinguished." 

86 ST MATTHEW 1. 11. 

desirable on other grounds, — See Gnomon on Acts vil. 16. 
Oziah was previously called Azariah, but by the omission of 
one Hebrew letter ("ii R) his name becomes Oziah. 

11. 'itiKslag 8i iyivvtiai rhv 'l£;^ov/av, But Josiah begat Jechoniah) 
Many transcribers both in ancient and in modem times, and those 
principally Greeks, have inserted Jehoiachim here, because, 
firstly, the Old Testament had that name in this situation, and 
secondly, the number of fourteen generations, from David to the 
Babylonian captivity, given by St Matthew, seemed to require 
the insertion. Jehoiachim, however, must not be inserted : for 
history would not suffer Jehoiachim to be put vnthout his 
brothers, and brothers to be thus given to Jechoniah, who had 
none. Some have sought for Jehoiachim in St Matthew's first 
mention of Jechoniah ; Jerome^ has done so especially, when 
answeringPorphyry's^ objections to this verse on the ground of the 
hiatus. No transformation, however, will produce Jechoniah (in 
the Lxx. 'li-xpviag) from the Hebrew D''p''l^^ the 'liiaxiT/jt, (Joakim) 
of the LXX., so as to make them one and the same name : nor 
have we any more reason for supposing that Jehoiachim and 
Jechoniah are intended by the repetition of the former, than 
that two separate individuals are intended by the repetition of 
Isaac's name ; and so on with the other names in the genealogy. 
The same Jechoniah is twice introduced under his own name : 
he was descended from Josiah through Jehoiachim, whose name 
is omitted. St Matthew calls Jechoniah's uncles his brothers 
(cf. Gen. xiii. 8), and that with great felicity ; for Zedekiah came 
to the throne after the commencement of the captivity, to the 
exclusion of the sons of Jechoniah, whom he succeeded, and 
who, though his nephew, was born eight years before him. The 
brothers, therefore, of Jehoiachim, of whom Zedekiah was chief, 

^ One of the most celebrated Fathers of the Christian Church, bom of 
Christian parents at Stridon, on the borders of Pannonia and Dalmatia, in 
the year 331. Educated at Rome under the best masters. After travelling 
through France, Italy, and the East, he adopted the monastic life in Syria 
in his 31st year. He died A.d. 422.— (I. B.) 

2 A Platonic philosopher, bom at Tyre, a.d. 223. Studied under Lon- 
ginus and Plotinus. He was a man of great talent and learning, and one of 
the most able opponents of Christianity. He died in the reign of Dio- 
cletian.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW I. 12, 13. 87 

who is expressly called the brother in 2 Chron. xxxvi. 10, and 
2 Kings xxiv. 17, instead of the uncle of Jechoniah, are appro- 
priately mentioned after Jechoniah as his brothers.-' — svl rns 
/iSToixisiag, about the time of the migration') The preposition s-rl, 
which is contrasted with /i£r<i (after) in the twelfth verse, is also 
employed sometimes to denote the immediate sequence of that, 
during or about the time of which something else takes place. — 
See Gnomon on Mark ii. 26. The Hebrew prsefix 3 has the 
same force in Gren. x. 25. The birth of Jechoniah was followed 
immediately by the removal to Babylon, — which is called by the 
LXX. both amixeeia (the emigration), and /iiToixssla, (the migra- 
tion, immigration, or sojourning) ; the former with reference to 
Palestine, the latter with reference to Babylon. — BajSuXSms, of 
Babylon) i.e. to, or into Babylon. In like manner idhg Alyu-rTov, 
in Jer. ii. 18, signifies the way into Egypt. 

12. /ji,iT&, after) sc. after he had migrated to Babylon. — 2aXa- 
S/ijX 8s iymr\(Si rhv Zopo/3a/3fX, but Salathiel begat ZorobabeV) i.e., 
was the progenitor of; Pedaiah being the son of the former, and 
father of the latter. St Luke (iii. 27) mentions another SaW 
thiel and Zorobabel, father and son, who must have lived about 
the same time with these.' 

13. "Ey'evvrisi rhii ' A^/odS, begat Abiud) This is the same as 
Hodaiah,* who was in like manner descended from Zorobabel, 
through several intervening ancestors (see 1 Chron. iii. 19, 24), 
as Hiller explains in his Syntagmata, pp. 361, sqq., where he 
shows, that the Jews acknowledged the genealogy in the said 
passage of Chronicles to be that of the Messiah : nor, indeed, 
was it necessary that any other genealogy should have been 
carried further down there than that of the Messiah. There 
can, therefore, be no doubt but that the passage in question was 

' Irenmis, 218, writes, "'Ante hunc Jbacfa'm (Joseph enim Joachim et 
Jechonise Alius ostenditur, quemadmodum et Matthseus generationem ejus 
exponit)." So M Cod. Reg. Paris of 9th century, and U Cod. Venetus of 
same date, in opposition to the ancient authorities, insert 'laaKtlft,. — ^Ed. 

2 sc to Babylon.— (I. B.) 

3 D. Crusius explains the causes of this fact I. c. p. 369, 370, showing 
that the Zorobabel of Luke was a prince of Juda, and the associate 
(ai^vyoi/) of Joshua in the restoration, whereas the Zorobabel of Matthew 
was a private individual. — E. B. 

* Or Hodajah, as in Bengel. 

88 ST MATTHEW I. 16. 

partictdarly well known to the Jews ; and there was, conse 
quently, the less need that St Matthew should repeat it in extenso. 
Iq this generation, then, concludes the scripture of the Old Tes- 
tament. The remainder of the genealogy was supplied by St 
Matthew from trustworthy documents of a later date, and, no 
doubt, of a public character. 

16. Thv ci,vhpa Mapiag, the husband of Mary) This turn of the 
genealogical line is evidently singular ;' and in this place, there- 
fore, I must advance and substantiate several important assertions. 

I. Messias or Christ is the Son of David. 

This is admitted by all. — See Matt. xxii. 42, and Acts ii. 30. 

n. Even in their genealogies both Matthew and Luke teach tlmt 
Jesus is the Christ. 

This is clear from Matt. i. 16, and Luke iii. 22. 

m. At the time when Matthew and Luke wrote the descent of 
Jesus from David had been placed beyond doubt. 

Both Matthew and Luke wrote before the destruction of the 
Temple of Jerusalem, when the fiill genealogy of the house of 
David, preserved in the public records, was easily accessible to 
all : and our Lord's adversaries did not ever make any objection, 
when Jesus was so frequently hailed as the Son of David. 

TV. The genealogy in St Matthew from, Abraham, and that in 
St Luke from the creation of man, to Joseph the husband of Mary, is 
deduced, not through mothers but fathers, and those natural fathers. 

This is evident in the case of all those ancestors, whose names 
St Matthew and St Luke repeat fi-om the Old Testament. 
Wherefore it is not said, whether Ruth had been the wife of 
Mahlon or Chilion ; but Obed is simply said to be the son of his 
real father Boaz by Ruth [though his legal father was Mahlon. 
— See Ruth iv. 10, etc.] From Abraham to David the same 
ancestors are evidently mentioned by both Matthew and Luke : 
so that there can be no drubt but that both Evangelists intend 
not mothers but fathers, and those, fathers by nature, from David 
to Joseph. Thus, in the books of Kings and Chronicles, as often 
soever as the mother of a king is mentioned alone, it is a sign 
that he whom her son is said to have immediately succeeded was 
his natural father. 

' ' Singularis,' i.e., unique. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW I. 16. 89 

V. The genealogy in Matthew from Solomon, and that in Luke 
from Nathan, is brought down to Joseph, not with the same, hut 
with a different view [respectu, relation, regard^ 

This is clear from the preceding section. 

VI. Jesus Christ was the Son of Mary, but not of her husband 

This is evident from Matt. i. 16. 

VH. It was necessary that the genealogy of Mary should be 
drawn out. 

Without the genealogy of Mary, the descent of Jesus from 
David could not be proved, as follows from what has just been 

Vm. Joseph was for some time reputed to be the father of the 
Lord Jesus. 

The mystery of the Redeemer's birth from a virgin was not 
made known at once, but by degrees ; and, in the meanwhile, 
the honourable title of marriage was required as a veil for that 
mystery. Jesus, therefore, was believed to be the Son of Joseph, 
for instance, after His baptism, by Philip (John i. 45) ; in the 
time of His public preaching, by the inhabitants of Nazareth 
(Luke iv. 22 ; Matt. xiii. 55), and only a year before His Passion 
by the Jews (John vi. 42). Many still clung to this opinion 
even after our Lord's Ascension, and up to the time, there- 
fore, when, a few years subsequently to that event, St Matthew 
wrote his gospel. 

IX. It was therefore necessary that the genealogy of Joseph 
also should in the meanwhile exist. 

It was necessary that all those who believed Jesus to be the 
Son of Joseph, should be convinced that Joseph was descended 
from David. Otherwise they c6uld not have acknowledged 
Jesus to be the Son of David, and consequently could not 
acknowledge Him to be the Christ. When therefore the angel 
first appeared to Joseph, and commanded him to take unto him 
his wife, he called him (ver. 20) the son of David: because, for- 
sooth, the Son of Mary would for a time have to bear that name 
as if derived from Joseph. In like manner, not only was Jesus 
in truth the first-bom (Luke ii. 7, 23) of His mother, but it 
behoved also that He should be reputed to be the first-bom of 
Joseph • those, therefore, who are called the brethren of Jesus, 

90 ST MATTHEW 1. 16. 

were His first cousins, not His half-brothers. It is needless to 
attempt, as some have done, to prove the consanguinity of Joseph 
and Mary from their marriage : for even if David be their 
nearest common ancestor, St Matthew's object is attained. St 
Matthew then has traced the genealogy of Joseph, but still so 
as to do no violence to truth : for he does not say that Jesus is 
the Son of Joseph, but he does say that He was the Son of 
Mary ; and in this very sixteenth verse he intimates, that this 
genealogy of Joseph, which had its use for a time, would after- 
wards become obsolete. Mary's descent from David was equally 
well known at that time, as appears from St Luke. 

X. Either Matthew gives the genealogy of Mary, and Luke iliat 
of Joseph ; or Matthew that of Joseph, and Luke that of Mary. 

This clearly follows from the preceding sections. 

XL The genealogy in Matthew is that of Joseph ; in Luke, that 
of Mary. 

St Matthew traces the Hne of descent from Abraham to 
Jacob : he expressly states that Jacob begat Joseph, and ex- 
pressly calls Joseph the husband of Mary. Joseph therefore is 
regarded throughout this genealogy as the descendant of those 
who are enumerated, not on Mary's account, but on his own. 
Matthew, indeed, expressly contradistinguishes Joseph from 
Mary as the son of Jacob ; but in St Luke, by a less strict mode 
of expression, Heli (Luke iii. 23) is simply placed after JbsepA. 
Since, then, Joseph is described in Matthew as actually the son 
of Jacob, St Luke cannot mean to represent him as actually the 
son of Heli. The only alternative which remains, therefore, is 
to conclude that he is the son of Heli, not in his own person, 
but by virtue of another, and that other his wife. Mary, then, 
is the daughter of Heli. The Jewish writers mention a certain 
'hv na Dino, Mary, the daughter of Heli, whom they describe as 
suffering extreme torments in the infernal regions. — See Light- 
foot^ on Luke iii. 23, and Wolfius'' on Matt. i. 20. St Luke 

' John Lightfoot, D.D. Bom in Staffordshire, 1602. Educated at 
Christ Church, Cambridge. One of the Assembly of Divines during the 
Commonwealth. In 1648 was made Master of Catherine Hall, Cambridge, 
and served the office of Vice-Chancellor : and died in 1675. He excelled 
in rabbinical learning. — (I. B.) 

' John Christopher Wolfius, a learned Lutheran divine, pastor and Pro- 

ST MATTHEW I. 16. 91 

does not, however, name Mary in his genealogy ; for it would 
have sounded HI, especially to Jewish ears, had he written 
" Jesus was the Son of Mary, the daughter of Heli, the son of 
Matthat," etc. — on which account he names the husband of 
Mary, but that in such a manner that all may be able to 
understand (from the whole of his first and second chap- 
ters), that the name of Mary's husband stands for that of Mary 

XH. That in St I/uke is the primary, that in St Matthew the 
secondary genealogy. 

When a genealogy is traced through female as well as male 
ancestors, any descent may be deduced in many ways from one 
root ; whereas a pedigree, traced simply from father to son, must 
of necessity consist only of a single line. In the genealogy, 
however, of Jesus Christ, Mary, His mother, is reckoned with 
His male ancestors, by a claim of incomparable precedence. In 
an ordinary pedigree ancestors are far more important than 
ancestresses. Mary, however, enters this genealogy with a 
peculiar and unrivalled claim, above that of every ancestor 
whatever of the whole human race ; for whatever Jesus derived 
fi-om the stock of man — of Abraham, or of David — that He 
derived entirely from His mother. This is the One Seed of 
Woman without Man. Other children owe their birth partly to 
their father, partly to their mother. The genealogy of Mary, 
therefore, which is given in St Luke, is the primary one. Nor 
can that of Joseph, in St Matthew, be considered otherwise than 
secondary, and merely employed for the time, until all should 
become ftiUy convinced, that Jesus was the Son of Mary, but 
not of Joseph. St Matthew mentions Jechoniah, although he is 
passed by in the primary genealogy. — See Jer. xxii. 30; and of. 
Luke i. 32, 33. 

XT TT. Whatever difficulty yet remains regarding this whole 
matter, so far from weakening, should even confirm our faith. 

The stock of David had, in the time of Jesus of Nazareth, 
dwindled down to so small a number (see Eev. xxii. 16), that 
on this ground also the appellation " Son of David" was used by 

fessor of Oriental Languages at Hamburgh. Born 1683. Died 1739. 
Author of Bibliotheca Hebrsea, Curse Philologicse et Criticse in Novum 
Testamentum. — (I. B.) 

93 Sr MATTHEW I. 16. 

Antonomasia' for " The Messiah." And that family consisted so 
exclusively of Jesus and His relatives, that any one who knew 
Him to belong to it could not fail, even without the light of faith, 
to acknowledge Him as the Messiah, since the period foretold by 
the prophets for His manifestation had already arrived, and none 
of our Lord's relations could be compared with Himself. Our 
Lord's descent, therefore, from the race of David, as well as His 
birth at Bethlehem, were less publicly known ; nay, rather He 
was in some degree veiled, as it were, by the name of Nasarene, 
that faith might not lose its price.'— See John vii. 27, 41, 42. 
And thus men, having been first induced on other grounds to 
believe that Jesus was the Messiah, concluded, on the same 
grounds, that He must be the Son of David. — See Matt. xii. 23. 
The necessary public documents, however, were in existence, 
whence it came to pass, that the chief priests, though employing 
every means against our Lord, never questioned His descent 
from David. Nay, even the Romans received much information 
concerning the Davidical descent of Jesus. — See Luke ii. 4. 
Of old the facility vsdth which His descent could be traced, 
showed Jesus to be the Son of David : now the very difficulty 
of so doing (caused as it is by the destruction of Jerusalem, and 
all the public records which it contained), affords a proof, against 
the Jews at least, that the Messiah must long since have come. 
Should they acknowledge any other as the Messiah, they must 
ascertain his descent from David in precisely the same manner 
that we do that of Jesus of Nazareth. As light, however, ad- 
vanced, the aspect of the question has not a little changed. 
Jesus was called, on various occasions, " The Son of David," by 
the multitude (ch. xii. 23, xxi. 9), by children (xxi, 15), by the 
blind men (ix. 27, xx. 30), by the woman of Canaan (xv. 22): 
but He never declared to His disciples that He was the Son of 
David, and they, in their professions of faith, called Him, not 
" The Son of David," but " The Son of God." He invited, also, 
those who called Him the Son of David, to advance further. — 

1 The substitution of an appellative designation for a proper name. — Ed. 

See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

* "Ut pretium fidei maneret." Faith was allowed to remam attended 

with seeming difficulties, at the cost of surmounting which, men were 

appointed to attain to it. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW I. 16. 98 

See xxii. 42, 43, and ix. 28. In the first instance our Lord's 
descent fi-om David was rather a ground of faith, afterwards it 
became rather an obstacle to faith. No difficulty can now be a 
hinderance to them that believe. — See 2 Cor. v. 16. Jesus is the 
root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star} 

XIV. Matthew and I/uke combine ulterior objects and advan- 
tages with the genealogy. 

If the Evangelists had merely wished to show that Mary and 
also Joseph were descended from David, it would have been 
sufficient for their purpose, had they, taking the genealogies as 
they exist in the Old Testament for granted, commenced at the 
point where these conclude, namely, with Zorobabel, or at any 
rate with David himself, and traced the line through Nathan or 
Solomon down to Jesus Christ. St Matthew, however, begins 
further oJBF, viz. with Abraham, and descends through David and 
Solomon. St Luke, on the other hand, ascends to Nathan and 
David, and thence beyond Abraham to the first origin of the 
human race. Each of them, therefore, must have had at the 
same time a further object in view. 

St Luke, as is evident at first sight, makes a full recapitulation* 
and summary of the lineage of the whole human race, and ex- 
hibits with that lineage the Saviour's consanguinity to all Gen- 
tiles, as well as Jews : St Matthew, writing to the Hebrews, 
begins with Abraham, thus reminding them of the promise which 
had been made to that Patriarch. Again, St Luke simply 
enumerates the whole series, through more than seventy steps, 
without addition or comment: whereas St Matthew, besides 
several remarkable observations which he introduces in particu- 
lar cases concerning the wives and brothers of those whom he 
mentions, and the Babylonian Captivity, divides the whole series 
into three periods ; and, as we shall presently consider, enume- 
rates in each of these periods fourteen generations. And hence, 
also, we perceive the convenience of the descent ia. Matthew, 
and the ascent in Luke : for in this manner the former was en- 
abled more conveniently to introduce those observations and 
divisions ; the latter, to avoid the stricter word iyinnsi, begat, and 

I Rev. xxii. 16.— (I. B.) 

' See explanation of technical terms in voc. Anakephalaeosis. The 
word is used by Quintilian (I. B.) 

94 ST MATTHEW I. 17. 

take advantage of the formula ug ivo/iit,iTo, as was supposed, and in 
an exquisite manner to conclude the whole series with God. — 
Xeyo/iivog XpigTog, who is called Christ) St Matthew is dealing 
with the Jewish reader, who is to be convinced that Jesus is the 
Christ, by such means as His genealogy. And accordingly he 
here and there [throughout his Gospel] expresses and establishes 
what the other EvangeHsts take for granted. The force of the 
name Christ recalls especially the promise given to David con- 
cerning the Kingdom of the Messiah : and the force of the name 
Jesus recalls especially the promise given to Abraham concern- 
ing the Blessing.^ 

17. Xlasai oh a'l ymai, k.t.X., So all the generations, etc.) An 
important summing up {ingens symperasma)^ the force of which 
we exhibit by the following positions. 

I. St Matthew introduced this clause with the most deliberate 

The Messiah was really descended from David through Nathan : 
the genealogy, however, in Matthew, descends from Pavid 
through Solomon to Joseph. Therefore, those who already 
knew that Jesus was not the Son of Joseph, paid little heed to 
Joseph's pedigree ; St Matthew, therefore, traces this genealogy 
in such a manner as to be serviceable to all who either beheved 
that Jesus was the Son of Mary, but not of Joseph, or thought 
that He was the Son of Joseph also, and so to lead both classes 
to Christ, the Son of David. 

H. St Matthew makes three fourteens. We exhibit them in 
the following table : 

1. Abraham. 



2. Isaac. 



3. Jacob. 



4. Judah. 



* The Greek Xpiaroe, and the Hebrew iT'Btt, means Anointed, i.e., King. 
Jesus is the proper name of our Lord : [the] Christ is a surname [cog- 
nomen], implying His office. The ancients were expecting the Christ, 
before the birth of Jesus : when Jesus had been born, a demonstrative proof 
was given that this very Jesus is the Christ ; and when that demonstration 
of His being the Christ was subsequently made more widely known, the 
appellation, Jesus Christ, became the prevalent one. — Vers. Germ. 

' See Appendix on the figure Symperasma. — Ed. 


5. Pharez. 



6. Hezrom. 



7. Aram. 



8. Aminadab. 



9. Naasson. 



10. Salmon. 



11. Boaz. 



12. Obed. 



13. Jesse. 



14. David. 


Jesus, who is called Christ, 

III. St Matthew, therefore, lays down three periods. 

St Luke enumerates every step, ascending even to GoD. Yet, 
so far from counting the steps in each period, he does not divide 
his genealogy into periods at all: St Matthew, > however, dis- 
tinguishes three periods, — the first from Abraham to David, the 
second from David to the captivity, the third from the captivity 
to Christ ; and in each of these periods, as we shall presently 
see, he mentions fourteen steps. 

IV. St Matthew reduces each period to fourteen generations. 
Matthew does not mention all the ancestors of Joseph who 

occur in the direct line, and yet he reduces those whom he does 
mention to a set number. Some seek here a division into sevens ; 
the Evangelist, however, does not mention sevens, but fourteens. 
Again, he does not bring these fourteens together into a sum 
total, for he does not say, that they amount in all to 40, 41, or 
42 : nor is it our business to do so. As in the reigns of the 
Idngs of Israel, the last year of the preceding is frequently 
reckoned as the first of the succeeding sovereign, so must we 
admit that St Matthew has acted on the same principle, since 
the fact itself leaves no doubt of the case. Thus David im- 
doubtedljr is both the last of the first fourteen, and the first of 
the second fourteen. He is reckoned in the first ; for it would 
otherwise comprise only thirteen generations. He is reckoned 
in the second, because as the first begins inclusively from Abra- 
ham, and the third inclusively from Jechoniah, so must the second 
begin inclusively from David. Jechoniah, however, is not 
reckoned in the same manner as the last of the second fourteen, 
bfcause the fourteen generations, which commence with David, 

96 ST MATTHEW I. 17. 

are counted not to Jechoniah, but to the Babylonian captivity, 
Vallesius^ (p. 454) thinks Jechoniah, as it were, a double person ; 
you might assert that with greater correctness of David. 

V. In each case, his object was to prove that Jesus was truly 
called, and was, the Christ. 

He proceeds in a marked manner from the name Jesus to the 
surname Christ, in verses 16, 17, 18 ; and he marks the dis- 
similarity in the character of the periods, and the eqitality in the 
number of the generations. That dissimilarity, and that equahty, 
whether taken apart or together, tend to the one object of 
proving Jesus to be the Christ, as we shall immediately perceive. 

VI. The three periods are dissimilar to each other. 

If yt Matthew had merely intended to compose a genealogy, 
he might have omitted all this Congeries" of names, or at any 
rate, have confined himself to the mention of proper names, and 
said, " From Abraham to David," " from David to Jechoniah," 
" from Jechoniah to Jesus." Instead of so doing, however, after 
the other matters preceding, he says, " to the Captivity ;" and 
again, " From the Captivity to Christ." The land-mark, hmit, 
standing-point, therefore, of the first period is David, of the 
second the Captivity, of the third Christ. The first period, then, 
is that of the Patriarchs ; the second, that of the Kings ; the 
third, for the most part, of private individuals. 

VII. This dissimilarity strikingly proves that Jesus is the 

The different heads under which St Matthew reduces the 
three periods, show, that the time at which Jesus was born, was 
the time appointed for the birth of the Christ, and that Jesus 
Himself was the Christ. The first and the second fourteen have 
an illustrious commencement ; the third has one, as it were, 
blind and nameless. Hence is clearly deduced, and brilliantly 
shines forth, the end and goal of the third, and all the periods, 
namely, the Christ. The first period is that of promise, for in 
it Abraham stands first, and David last, to each of whom the 

' Vallesius, or Valles, Francis, a native of Spain, physician to Philip II. 
He wrote a treatise, " De iis quae scripta sunt physice in libris sacris, sive 
de sacra philosophia." — (I. B.) 

" See Appendix on this figiire. The enumeration of the parts of a 
Whole.— Ed. 

ST MATTHE-W I. 17. 97 

promise was given ; the second is that of adumbration, by means 
of the Davidical sovereignty, and the fact that it is considerably 
shorter than either of the others, furnishes a reasonable ground 
for expecting that the kingdom of David, as fulfilled in Christ 
(see Luke i. 32), will be far more glorious hereafter, and more 
lasting. The third period is that of expectation. The most dis- 
tinguished personages in the first period are Abraham and David, 
who stand respectively first and last in it. The most distin- 
guished personage in the second period is the same David, who 
is now found standing first. The first name which occurs in 
the third period is that of Jechoniah, so called also in 1 Chron 
iii. 17, who was hound with chains, to whom no heir was promised 
of his throne ; nay, further, against whom, as well as against his 
uncle and father, all other woes were denoimced (Jer. xxii. 11, 
18, 25), so that, though he was not actually without offspring, 
yet, as a warning to posterity, he should be written ''T'lV, child- 
less (Jer. xxii. 28, 30), without, that is to say, an heir to his 
throne ; and it was with reference to these three kings that the 
earth was invoked thrice, " O earth, earth, earth, hear the word 
of the Lord" {Ibid. ver. 29). Hence it arises that, when stating 
the boundary between the second and third /owrfeens, St Matthew 
does not name Jechoniah ; but, instead of so doing, mentions the 
Babylonian Captivity. Much additional weight accrues to this 
argument from the words of Jeremiah ; for in the time of Moses, 
midway between Abraham and David, a covenant was made 
with the people of Israel, which was abrogated about the time 
of the captivity of Jechoniah. — See Jer. xxix. 1, xxxi. 31 ; Heb. 
viii. 8, 13. Li the times of Abraham and David, Christ was 
promised ; after the time of David, the Davidical sovereignty, 
which was overthrown at the Babylohian Captivity, did not last 
so long as the preceding period, that, namely, between Abraham 
and David. Then, indeed, it was that a new covenant was pro- 
mised, the author and surety whereof should be Christ. The 
state, therefore, of the Jewish nation after the Captivity, could 
not but tend to, and end in the Christ. In the Psalms, and 
other predictions deUvered during the time of the Kings, the 
sacred writers, as the march of prophecy moved onward, gene- 
rally compared the present with the ftiture ; whereas, after the 
Babylonian Captivity, they contrasted the one with the other, 

VOL. I. G 


whilst contemplating the future as coming nearer and nearer 
their own times.' 

Vin. St Matthew makes the three periods equal with each other. 

This is evident from his repeating the number fourteen three 
times with the utmost dehberation. — See Section IV. 

IX. He makes up both the third and the second Fourteens by 
omitting several links in the -pedigree : in the first, however, he 
makes no such omission. 

In the second period, he, after Jehoram, passes over Ahaziah, 
Joash, and Amaziah, and, after Josiah, he leaves out Jehoiakim : 
in the third period, after Salathiel, he omits Pedaiah. Nor, in- 
deed, was Zorobabel the immediate father of Abihud ; for, 
whereas his sons are Mesullam and Hananias, each of these two 
names differs from Abihud. Hiller enumerates nine links omitted 
after Zorobabel, and shows that Hodaiah and Abihud are the 
same individual. The descendants of David from Solomon to 
Hodaiah are enumerated in 1 Chron. iii. 5, 10—24. Now, 
since neither the second nor the third Fourteen consist in them- 
selves of exactly fourteen generations, the first must of necessity 
have that number : for otherwise the number Fourteen, by 
which the three periods are arranged and represented as equal, 
would be without any foundation in fact, and the number _yl/'i(eCT, 
or some greater still, would have to be substituted for it. Tour- 
teen generations are clearly enumerated in the Old Testament 
from Abraham to David. — See 1 Chron. i. 34, ii. 1, 4—15. 
Whence Kabbi Bechai^ says, that King David was the four- 
teenth from Abraham, according to the nmnber of the letters of 
his name Til, which make fourteen.* In early ages men gene- 
rally became fathers at a more advanced period of life, than they 
did in later times. Hence it is that the first Fourteen stands on 
its own foundation, the second is produced by a less, the third 
by a greater omission. And though some generations, with 

' The original runs thus : " In psalmis et in aliis prophetiis regum tern- 
pore latis sermo fere per comparationem status prsesentis et futuri incede- 
bat: sed post migrationem Babjlonis potius per oppositionem incedit, 
futura prospiciens subinde propius." — (I. B.) 

" Rabbi Bechai. There were two Rabbis of the name of Bechai ; one 
flourished about 1100, the other about 1290 ; both were natives of Spain.— ^ 
see De Rossi.— (I. B.) 

» Sc. T = 4, 1 = 6, 1 = 4 : therefore n 4- 1 + T = U.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW I. 17. 99 

which we are abeady acquainted from the Old Testament, are in 
St Matthew passed over and left to be understood, the Evangelist 
has not omitted in the New Testament a single generation, which 
was subsequent to those that are mentioned in the Old : and in the 
Old Testament, not a single generation is omitted. The first i^owr-r 
teen, therefore, is so in fact, the second and third are so in form. 

X. The number of generations which St Matthew omits, accords 
with the numbers which both he and St Jjuke m.ention. 

Between Jehoram and Abihud, St Matthew omits in all 
fourteen generations, see Sect IX. ; and though he only mentions 
three Fourteens for the sake of the number of the periods from 
Abraham to Christ, he nevertheless implies, in accordance with 
his system, that there were really four."^ In this way Matthew 
has by implication, from Abraham to the birth of Christ, fifty- 
five generations. St Luke expressly enumerates fifty-six genera- 
tions to the time when Jesus was thirty years of age. They 
therefore agree. 

XI! Tlie equality of the Fourteens is not fulfilled in the actual 
number XIV., by which they are distinguished. 

The Talmudists are fond of reducing the proximate numbers 
of difierent things to actual equality. Lightfoot has collected 
examples of this in illustration of the present passage, and they 
afford a satisfactory reply to the Jews, when they sneer at the 
Fourteens of St Matthew. He defends, however, somewhat too 
slackly the actual truth of the Fourteens. What James Ehen- 
ford adduces on this passage is far more to the purpose, viz., 
that the fifteen generations before Solomon, and the fifteen after 
him, were so enumerated by the Jews, as to correspond with the 
days of the increasing [waxing] and waning moon. But this 

' The words in the original are, " Omnino %.W . generationis vaterjoram 
at Abihud prsetermittit Matthseus, § ix. Concinneque ab Abraham ad 
Christum tessaradecadas, tribus pro numero periodorum expressis, qtiatuor 
tamen innuit." The meaning is, that though St Matthew mentions thrice 
fourteen as the number of generations, he means that there were three 
periods of fourteen generations, and implies, that to make up the num- 
ber of actual generations, another Fourteen, or fourteen generations more, 
must be added, q.d. the Fourteens of generations expressly mentioned 
by St Matthew are periods of Fourteen ages ; to make up the sum total of 
actual generations, the number Fourteen, which is the normal regulator of 
the system, must be brought into play once more. Cf. § § Sqq.— (I. B.> 

100 ST MATTHEW I. 17. 

line of argument also is somewhat weak. St Matthew did not 
Mow any technical or masoretic" aid to the memory, or any- 
thing else of the kind. For what great purpose could it serve to 
retain in the memory the names and number of these ancestors, 
in preference to those which are omitted, or to adopt a method 
never before employed in the many genealogies and other im- 
portant chapters of the Old Testament, for impressing them 
more fully on the minds of the Jews, who retained them in their 
memory accurately enough of themselves. But if he had wished 
to secure the integrity of this enumeration by a kind of Masora, 
it would have been better for the purpose to have made one sum of 
all the generations. In the last place, it would have ill suited the 
grave character of an apostle and evangelist, first to enumerate 
the generations as suited his own convenience, and then admire 
the equality of the Fourteens. The number Fourteen is not men- 
tioned for its own sake, but for the sake of something else : it is 
not an end, but a means to obtain an end of greater importance. 

XII. The Equality here intended is Chronological. 

The apostles, looking back from the New to the Old Testar 
ment, have great regard to the fulness of the times ; and the 
Jews are wont to describe the chief divisions of chronology by 
ntmibers of generations, as, for example, in Seder 01am.' St 
Matthew, therefore, skilfully propounds to the reader a Chrono- 
logy under the garb of a Genealogy, combining both in this 
summary. The particle oZv (therefore) has an inferential, and 
the article al* (the) a relative force, indicating that those identi- 
cal generations are intended, which have been just enumerated 

' Mnemonicum — subsidium," i.e. anything resembling a memoria technica. 
-(I. B.) 

' Masora means tradition. The Masoretes continued the labours of the 
Talmudists, whom they imitated in counting the words and letters of the 
Old Testament, finding imaginary mysteries in the very letters as well as 
words of Scripture ; stating, also, such minute particulars as, which was the 
central word and letter of the whole, etc., etc. They have thus afforded us 
a guarantee for the accuracy of the Hebrew text, even though we have extant 
no Hebr. MS. older than the 12th century. The Masoretes flourished from 
the 6th to the 11th century. — Ed. 

' QTil TID, a chronological work of high reputation amongst the Jews. — 

* Definite Article, nominative plural, feminine. — d. B.) 

ST MATTHEW 1. 17. 101 

in the preceding verses. Each clause, moreover, of this verse 
lias the word yiveal (generations), both in the subject and predi- 
cate. In the subject it corresponds with the Hebrew miri,^ as in 
Genesis xxv. 12, 13 ; but in the predicate it corresponds with 
the Hebrew lllj^ and has a chronological force, as is evident 
from the addition of the numeral fourteen; — Of. Gen. xv. 16. 
In the Greek there is an instance of Antanaclasis,^ one Greek 
word performing the part of two Hebrew ones : so that we may 
paraphrase the verse thus — All those genealogical generations, 
therefore (never mind the tautology), reduced for the sake of 
method to fourteen, are actually fourteen chronological genera^ 
tions, — from Abraham to David, etc. Such being the case, we 
perceive a sufficient cause for St Matthew's reducing to such 
numbers the genealogy, which would have been in itself much 
plainer without such an enumeration. Well does Chrysostom* 
say, that St Matthew enumerates generations, times, years, and 
lays them before the hearer as subjects for farther investigation. 
— See Chrys. Hom. iv. on St Matthew. Let us, however, con- 
sider wherein the chronological equality consists. It does not 
consist in the number Fourteen which is employed in all the 
three periods for the sake of method ; see Sect. XI. : nor in the 
years of generations in the Fourteens taken separately ; for in the 
first Fourteen the generations are, for the most part, much longer 
than in the second and third : but it consists in the periods them ■ 
selves. Consider the following scheme : — 

' ni^ipi f. pi. (from the root "iV"') — {I.) generations, families, races. Gese- 

Kius. — (I. B.) 
'■' -|!|!T m. — (1.) an age, generation of men. Gesenius. — (I. B.) 
3 See Appendix : the same word put twice, but in a twofold sense. — ^Ed. 
* John CHRysosTOM was one of the most distinguished Fathers of the 
Ancient Church. To his wonderful eloquence he owed the name of Chry- 
sostom, or the golden-mouthed, by which he is generally known; and his Com- 
mentaries on Scripture are replete with learning, piety, and practical power. 
He was born at Antioch, a.d. 364, of heathen parents. After studying 
rhetoric under Libanius, he embraced Christianity, and was ordained a 
reader in his native city. Having entered on the monastic life, he spent 
four years in the Desert ; but, returning to Antioch, was ordained deacon in 
381, and priest in 386 ; he became Bishop of Constantinople in 397. He 
died m exile in 407. — (I. B.) 

103 ST MATTHEW I. 17. 


1946 Birth of Abraham. 

2016 The Promise, I. [characteristic of the first periodj. 

2121 Death of Abraham. 

2852 Birth of David. 

2882 David becomes King, II. [characteristic of the second 

2923 Death of David. 
3327 Birth of Jechoniah. 
3345 Jechoniah Bound, HI. [characteristic of the third 

3939 Birth of Christ. 
3969 Baptism of Christ. 

Now, in the first place, take the sum of the years in each 
Fourteen, and divide them by fourteen, which is the number of 
generations, and you will obtain the length of the single generor 
tions in each period : so that, in the first period, a generation 
wdll contain sixty-two, in the second, thirty-three, and in the 
third, forty-two years. The mean length will be about forty-six 
years : this, however, I will not press. Take, in the second 
place, which is more to the purpose, the nine hundred and 
twenty-three years from the promise given to Abraham till the 
birth of Christ, and divide them by three, which is the number of 
the periods : the mean length of the periods will not come up to 
that of the first, will exceed that of the second, but wiU agree 
admirably with that of the third. The third therefore stands as 
the primary period (to which the two others are subservient), 
between the excess of the first and the defect of the second, 
which mutually compensate each other. And the Evangehst 
has acted as geographers do, who, when wishing to express the 
distance between two cities, enumerate the stations interposed 
between them, in such a manner, that they add to one stage the 
paces which they take fi:om another, and thus produce more con- 
veniently the real total without any violence to truth. In fact, 
the Evangelist has done that, which every chronologer does, 
when he enumerates the years in his canons so as to absorb the 
excesses and defects of the months and days. In short, the 
year? of the first and second period, taken together, are exactly 

ST MATTHE-W I, 17. 103 

double those of the third period. On the same principle, Moses 
has reduced the times of Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kohaih, Amram, 
Moses, which might have exhibited more or fewer genealogical 
generations in this or that family, to foul' chronological genera- 
tions, or four centuries, those years only being omitted, in which 
Levi, Kohaih, and Amram became parents. It is difficult to 
represent in words the design of Moses or Matthew ; nor can 
the interpretation of such a matter appear, at first sight, other- 
wise than crude and harsh : if, however, it be freqiiently pondered 
upon, the acerbity will disappear. 

Xm. The chronological equality of the three periods, is a 
■proof that Jesus is the Christ. 

There is a perpetual analogy between the periods of time, 
defined by Divine Wisdom; and these three most important 
periods correspond remarkably with each other. From the 
Captivity to Christ, are Fourteen generations, says St Matthew ; 
just as Gabriel, when revealing to Daniel the seventy weeks, 
said, that the city should be built [" in seven weeks, and three- 
score and two weeks from the going forth of the command- 
ment"] unto the Messiah the Prince. — See Dan. ix. 25. And 
St Matthew had that same system of times in his mind. The 
Captivity, the revelation which was vouchsafed to Daniel, the 
Return, the actual commencement of the Seventy Weeks, are 
separated by short but remarkable intervals. From that point 
downwards, the Seventy Weeks, throughout their long coxirse, 
accompany this the last Fourteen, until Christ completes both, 
and the Fourteen before the Weeks. The Seventy Weeks con- 
sist of less than 560 years, as I have shown in the Ordo Tem- 
porum, and comprise about twelve generations, each of them 
(as we have observed in Section IX.) being about forty-six 
years in duration. It behoved that Christ should come within 
the Seventy Weeks. The expectation of Israel, therefore, could 
not be delayed for more than fourteen generations after the 

XIV. The dissimilarity of the three periods, and the equality 
of the Fourteens, when taken together, confirm this important con^ 
elusion still more, hy a cumulative argument. 

If any one will compare together, and combine what we have 
said in the Seventh and Thirteenth Sections, he will perceive 

104 ST MATTHEW I. 17. 

that these two arguments reciprocally strengthen each other. 
The first and second periods were far more glorious than the 
third, which could not therefore fail to have the conclusion most 
desired, after so long a" cessation of both the Promise and the 

In the Treatise on the birth of the Lord Jesus, published A.D. 
1749, by Dr S. J. Baumgarten,^ in ' the name of the Academy of 
Halle, my Gnomon is openly assailed in three places. 

In the first place, after refdting the opinion of William Eead- 
ing, who concluded from the right of Jesus Christ to the Jewish 
kingdom, that Joseph had had no sons before his birth, he says 
(p. 20), that I appear to m,aintain the same view. I however 
only showed (p. 10, Sec. IX.) that Jesus must have been re- 
puted to be the first-bom of Joseph, just as much as He was 
reputed to be his Son. I said nothing there concerning Hiss 
right to the kingdom. 

The second passage, which occurs soon afterwards, runs 
thus : — " They double and wonderfully increase the difiiculty, 
who consider that Phaidaiah has been passed over by St 
Matthew, so as to make Zorobabel the grandson of Salathiel, 
and the great grandson of Jechoniah ; a view which has found 
favour with many interpreters, although Phaidaiah is expressly 
called (1 Chron. iii. 18, 19) the brother of Salathiel, and the 
son of Jechoniah. This opinion, however, is far more tolerable 
than that put forward by Matthew Hiller, in the third chapter 
of his dissertation on the true meaning of the words which 
composed the inscription on our Lord's Cross (^Syntagmata Her- 
meneutica, pp. 361-363). Bengel, however, in the eighth and 
fourteenth pages of his Gnomon, has gone still further, declaring 
that the Abiud of Matthew is the same with the Hodaiah or 
Hodauihu mentioned in 1 Chron. iii. 24, as the tenth from 
Zorobabel. By which immense leap, he has so far pleased him- 
self, as seriously to think that Matthew has purposely and 

' " J^ost tantam promissionis regnique pausam," i.e. after the voice of pro 
phecy had been so long silent, the royalty of David's throne remained so long 
in abeyance. — (I. B.) 

^ A Lutheran divine, historian, and philologist of the Academy of Halle : 
■born 1706 ; died 1756. His works were very numerous. — (I. E.) 

ST MATTHEW I. 17. 106 

deliberately passed over an entire Fourteen, which is made up 
of these nine descendants of Zorobabel, of the father of the same 
Phaidaiah, of three descendants of Joram, and of the father of 
Jechoniah, and that this is not without mystery for the con- 
struction of the three periods of time, which he then computes 
according to his own pleasure. We wiU. give his own words. 
' Between Jehoram and Abiud, St Matthew omits in all fourteen 
generations ; see section IX. ; and though he only mentions three 
fourteens for the sake of the number of the periods from Abraham 
to Christ, he nevertheless implies, in accordance with his system, 
that there were really four.' ' 

" Greatly and sadly do we fear lest the credit of Holy Scripture 
should be brought into danger by this fictitious systematizing,^ a 
danger not to be averted by any distinction between imphed or 
expressed meaning. Even if the Book of Chronicles expressly 
mentioned Abiud, this hypothesis would still be inadmissible 
(since many men have undoubtedly borne the same name) ; 
and it will appear utterly inexcusable to any one who careftilly 
considers with himself, both wh'at tortures must be employed 
to transform Abiud into Hodaiah, and also how very much the 
divine credit of the Book of Chronicles must be imperilled, if it 
be laid down (the only argument by which the conjecturers 
support their improbable opinion), that no genealogy is carried 
farther in that book, than the genealogy of the Messiah, of 
which the writer of Chronicles must certainly have been igno- 
rant without a special revelation." 

"What follows in the Programm" has nothing to do with me. 
To the objections quoted above, I reply : 

(1.) I have computed the three periods of time, not according 
to my own pleasure, but from the obser\'ations which occur in 
the text of St Matthew. For the first and second periods are 

^ See § X., and footnote. — (I. B.) 

^ " Ficta concinnitate," alluding to Bengel's use of the cognate adverb, 
"^oncinne." See § x., and footnote. — (I. B.) 

° " Programm" (Programma) must not be confounded with " Programme :" 
it is used here in a peculiar and technical sense, and signifies, " An introduc ■ 
tan/ dissertation, generally on soms religious or classical subject, read by the 
Rector, Sub-rector, or some Professor of a German Universzty, at the com- 
mencement of their lectures. — (I. B.) 


divided by " David, the King," who, in the mere genealogy of 
Euth iv. 22, is not called " the king :" the second and third are 
divided by the Babylonian Captivity, which is not a generation, 
but an epoch. Dr Baumgarten's Programm itself (p. 24) does 
not differ much from this. 

(2.) I am more doubtful now than I was formerly whether 
St Matthew has passed over Jehoiakim : it is certain, however, 
that he has passed over three generations, viz., Ahaz, Joash, and 
Amaziah ; and my Gnomon suggests one reason, his Programm 
another, why the Evangelist should have passed over these three 
rather than any others. It ought, therefore, to be carefully con- 
sidered, whether the observations which are made in that Pro- 
gramm against the other generations, which have also been 
omitted, do not bring the credit of the sacred writers into danger. 
The Programm also lays it down (p. 18) that six generations 
are omitted in Ezra vii. 3. 

(3.) Whether it was one man, called indiscriminately Hodaiah ■ 
and Abiud, or whether two individuals are represented respec- 
tively by these names, Hiller has assuredly demonstrated that 
the meaning of both is the same, whose modes of eliciting the 
truth' many would find serviceable, if they would condescend to 
employ them. 

(4.) I now, however, acknowledge that Hodaiah and Abiud 
were distinct individuals ; but I am induced to do so by the 
single argimaent, that the nearer Abiud is to Christ, the farther 
he must be from the ancient times of the Chronicles, and of 
Hodaiah himself. I have nowhere said that the genealogy of the 
Messiah or Joseph is carried farther in Chronicles than the other 
genealogies, neither have I had any cause for so saying. 

(5.) The number of Fourteen generations which Hiller has 
specified as being omitted by St Matthew, received a certain ad- 
ditional appearance of probabiKty from their accordance with 
the three Fourteens of generations mentioned by the Evangelist. 

(6.) Where the Programm in question abruptly concludes 
with those words of mine concerning St Matthew, there the 
Gnomon goes on immediately to say, " St Luke expressly enume- 

' " Fidiculis," alluding to the invidious term applied by Baumgarten to 
Bengel's modes of proving the identity of Abiud and Hodaiah.— Ed. 

ST MATTHEW 1. 17. 107 

rates fifty-six generations from Abraham to the time when Jesus 
was thirty years of age. They agree, therefore." On consider- 
ing this passage, it will, I think, become evident, that the anti- 
thesis between the words " implied" and " expressed" is perfectly 
harmless ; and that the apparent difference in the numbers of 
generations mentioned by the two evangelists can be satisfac- 
torily reconciled by means of those which St Matthew has 

(7.) If St Matthew has omitted rather fewer generations, this 
does not detract from the remainder of my explanation. 

(8.) Since the Programm (p. 13) touches on the passage in 
Luke iii. 23, we shall offer some observations also on it. In these 
words, uv, iig ho/iiZiro, u'lhi 'iwffijp, roO 'hXe/, x.r.X. (being, as was 
supposed, the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli, etc.), 
Baumgarten expunges the comma after ho[i,iZiro (was supposed), 
so as to make " iig Em/i/^ero Ms 'laxr^ip (as was supposed the son 
of Joseph) a parenthesis ; though the word m/jbi^sTo (was sup- 
posed) belongs rather, M'ithout any diminution of truth, to the 
whole genealogy, as I have shown in the present work. I re- 
mark by the way — on the passage in question, that, when our 
Lord is said to have been about thirty years of age, some 
latitude is ascribed to the year xxx. by the word ws (about), so 
that there may have been an excess, or rather a defect, of some 
days, without detriment to the precise number of thirty years. 
Baumgarten, however, in his Church History, Sec. i. p. 105, 
introduces some few years above thirty : a license which is quite 
unallowable, since in this manner the most important calcula- 
tions of time which occur in the evangelists, are put entirely out 
of joint. Scripture records many and various ages of men, and 
introduces odd numbers of years, such as 21 and 29, although 
they approach very nearly to round numbers, such as 20 and 30. 
We ought not, therefore, to imagine that the most important of 
all, namely, the age of Jesus, can have been left in doubt. 

The third passage occurs at p. 26, and runs thus : — " They who 
attempt to produce any other equalization or comparison of 
these periods, seek to serve unwisely the interests of a good 
cause, which is not benefited by crude and harsh fancies, such 
as Bengel himself confesses that his own opinion (of the chrono- 

108 ST MATTHEW I. 17. 

logy which he imagmes to be concealed in this genealogy, and 
to be conducive to the exposition in his Gnomon) must appear at 
first sight. We at least have not experienced that which he 
thought would be the case, namely, that it would grow less 
harsh by being more frequently thought over ; for though we 
have read it again and again at least ten times, and thought it 
over diligently, it has by this process become more and more 
repugnant to us : in fact, we are clearly convinced, that what- 
ever is by means of arithmetical operations made out of the 
numbers which we meet with in the sacred history, ought not 
to be attributed to the sacred writers, and cannot be referred to 
their meaning, unless we wish to excel even Jewish ingenuity 
by our cabalistic sagacity." 

Others have followed and added to this censure. For at 
Leipsic there has appeared both a certain academical exercise 
and the revision of an academical exercise, in which these words 
are applied to me, — " He almost surpasses the fabrications of 
Jews and CabaHsts, since he introduces his raw fancies into 
the sacred chronology.'' But I return to the Hallian censure. 
The author of that censure should take care lest the last words 
which I have quoted from it strike the sacred writer himself, 
whose meaning is placed at a far greater distance above mere 
accommodation to Jewish tastes than the Programm either 
acknowledges or permits to be acknowledged. If, however, 
another sufficient interpretation be given, I will willingly give 
up my own. It has not happened to the author of the Pro- 
gramm to find my opinion grew, upon consideration, less harsh : 
it does, however, happen to others, who weigh well my notes on 
ver. 16, 17. For, in fact, I am neither the only one nor the 
first who have asserted that the Evangelist propounds a chro- 
nology under cover of the genealogy. I have already cited 
Chrysostom, at p. 30. I must add Daniel Chamier,^ who says 
that thrice fourteen chronological ages are intended by the 

' A French Protestant writer of considerable ability, born in the sixteenth 

He was appointed in 1612 Professor of Divinity at Montauban, and during 
the siege of that town by Louis XIII., was killed by a cannon-ball in 1621. 
He is supposed to have had great part in composing the Edict of Nantes. — 
(I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW I. 18. 109 

genealogical steps, which were really more numerous than those 
mentioned. See by all means his Panastratise Catholicae, 
vol. iii. b. 18, ch. 2. Very lately also John Frederick Frese- 
nius has produced a commentary on the thrice fourteen gene- 
rations of Matt, i., which not only exists in a, separate form, but 
has also been inserted by his brother with equal advantage into 
his fifth pastoral collection from John D'Espagne.^ The very 
Programm itself employs words which accommodate themselves 
to my opinion in spite of their author ; for at p. 24 he says, — 
" By the gradual evolving of the Divine promise,^ the complete 
time which had elapsed from God's entering into covenant with 
Abraham was divided into three periods, nearly equal in length, 
if you reckon that length by ages of men." He is right in 
employing the word Ages (Aetates) ; for the equality consists 
properly in the number of ages intimated by the number of 
generations expressed ; whereas the actual number of genera- 
tions, some of which are expressed and some omitted, is some- 
what larger than that of those which are expressed. Such 
being the case, the numbers stated in Holy Scripture invite the 
diligent reader to arithmetical calculations, nor can they safely 
be treated with contempt where they accord with the matter 
under consideration. The Hebrews frequently express numbers 
of years by generations. Away with Jewish Ingenuity ! away 
with Cabalistic Sagacity! Christian research will rightly endea- 
vour, if not to attain to, at least to follow after, the sagacity of 
the Evangelist, mentioned in the Programm (p. 25.) It may 
easily be supposed that the Programm, delivered on a solemn 
occasion in a celebrated spot, must have found many more 
readers than this my explanation. I trust, however, that 
it may confer some little advantage on some few readers; 
and it is better to induce even one man to search after 
truth, than to estrange many from a single trace of it, however 

18. ToD diXpidTou ri yswrieig olirws ^v. The generation, however, of 

1 John d'Espagne lived in the 17th century. 

He wrote, besides other works, Essay des merveilles de Dieu I'harmonie des 
temps, published at Geneva, 1671. — (I. B.) ■ 

2 " Promissionis Divince Oradatione," literally, " By the Gradation of the 
Divine Promise," i,e. by the several stages of its evolution to fulfilment. 

no ST MATTHEW I. 18. 

Christ was on this wise) By this most ancient reading* the text 
refers to ver. 17, and the advent of the Messiah, expected for so 
many generations, is declared and exhibited (exsert^ demon- 
stratur) to the reader. Thus, too, the words, sym^'^ri, (was 
generated), and yswrigig, (generation), refer mutually to each other. 
The particle di {however) subserves both references. In like 
manner, the name "Jesus" is repeated in ch. ii. 1, from ch. i. 
25. In later ages, most of the Greek copyists have added 'I^icfoD^ 
(the genitive case of 'irieoij;, Jesus) before XpieroZ (the genitive 
case of XpigTog, Christ), according to which reading, the expres- 
sion would refer with less force to either the first or sixteentli 
verse indifferently. It was the Christ whom Mary had in her 
womb by the Holy Ghost, and whom Joseph, afterwards, by the 
command of the angel, called Jesus. Elegantly, and in ac- 
cordance with the order of events, the name Jesus is reserved 
till ver. 21, 25. — Cf Gnomon on Luke ii. 11. The word yinrieii 
(generation) includes (ver. 18-25) both the Conception (cf. 
yen'jjSJi', conceived, ver. 20) and the Nativity (cf. •ysnrl^svTog, 
having been born, ii. 1). For ver. 18 contains the introductory 
statement (propositionem)" of those matters which foUow, to 
which, also, the outu; (thus, or on this wise) refers : and the con- 
junction yap (for) commences the handling of the subject (trac- 
tationem), which corresponds with the introductory statement. 
— Cf. the use of yap in Heb. ii. 8.^ The particle ouVai; guards us 
from thinking, on account of the preceding genealogy, that 
Joseph was the natural father of Jesus. — /Lvjjsriv^ifffrig yap rng 

' In Matt. i. 18, we know how it was read in the second century from 
Irenfeus, who (after having previously cited the words, " Christi autem gene- 
ratio sic erat") continues, " Ceterum potuerat dicere Matthaeus, Jesu vera 
generatio sic erat ; sed prsevidens Spiritus Sanctus depravatores, et prsemu- 
niens contra fraudulentiam eorum, per Matthseum ait : Christi autem generatio 
sic era*."— (C. H. lib. iii. 16, 2.) TRBaELLES.— (I. B.) 

PZ and Rec. Text read ' Inmv Xpianv, which, therefore, Lachmann pre- 
fers. B, and Origen 3, 965c? read Xpiarov 'Iviaov. But Iren. 191, 204, and 
abed Vulg. read only Xpiarou, which Tischendorf prefers. — Ed. 

2 Such is the reading of E. M., viz., tou Ss 'inmv Xpiarov, x.r.Ti. — (I. B.) 

^ Propositio and Tractatio are terms regularly used by Bengel in his 
Introductory Synopses in the technical and rhetorical sense. — Ed. 

* Lachmann omits yiip with BZahe Vulg. Iren. 204. Tischendorf, with 
less weight of authorities, retains it, viz., of the oldest, Pd. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW I. 19. Ill 

lifjtfhi AuroS Map/a;, For after His mother Mary had been be- 
trothed) The Lxx, render the Hebrew tns {to betroth) by a""!- 
ereio/icci in Deut. xx. 7, etc. — -Trpiu rj guviX^iTv auroiig, before they 
came together) Joseph had not yet even brought Mary home (see 
ver. 20) ; but in these words, and the more firmly on that ac- 
count, the commercium tori is specifically denied, in order to 
assert her pregnancy by the Holy Spirit. Nor does the expres- 
sion, vph jj {before), imply that they came together after our 
Lord's birth. — supsSij h yaerpi tyoMBo, Ix Xi.nhiLa.Tai; ' Ayiou, she was 
found with child of the Holy Ghost) There can be no doubt but 
that Mary disclosed to Joseph (perhaps when he proposed to 
consummate their marriage) the sacred pregnancy, which she had 
concealed from every one else. — ix, of) The expression ix TLvixr- 
/ioiTo; ' Ayiou {of the Holy Spirit) occurs again at ver. 20. See, 
also, John iii. 6. 

19. dixaiog, just^) It is disputed in what sense this epithet is 
applied to Joseph. The thing is clear. Joseph wished to put 
away Mary, and he also wished to put her away privately. The 
Evangelist indicates the cause of both wishes. Why did he wish 
to do it privately ? Because he was unwilling to publish the 
matter, and exact the penalty which the law permitted in the 
case of women guilty, or suspected, of adultery, and thus to 
make an example of one, whose sanctity he had in other re- 
spects so greatly revered. But why did he wish to put her away 
at all? We learn fi-om the context. Because he was just 
{Justus), and did not think it reputable {honestum) to retain as 
his wife one who appeared to have broken her conjugal faith. 
His thoughts were many and conflicting ; his mind was in doubt. 
St Matthew expresses this with great beauty, by a phraseology 
somewhat ambiguous in this its brevity ; for Greek participles 
may be resolved into the corresponding verbs with the conjunc- 
tions although, because, or since : [and furi ^eXuv, therefore, may be 
rendered either although he was unwilling, because he was un- 
willing, or since he did not wisK\. Elsewhere dixaio; is some- 
times found with the signification of yielding and kind, as in- 

' In Bengel, "Justus," which, as well as the original, h'naio;, signifies, and 
is translated, either just or righteous, as the case may require. In Bengel's 
own German version, it is rendered in the present instance Gerecht, which 
is equally ambiguous. — (I. B.) 

112 ST MATTUbW L. zu. 

Justus^ (which signifies primarily unjust or unrighteous) with that 
of severe. — vapa.hnyiJ.a.Tieai, to make an example of) Thus the LXX. 
in Num. xxv. 4, have — UapccSny/idrigov ahroxig rS) Ktipiifi, xarivavTi 
roZ riXiou, Make an example of them to the Lord before the sun : 
where the expression is used of persons executed by hanging. 
The simple form, hnjiha.ri'iiit, occurs in Col. ii. 15: for both Mytha 
and vapadeiyfiot. [from which the verbs are respectively derived] 
denote that which is exhibited as a pubHc spectacle.— Xa^fiqi, 
privily) i.e. without a pubhc trial, without even a record of the 
reason on the writing of divorcement. Two witnesses were suf- 
ficient. — a-TToXugai; to put her away) fearing to take her. 

20. ihou, behold) He was not left long in doubt.^ — xai' 'imp, in 
a dream) Dreams are mentioned also in Acts ii. 17, in a quota- 
tion from the Old Testament. With this exception, St Matthew 
is the only writer of the New Testament who has recorded 
dreams ; viz., one of Pilate's wife, ch. xxvii. 19 ; one of the Magi, 
ch. ii. 12 ; one of Joseph, in this passage ; a second in ch. ii. 13 ; a 
third in ch. ii. 19 ; and a fourth in ii. 22. This mode of instruc- 
tion was suitable to those early times of the New Dispensation.^ 
— axjTifi, to him) In the first instance, Gabriel was sent to Mary -. 
afterwards the remaining particulars were revealed to Joseph. 
Thus all things were made sure to both of them. — 'loi(!n<f>, Joseph) 
In visions, those to whom they are vouchsafed are generally 
addressed by name, as if already well known [to the speaker]. — 
See Acts ix. 4, 10, and x. 3, 13. — irapaXa^uv, to take unto thee) 
sc. to the companionship of life and board, under the name of 
wedlock : on which ground the angel adds the words, rfiv yvvaTxd 
sou {thy wife). — Mnpidf/,, Mary) This termination was more usual 
in early times (from the example of the Hebrew and the LXX.) 
than the Greek form Mapla,, which soon, however, prevailed. St 
Matthew, therefore, uses Ma,pi&/j, here, in the angel's address, for 
the name of our Lord's mother ; but Maplag [the genitive case of 
the Greek form Mapla] when speaking of her (ver. 16, 18) in his 
own person ; and in like manner, he employs the Greek form 

' Ex. gr. Virg. Eel., " Injusta noverca." — Ed. 

^ Thus God guides His own, and teaches them at the right time, what 
they have to do. — B. G. V. 

' Shortly after men prophesied concerning Christ ; as also Christ Himself 
acted the part of an interpreter of their prophecies. — Vers. Qerm. 

ST MATTHEW I. 21. 113 

wlien mentioning other women of the same name. And St 
Luke does mostly the same. Miriam, according to Hiller, sig- 
nifies Rebellion, sc. of the Israehtes in Egypt. Scripture teaches 
us to look to the etymology of the name, not of Mary, but of 
Jesus. — rh yap b auTfj yivvrjbh, for that which is conceived in her) 
The foetus, as yet unborn, is usually spoken of in the neuter 
gender. — Cf. note on Luke i. 35. 

21. Tsfsra/, shall bring forth) The word <toi (to thee), which is 
added (Luke i. 31) concerning Zachariah, is not introduced here ;'^ 
— xaXeniii, thou shalt call) By the use of the second person 
singular, the duties and obligations of a father are committed to 
Joseph, St Matthew records more particulars than the other 
evangelists regarding him ; afterwards, when men had become 
acquainted with the truth, the first place is given (in Luke i. 31) 
to Mary. — 'iritouv, Jesus) Many names of the Messiah were an- 
nounced in the Old Testament ; but the proper name "Jesus" 
was not expressly announced. The meaning and force of it 
are, however, proclaimed everywhere, namely. Salvation ; and 
the name itself was divinely foretold in this passage before our 
Lord's birth, and in Luke i. 31, even before His conception. 
The name }Wl (Jeshua), which occurs in Neh. viii. 17, is the 
same as V}^n\ or yE'in)_ (Jehoshua, commonly called Joshua): 
both of which are rendered 'inaout (Jesus) by the LXX. And in 
so far, learned men»have been right in declaring that the name 
Jesus contains the Tetragrammaton, [nin''] or inefiable name of 
God. — See Killer's Syntagmata Hermeneutica, p. 337, where 
the name of Jesus is thus interpreted. He who is is Salvation : 
yea, the angel interprets it ATT02 2fl2EI (He shall save), where 
Auros (He) corresponds with the Divine Name. — Cf. Grnomon on 
Heb. i. 12. Nor does the name Jehoshua differ from the original, 
Hoshea (See Num. xiii. 16) in any thing else, except the ad- 
dition of the Divine Name, which transforms the name from a 
prayer. Save (Salva), into an affirmation, Jehovah Salvation. 
And, since the name Emnw/rmel mentions God most expressly 
together with Salvation, the name Jesus itself, the force of 
which, the Evangelist of the Old Testament, Isaiah (whose own 
name signifies the same thing) clearly indicates by the synonym 
Emmanuel, requires much more the mention of the Divine Name : 

' i.e. Because our Lord was not the child of Joseph. — (I. B.) 
VOL. I. H 

114 ST MATTHEW I. 22. 

for Emmantiel and Jesus are equivalent terms. — See notes on 
vv. 22, 23. Nay, even if the ' in ]m^ be considered as merely 
the sign of the third person, stiU, as is frequently the case with 
Hebrew names, " God" must be understood, and here with 
especial force. — AurJs, He) The pronoun aCri?, in the nominative, 
's always emphatic ; here it is peculiarly so. In the oblique case, 
it is frequently a mere relative. — guieii, shall save) As often, there- 
fore, as the words, " to save" " Saviour" " salvation" " salu- 
tary,^" occur with reference to Christ, we ought to consider, 
that the name of Jesus is virtually mentioned. — rhv Xah, AJu-oD, 
His people) sc. Israel, and those who shall be added to the fold 
of Israel." — AiroD, His) and at the same time God's. — Cf. 
ch. ii. 6. 

22. ToDro bi 'oKov, yiyovit ha, But the whole of this came to pass, 
that) The same phrase occurs in ch. xxvi. 56. There are many 
particulars, in which St Matthew observes that the event an- 
nounced by the angel corresponded exactly with the prediction of 
Isaiah. (1.) A virgin pregnant and becoming a mother ; (2.) A 
male child (Cf Rev. xii. 5) ; (3.) The Nomenclature of the child ; 
(4.) The Interpretation of the Name. — ha. •Tr'kripu^ri, that it might 
Se fulfilled) The same phrase occurs in ch. ii. 15, 17, 23, iv. 14, 
viii. 17, xii. 17, xiii. 35, xxi. 4, xx-^ai. 9, 35. Those things Aa«e 
been fulfilled in Jesus, not only which He performed Himself 
(and which might therefore appear to the unbelieving to be open 
to suspicion), but those also which were done to Him by others. 
Wherever this phrase occurs, we are bound to regard and 
recognise the character and dignity of the Evangelists, and 
(however dull our own perception may be in the matter) to 
beHeve that they mention an event, not merely corresponding 
[accidentally] with some ancient prophecy, but one which in 
consequence thereof, and agreement therewith, could not have 
failed to occur at the commencement of the New Dispensation, 
on account of the Divine Truth which was pledged to its 
fulfilment. The evangelists, however, frequently quote pro- 

' Salutare — conducive to health., whether of body or soul ; it is frequently 
difficult, sometimes impossible, to give at once the full and exact force of 
these words in an English translation. — (I. B.) 

* The gathering in of the Gentiles to the Church was at that time a 
mystery even to the angels. — Vers. Oerm. 

ST MATTHEW I. 23. 116 

pliecies, the context of which must, at the time that they were 
first delivered, have been interpreted of things then present, and 
that, too, according to the Divine intention. But the same 
Divine intention, looking forward to remote futurity, so framed 
the language of prophecy, that it should apply with still greater 
specialty to the times of the Messiah. And this hidden inten- 
tion (some portion of which the learned observe to have oozed 
out even to the Jews) the apostles and evangelists, themselves 
divinely taught, teach us : and we are bound to receive their 
statements concerning the fulfilment of prophecy in a teachable 
spirit, on account of the correspondence between the predictions 
which they adduce, and the events to which they apply them. 
This is enough for the defence of the Evangelists, until any one 
is led to acknowledge their authority on other grounds. Their 
sincerity is clearly evidenced by the fact, that they have ampli- 
fied, as far as possible, the number of prophecies relating to the 
Messiah, and therefore the labour (delightM indeed !) of proving' 
that Jesus is the Christ. The Jews, on the other hand, en- 
deavour as eagerly to turn aside in any other direction whatever, 
everything which the prophets have predicted concerning Christ, 
so that it is wonderful that they still believe that there either is, 
or ever will be, a Messiah. — 3;<i roD -xpof/jTou, hy the prophet) St 
Matthew quotes the prophets with especial frequency, to show 
the agreement between the prophecies and the events which ful- 
filled them : the other Evangelists rather presuppose that agree- 
ment.^ — X'eyovTos, saying) This should be construed with •r/Jop^roL 
{prophet); see ch. ii. 17. Isaiah is not mentioned by name. 
The ancients were studious readers ; there was less need, there- 
fore, in those times, to cite books and chapters. 

23. 'iSoi; ri irap^ivog h yaSTpl 'il^ii xat ri^irai T/'Jv, xa/ xaXigovdi 
rh on/La AiiroD "E/t/tavouijX — Behold the virgin shall have in her 
womb [or conceive], and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall 

^ The onus probandi. — Ed. 

2 SS. Mark and Luke have at times noted down these prophecies, which 
our Lord himself quoted ; but they have been more sparing of their own 
spontaneous appeals to the Old Testament, since they were looking forward 
to readers becoming now continually more and more established in the Chris- 
tian faith. John, the last of the Four, added one or two prophecies, and 
their subsequent fulfilment. — Harm., p. 4t>. 

116 ST MATTHE-W I. 23. 

call his name Emmanuel.— The LXX. render Isaiah vii. 14, thus 
— 'idoii ii -rrap^evog h yadrfl "Kfi-^iTai T'lhv, xal KoKseni x.r.X. — Be- 
hold the virgin shall conceive in her womb a Son, and thou shalt 
call, etc. — ihoxi. Behold !) — a particle especially adapted for point- 
ing out a Sign. — See Isa. vii. 14. — jj •icap'bivos, the virgin) In the 
original Hebrew, the word employed is nD7Vn ;* and Tvobv de- 
notes a virgin;^ whether you derive it from D7j/,' so that it may 
be one who has escaped the notice of man,* who has not been 
known by man (cf. ver. 25, and Luke i. 34), for xhv^ (to be hidden, 
to lie hid, to escape the notice of), and J?"i' (to know, etc.), are 
opposed to each other, both in their general signification, as in 
Lev. V. 3, 4, and also in this special one : or whether nD7j? (the 
verb cognate with which the Syriac translator has employed to 
represent fixfLuniv'' in Rev. xiv. 18), signify ax^ara, in the flower 
of her age. The Hebrew article n (the), prefixed in the original 
to the word under consideration (concerning which article cf. 
Gnomon on ch. xviii. 17), points out a particular individual visible 
on the mirror of Divine prescience. For the prophet is speak- 
ing of a Sign, and introduces it by the word " Behold" and then 
immediately addresses the Virgin herself, with the words. Thou 
shalt call, etc. Isaiah indicates, in the first instance, some woman 
who hved at the time, and whose natural fecundity was con- 
sidered doubtful, who, from a virgin, was to become a mother, 
and that of a son : she, however, as the sublimity of the prophet's 
words clearly show, was a type of that Virgin, who, stiU a virgin, 
brought forth the Messiah ; so that the force of the Sign was 
twofold, applying to that which was close at hand, and to that 
which was far distant in the future. — See Alexander More.* 

1 naVsnis ««''» with the article prefixed.— (I. B.) 

2 " The ancient version, which gave a different rendering, did so for party 
purposes, while the lxx., who could have no such motive, render it virgin 
in the very passage where it must, to their minds, have occasioned a difficulty." 
S. P. Treqelles.— (I. B.) 

' a'sy to hide, to conceal : the Niphal of which is ohvi—to be hidden, to lie 
hid.~(l. B.) 

' " Quse latuit virum."_(I. B.) 

° ilKfiaasii, is fully ripe. — (I. B.) 

" Alexander More (or Morus) was born a.d. 1616, at Castres, in the 
south of France, where his father, a Scotchman by birth, was Principal of a 
Protestant college. He was a man of considerable talents and great attain- 

ST MATTHEW I, 23. 117 

The virginity of our Lord's Mother is not fully proved by the 
wor^s of the prophet taken alone ; but the manifestation of its 
fulfilment casts a radiance back on the prophecy, and discloses 
its ftill meaning. — rihv, a Son) sc. the Messiah, to whom the 
land of Israel belongs. — See Isa. viii. 8. — xakeeougi, they sJiall 
call) Both the Hebrew and the LXX. have " Thou shalt call," 
i.e., " Thou Virgin-Mother." — " Thou shalt call," occurs also in 
ver. 21, addressed to Joseph : whence is now substituted "Thky 
shall call" i.e., all, thenceforth. The angel says to Mary, in 
Luke i. 28, The Lord is with thee. Not one or the other of 
His parents however, but all who call upon His name, say, 
" with US." — Cf. Luke i. 54. — Those words deserve particular 
attention in which the writers of the New Testament differ from 
the LXX., or even from the Hebrew. — ri 'ivo/n,a, the name) This does 
not mean the name actually given at circumcision, but yet the 
true name (cf. Isa. ix. 5), aye, the proper name too, by which he 
is called, even by his parents (cf. Isa. viii. 8), and which is even 
especially proper to Him, inasmuch as it is synonymous with the 
name Jesus. — See an exanlple of synonymous names in the note 
on ver. 8. Many of the faithful actually address the Saviour 
by the name of Emmanuel, as a proper name, though it would 
have been less suitable in Jesus to call Himself Godr-with^is. — 
igri /ii^sp//,riviu6fjLivov, MsS' ^/j,uv i &i6g — which is, being interpreted, 
God with us). This interpretation of a Hebrew name shows, 
that St Matthew wrote in Greek. Such interpretations sub- 
joined to Hebrew words show that, the vmters of the New Tes- 
tament do not absolutely require that the reader of Holy Scrip- 
ture should be acquainted with Hebrew. The Son of Sirach 
also uses the word /ii^ip//,eviu<(ai (to interpret) in his preface. The 
name God-with-us, in itself, so far as it involves an entire asser- 
tion, is not necessarily a Divine name (See Hiller Onomasticon 
Sacrum, p. 848) ; and it was, therefore, given also to a boy who 
was born in the time of Isaiah ; and the same is the case with 
the name Jesus : but in the sense in which each of them applies 
exclusively to Christ, it signifies Oeciv^pumg or God-Man. For 
the union of the Divine and human natures in Christ is the 

ments. He became professor of Greek at Geneva when only twenty years 
of age, and successively occupied other professorial chairs there and else- 
where. He died at Paris in 1670.— (I. B.) 



1. 'Ev Bri^Xif/ji rfii lovBalai, in Bethlehem of Judaea) It is thus 
distinguished from Bethlehem of the Zabulonites, mentioned in 
Josh. xix. 15. — 'Hfilibou, of Herod) i.e. Herod the Great, a native 
of Ascalon, a foreigner by descent, the sceptre being just on the 
point of departing from Judah. Amongst his sons^ were Arche- 
laus, mentioned in ver. 22, the Herods Antipas and PhiHp, 
mentioned in the 14th chapter of St Matthew and the 23d of 
St Luke, and Aristobulus, the father of Herod Agrippa, who 
is mentioned in Acts xii. — Moi), behold) This particle frequently 
points to a thing unexpected. The arrival of the Magi at 
Jerusalem had not been announced. — Mayoi, Magi) Mayog 
occurs frequently in the Septuagint version of Daniel for the 
Hebrew fp\A, and signifies with the Persians a wise man or a 
philosopher, St Matthew considers it sufficient to denote them 

' The following genealogy of the Herodian Family, extracted from Lewin's 
Life of St Paul will be useful to the student : — 


m. Cyprus, 
i. B.C. 43. 

JoBeph. Pheroras. 

Dons MttriAinne Pallas, Phaedra, Mariamne, Malthace, Cleopatra. ElDls 

I D, of Alexander \ \ D. of Simon. J ^r\ a 1 ' *i ' 

Antipater I Phasael. Boxana. I 

d. B.O. 4. 

s PhlUp, alias Herod, 

Anstobulufl Alexander, Herod, SalampBO, Cyprus. m. Herodlas. 

m. Bemice, m. Glaphyia I 

J. B.0. 6. d. B.C. 6. Salome, 

m. ]. Herod Philip , 
S. AriiitobuluB. 

Tigranes. Alexander, 



Tetrarch of TTachonitls, 

d. A.O. 34, 


Tlgranes, kingof Annenla, Ethnareh of Judea Tetrarch of Galilee ' 

I Deposed A.D, 6. m. 1, D. of Aretas j 3. Herodiaa 

Alexander, Icing of Cllicia. , Deposed A.D. 40. 

iGEIPPAI. Herod, Arlstobnliis, Herodias. Mariamne 

KingofJudea, King of Chalcll m. Jotape. n. 1. Philip, aliaa m. Antipater 

M. Cyprus, D. of tn.l, Mariamne; S. Bemice Herod i 2, Antipas. 

Bampso i d. A.D. 48. I 

d. A.D. 44. I , ' 

I Aristobnlus Bemioius. Hyrcaniu 

Drosius, AGEIPPAII. Bernic Mariamne Druslll. 

i.jouns. kingofTrachoniti., m. 1. Marou.j ».. 1. Arohelaus i m. L Ail™, 

■I.A.D. 95. 3. HerodofOhaleiii 1 Demetiiu.. 3 pjl^ 

TAe fosi <!/' Us Btrodt. I. Polemo. ' 

d. A.D. 79. 


ST MATTHEW II. 1. 121 

by this their condition ; he does not define either the rest of 
their dignity or their number, nor whether or no they had ever 
been addicted to curious arts, nor in what part of the East they 
were born ; by which last omission he intimates the unrestricted 
loniversaHty of this great salvation. Magus is a word of ambi- 
guous signification and of wide extent in the East. These 
Magi appear to have been descendants of Abraham, but not of 
Jacob ; for the name of Magi does not apply to Jews, and the 
mention of gold and frankincense directs our attention to Isa. 
Ix. 6, where he speaks of the coming in of the Gentiles, so that 
in this place already are seen the preludes of the Messiah being 
received rather by the Gentiles than by His own people. (See 
Luke iv. 26, etc.) Tlie King of the Jews, they say, not, our 
king, showing thereby that they were not themselves Jews. If 
you make two classes, the one of those who received, the other 
of those who rejected our Lord, and observe the variety of men 
on either side, you will be able to draw many useful obser^'a- 
tions from the whole of the New Testament. — btJ avarokSiv, 
from the East) cf ch. viii. 11. The north and the south occur 
in Greek only in the singular number. The east and the west 
occur also in the plural. The rationale of this is clear : when 
we look either due north or due south, our eyes are always 
turned toward one precise spot, the North or South Pole, which 
is not the case when we look eastward or westward, since there 
is no stationary point of east or west longitude. — ■raptyhovro, 
arrived) After He had received the name " Jesus," and, con- 
sequently after His circumcision.' — e/'s lepoeoXv/Mx., at Jerusalem) 

' Nay even we have no reason to doubt, that the arrival of the Magi, and 
thefliffht into Egypt, which was intimately connected with it, took place after 
His TTupciareurie, presentation, as recorded in Luke ii. 22, 23. And, more- 
over, this very order of events, whereby the ica.fa.vreutii in the temple, the 
arrival of the Magi, and the departure to Egypt, are in continuous succession, 
affords us most useful consequences. For 1) the poverty of Jesus' parents, 
(a fact, which is proved by their sacrifice in accordance with the law. Lev. 
xii. 6, 8, concemhig those unable to make the more costly offering) was re- 
lieved by the Fatherly providence of God, through the gifts of the Magi, so 
that they were thereby supplied with the means of hveUhood during their 
exile. — 2.) We may observe the various features of Propriety ["Decorum"] 
which characterise this series of events. First of all Jesus, as being the 
First-begotten, was presented to the Lord : then next, the first-fruits of the 

122 ST MATTHEW II. 3. 

It was natural to suppose, that the metropolis would be the 
place where the truth would be most easily ascertained, and 
they conceived, no doubt, that the King had been born there. 

2. nou, where ?) They are so sure of the event and the time, 
that they only ask where ? The Scribes only knew the place. It 
was incumbent on them to learn the time from the Magi, or to 
avail themselves of the opportunity of learning it. The know- 
ledge of time and of place are both necessary in this instance. — 
rights ^amXiiig, He who is bom king) They affirm His birth as 
having already taken place, and His right to the kingdom com- 
bined with it, and contrary to their expectation, find it to be a 
subject of terror to Herod. One is said to be bom, who from 
His very birth is King. As in the Septuagint version of 1 Chron. 

Gentiles presented themselves to Jesus Himself. In His!rtt,ijig He was 
Himself made manifest to the Israelites of Jerusalem, and a short while after- 
wards to the Gentiles also. We may conjecture, from the words of the 
Magi, in which they draw the conclusion as to the birth of the King of the 
Jews, from the Star which they had seen, and also from the age of the little 
children slain by Herod, in accordance with the time which he had ascer- 
tained from the Magi — that the star was seen by them at the time of Christ's 
conception, and that it was by it their long journey was directed; so that at 
the time most suitable, namely after the lapse of six months from the na- 
tivity, they arrived and paid their adorations 3.) Simeon foretold of Jesus, 

that He was to be a Light to lighten the Gentiles, immediately subjoining 
the statement as to the Cross. Both truths were to His parents, at the time 
of presentation, as a communication strange, and such as they had not here- 
tofore realised ; therefore it was not till afterwards, though not long after- 
wards, that the one prophecy began to be fulfilled by the arrival of the Magi, 
the other by the flight into Egypt. — 4.) The presentation was made in the 
temple on that very day of the week, which was subsequently called the Lord's 
day. — 5.) It is most easy to understand how it was that the King of the 
Jews remained unknown, all along from His birth to His presentation in the 
temple, to King Herod, inasmuch as that king was at the time aged, sick, 
torn with anguish on account of his sons, and hated by the Jews, and did not 
become known to him sooner than through the Magi. In fact, it was 
similarly that Herod the Tetrarch heard nothing of the miracles which 
Jesus performed before the beheading of John, notwithstanding the length 
of the interval from the beginning of the Lord's miracles. — 6.) If you place 
the departure into Egypt before the itapcujrcuiis, you must suppose the former 
to have been accomplished wholly in the winter : but the true order of events 
leads to the inference which is more in accordance with suitability of seasons^ 
viz. that the flight occurred at the approach of spring, and the return at the 
spring season itself.— 5arro, p. S3, 65, 56. 

ST MATTHEW H. 2. 123 

vii. 21, we read oJ n^fenrei iv rri yjj, who were bom in the land. — 
rSit 'louddiun, of the Jews) The name of Jews after the Baby- 
.lonian Captivity included all the children of Israel, being op- 
posed to Greeks or Gentiles. Whence it is given also to Galileans 
in Luke vii. 3 ; John ii. 6 ; Acts x. 28, etc. The Jews, how- 
ever, or Israelites, called Christ the king of Israel, the Gentiles 
the king of the Jews. See ch. xxvii. 29, 37, 42 ; John i. 50, 
xii. 13, xviii. 33. — uhotJ.iv ya,f x.r.X., for we have seen, etc.) 
Prognostics both true and false occm", especially in the case of 
nativities. — Airou rh dffs-f^a, His star) His own. In proportion 
as the Magi were better acquainted with the ordinary course of 
the stars, so much the more easUy were they able to appreciate 
the character of the extraordinary phenomenon, and the refer- 
ence of the star which was seen to this King who was bom. 
What was their principle in either case, who can now decide ? 
The star was either in itself new, or in a new situation, or 
endued with a new or perhaps even a various motion. Whether 
it stiU exists or be destined to appear again, who knows 1 The 
Magi must have undoubtedly had either an ancient revelation 
from the prophecies of Balaam, Daniel, etc., or a new one by a 
dream, cf. ver. 12. — 'The Magi are led by a star; the fisher- 
men by fishes, to the knowledge of Christ. Chalcidius,^ in his 
Commentaries on Plato, has mentioned a tradition concerning 
this star. — h rrt avarokri, in the East) They mean to indicate the 
quarter from whence they have come ; for the article rri shows 
that the east country is intended. These words should therefore 
be construed with e7do/i,iv (we have seen), for whilst they were 
in the east they had seen the star to the west, over the geogra- 
phical situation (cUma) of Palestine. See ver. 9. — ^poaxuvjjaou 
Aurffl, to worship Him) The verb 'jrpogxwiTv (to worship) in the 
New Testament as well as with profane authors, governs mostly 
a dative, though it sometimes admits an accusative. The Magi 
acknowledged Jesus as the King of (xrace, and as their Lord. 
See Luke i. 43. All things must however be interpreted 

' The methods of Divine revelations not unfrequently are disclosed only to 
those to whom they are vouchsafed — Vers. Germ. 

' He floxirished in the third or fourth century, and wrote a commentary 
on the Timseus of Plato. Considerable doubt exists as to his religious opi- 
nions. — (I. B.) 

121 ST MATTHEW II. 3, i. 

according to the analogy of these beginnings. It was certainly 
not on any political grounds, that after having undertaken and 
performed so long and arduous a journey, and being so soon 
about to return home, they worshipped^ a King distant and an 
infant, and that too without paying the same homage to Herod : 
nor did Herod (in ver. 8) profess an intention of paying Him 
political homage. That the Magi actually did worship Him, we 
learn from ver. 11. 

3. 'Erapax^n, was troubled) The king, now seventy years old, 
might be troubled all the more easily, because the Pharisees, a 
short time before, had foretold (as we learn from Josephus, 
Antiquities xvii. 3), that the kingdom was about to be taken 
from the family of Herod. The trouble of the king is a testi- 
mony against the carelessness of the people. If Herod fears, 
why do not the Jews inquire ? why do they not beheve ? — vaaa, 
all) sc. 'jrokig, the city* — lii^ avroij, with him) The people, who had 
been long accustomed to the king, followed his lead. Men are 
frequently overset by the sudden announcement of even good 

4. Uavrag, all) Le., all who were in Jerusalem at that time. — 
apx'^ptU, chief priests) The writers of the New Testament 
seldom speak of hpiTi, priests, but generally of apyri^fitg, chiej 
priests. This word had distinct significations in the singular 
and plural number : the singular o 'Ap^'^piug signifies the High 
Priest ; the plural apx'^fiTs, either with or without the definite 
article, signified those priests who were more nearly related to 
the High Priest, and had from that circumstance greater influ- 
ence than the rest. — See Acts iv. 6. — y/ia/i/tare/S roZ XaoD, scribes 
of the people) With the Lxx. yfa/j-iiaTeiii (scribe) corresponds 
to the Hebrew "iDB*;' in which sense roi; ypafifj,aTeTs tou XaoD {the 

* The verb vpaanvvta signifies either religious worship, civil homage, or 
any other lowly manifestation of extreme respect. Cf. the various meanings of 
the English word " worship." — (I. B.) 

' Which had been so long standing in a posture of expectation, awaiting 
the Messiah's coming. — Vers. Germ. 

' i.e. "KfB a scribe (lxx. ypei/ificcrtiii, •ypafi/Lcaroenreeyaycis) ; hence from 
the art of writing having been especially used forensically, a magistrate, pre- 
fect of the people : specially ts""";!;* is used of the prefects of the people of 
Israel in Egypt, Ex. v. 6-19, aid in the desert, Num. xi. 16 (used of the 
Beventy elders), Deut. xx. 9 "tc, etc.; magistrates in the towns of Palestine, 

ST MATTHEW II. 5, 6. 125 

scribes of the people), occurs in 1 Mace. v. 42, cf. also Deut. xx. 5. 
They render also IBD* by '/pafifianiig. And that signification 
suits also the present passage, where a Theological Eeply is spoken 
of. The scribes of the people are spoken of in contradistinction 
to the chiefs of the priests : and were private men or doctors, 
well versed in the Scriptures ; cf. note on ch. xxii. 35. — ernv'^a,- 
uTo, inquired. He ought to have done so before. — <roD 6 Xpierbg 
yevvarai, where Christ is bom) He makes the question of the 
Magi his own. The present tense of the verb yemSra/ (is bom), 
accords with the general expectation of the coming of the Mes- 
siah, which prevailed at that time. 

5. Bri^Xti/j^, Bethlehem) The knowledge which the scribes, who 
do not go themselves, have derived from their ancestors, is of 
service to the Magi, who are seeking for Christ. — oDrw <y&p yijfais- 
ra,i d/oi, n\j -rpoipfiTciv, for thus it is written by the prophet) This 
reason was alleged by the council ; but St Matthew has stamped 
it with his approval. 

6. Kal au BrlbXei/j. x.t.X., and thou Bethlehem, etc.) The passage 
referred to is in Micah v. 2, thus rendered by the LXX., xal ei> 
BjjSXee/a 6 0J3C05 EupfaSa, oX/y/ffrij il roO ihai h ^iXidgir 'lovSa,' ex 
sou (1,01 e^iXiugtrai, rou ihai 11; &p-)(ovra roD 'leparjX. On which 
passage see Hallet's Notes.^ Let the following be accepted as 
a paraphrase of both the Prophet and the Evangehst. And thou 
Bethlehem Ephrata, or district in the tribe of Judah, art small, 
niTi?, to be, in other words, inasmuch as thou art (quce sis) 
(consult on '? Noldii^ Concordantise Particularum, p. 458), among 

Deut. xvi. 18, etc., etc. ; used of the superior magistrates, Prov. vi. 7. — 
Gesenitis. — (I. B.) 

' i.e. "06 a scribe, Psalm xlv. 2, Ezra ix. 2, 3 ; specially (a) the king's scribe ; 
2 Sam. viii. 17, xx. 25; 2 Kings xii. 17, six. 2, xxii. 3, 4 ; (i) a military 
scribe who has the charge of keeping the muster-rolls, Jer. xxxvii. 15, Hi. 
25 ; 2 Kings xxv. 19 ; (c) in the later books a person skilled in the sacred 
writings, ypafiftarivs, 1 Chron. xxvii. 32 ; Ezra, vii. 6, etc., etc.; or iBO (1) 
a scribe, a royal scribe accompanying a satrap or governor of a province, 
Ezra iv. 8, 9, 17, 23 ; (2) ypxfifmtTtis—OTie skilled in the sacred books, Ezra 
vii. 12, 21.— Ibid.— {I. B.) 

' Joseph Hallet, a dissenting minister, bora at Exeter, 1692 ; died 
1744.— (I. B.) 

' Christian Noldius, author of " Concordantise Particularum Hebrseo- 
Chaldseorum," was an eminent Dutch divine, born 1626, died 1683.— (I. B.) 

126 ST MATTHEW 11, 6. 

the thousands of Judah, if this dignity which is not otherwise 
to be despised, and which far exceeds thy proportion and measure, 
be compared with that dignity exclusively thine own, by virtue 
of which thou art by no means the least, but altogether the 
greatest among the princes and thousands of Judah, sc, that 
from thee shall go forth for Me, DVn^, one who is to be (qui 
sit) the Ruler in Israel. A similar mode of expression occurs 
in 2 Sam. vii. 19 ; Isaiah xlix. 6. The greater honour obscures 
and absorbs the less. — yn 'lodda, a land of Judah. The land or 
district is put by Synechdoche,^ for the township, as in Luke ix. 
12, fields for cantons : Judah was the tribe of the Messiah. 
Both words supply the place of Ephrata in the Hebrew. The 
LXX. have in Joshua xv., either between ver. 58 and 59, or 
between ver. 59 and 60, the following passage : 0£xw xa/' 
''E.(f>fa5>a- aurri lerl B))aXE£|U, ti.t.X. — Theko and Ephrata, which is 
Bethlehem, etc. If this passage (instead of having fallen out of 
the Hebrew text from coming between two which have the 
same ending), be redundant in the Septuagint, it affords a 
proof, that, at the time when the land of Canaan was divided 
amongst the tribes of Israel, Bethlehem was not even reckoned 
among the cities ; Cf. John vii. 42. It must, however, have 
been so reckoned as early at any rate as the reign of Rehoboam, 
as we learn from 2 Chron. xi. 6. Micah addresses it in the 
mascuHne gender, with an implied reference to CSpN, thousands, 
families, Cf. ''S7K, ri x'^o^i /"■""> ''^^ thousand, i.e., my family, in 
Judges vi. 15. Wherefore St Matthew, after putting ika-jQerr^, 
least, in the feminine gender (to agree with yr\, land, understood), 
mentions, instead of the thousands themselves, the princes of 
thousands (for tl?8 a thousand, family, etc., and P|1?N> a chief, 
leader, etc., are cognate words) over whom he places one prince 
(riyoufi'ivo])), even Christ ; nor does he so much give the prefer- 
ence to this city or thousand over the other cities or thousands 
of Judah, as to the Prince who came forth thence, over the 
other Princes of Thousands. — ex sou TA'P e^sXiveerai, for from 
thee shall go forth) The LXX., as we have seen, have, from 
the Hebrew ex eoZ MOI e^eXedeerai, from, thee shall go forth 
FOE ME, a reading which is followed by the Codex Basiliensis 

' See Explanation of Technical Terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW 11. 6. 127 

j8,' and the Aldine reprint of Erasmus' first edition.^ Others 
combine both readings thus, ex gov TAP MOI s^iXcuairai — foe 
from thee shall go forth foe me.' The pronoun MOI (to, or for, 
me) evidently represents God the Father, speaking of Christ 
as His Son. — See Luke i. 32, and Cf., ver. 13. But the 
conjunction yap {for or because) points out the birthplace of 
Christ more significantly. The word yimara,/, shall be bor7i 
(nascetur), which occurs in ver. 4, is synonymous with the 
i^fXiieirai, shall go forth, of the present passage. The XS'' of 
the Hebrew ; the derivative of which nssiD (rendered by the 
LXX., 'i^oBoi, goings forth) ought also to be understood of birth 
or generation, and that from everlasting : Cf. SS1D in Job 
xxxviii. 27, and Numbers xxx. 13. The LXX. render D^NSSV 
more than once by rixvit, children. — riyoufuvos oerii <jroifi,ciivsT, a 
prince who shall shepherd) In 1 Chron. xi. 2, concerning David, 
the LXX. have eii ■roi//,a,viig rhv Xaov Mou, riv 'itspa^X' xa,l eu 'itSrj sig 
rjyov/j^evov Ivl rhv Xaov Mou rj» 'igpa^X, thou shalt shepherd My people 
Israel, and thou shalt be for a prince over My people Israel. 
Concerning the expression to shepherd, see Ps. Ixxviii. 71, 72, 
It is indeed a word worthy the kingly ofiice, and at the same 
time according with the pastoral youth of David at Bethlehem. 
By the word -TtoiiLanT (He shall shepherd) the evangelist in- 
cludes also and condenses the third [fourth] verse of the chapter 
of Micah already cited, where the LXX. have the same expres- 
sion. — rh 7.a.6v Mou, MY people) which corresponds with the 
expression in Micah, Mo/ i^tXiugirai, shall go forth for me, i.e., 
God. — rbv 'lepartk, Israel) The article is added to the name of a 
man, when put for that of a people. Israel, i.e., all the tribes 
of Israel. In the subsequent narrative no farther mention 
occurs of Bethlehem, so that it may be doubted whether our 
Lord ever returned thither. 

7. Ad^pa, privily) lest anything should transpire. This argues 
insidious designs on the part of Herod. — rixpl^cage, enquired dilir- 

1 A MS. in the Basle Library, entitled there B. vi. 25 ; but designated as 
by Bengel, for the sake of convenience— See App. Crit., p. 90. — (I. B.) 

2 See Tregelles on the printed text of the Greek New Testament, pp. 
19-26.— (I. B.) 

» The only very ancient authority for -/dp ftoi llsX. is C. Theodoret and 
the Aimen. Vers, follow it; but Z (and probably B) and D, and Vulg. omit 
fioi. — Ed. 

128 ST MATTHEW II. 8, 9. 

gently) even to the smallest particle of time. Hence we perceive 
the craft of Herod/ and the simplicity of the Magi.— pa'K'/«'«''«''r 
appearing) The Present Tense. Herod enquired the time 
at which the star which was now visible, had first become 

8 . ' Egsratfaj-s axpilSai, enquire diligently) others read axpi^Sig Igsra- 
aari,^ diligently enquire.* The variation is of no consequence, 
especially as it occurs in the words of Herod. Let us pass by 
such things without comment. The same phrase occurs in the 
Septuagint Version of Deut. xix. 18 [where we read " xat i^ird,- 
eaeiv o'l xpira! axpi^Zs," " and the judges shall enquire diligently."] 
— sTotv &i, but i/y The use of the particle gives an antithetical 
force to the succeeding words. — See Lvike xi. 22, 34. Herod 
did not accept the intelligence of the Magi as true, though he 
considered it as possible ; it is not, therefore, to be wondered at 
that he did not immediately go with them to worship. 

9. O'l Si axoudavng, rou jSaff/Xswf, But when they had heard the 
king) The king ought rather to have heard and assisted them. 
The Magi, however, obtained the answer which they desired.^ — 
xai iBou aernp, x.t.X, and, lo, the star, etc.) During the whole of 
their journey, they had not seen the star. — i>S>iiv, having come) 
It may be conjectured, from the use of this verb, that the star 

' So great enmities did that monarch indulge in and fostef, although he 
did not esteem as a fable the doctrine concerning Christ, but was by this 
time aware of the time and place of His nativity. — Vers. Germ. 

^ In the original the passage stands thus — " Praesens tempus, quo conspici 
ccepta esset stella, qu(B appareret, quaesivit Herodes." This is evidently a 
misprint for — " Prsesens. Tempus quo conspici coepta esset stella, quoB ap- 
pareret, quaesivit Herodes." 

In his German Version Bengel renders the passage " und vernahm von 
ihnen die Zeit, da der Stern erschienen," i.e. "and ascertained acatrateh/ from 
them the Time when the Star appeared." In his Harmony he renders it — 
" und erlernte mit fleia von ihnen wann der Stern erschienen ware," i.e. 
'■ and learnt with diligence from them, when the star made its appearance.'' 
-(I. B.) 

■■! This is the reading of E. M.— (I. B.) 

' BC (corrected later) D abc, Vulg. read with Beng. eieraaetre dxpifius. 
The reading of Rec. Text is without very ancient authority. — Ed. 

» Engl. Vers. And when.—(l. B.) 

° Nor were they at all affected by the torpor and apathy of the scribes or 
of the Jews Vera. Germ. 

ST MATTHEW II. 10-12. 129 

was subject to the guidance of an intelligent cause. — Cf. eX'biiv, 
in ver. 8. 

10. 'idovree, x.r.x., when they saw) It must have been night. — 
rim asrspa, the star) Both Scripture and the star show them the 
time and the place : Scripture, indeed, indicates the time with 
some latitude, in accordance with the general way in which the 
expectation of the Messiah's coming then universally prevailed. 

11. 'Eldov, they saw) Sweetly is expressed the increase and pro- 
gress of their joy from that of seeing the star to that of seeing 
the King Himself. The inferior reading, iZpov^ (they found), 
corresponds with the words of Herod, " Enquire diligently, and 
when ye have found" etc. But the star, by becoming stationary, 
spared the Magi the labour of enquiring. They did not so much 
find as see.- Cf. Luke ii. 17, 20, 26, 30. — vpogexuvrimv Aura, they 
worshipped Him) Mary was not an object of worship to the Magi. 
If she had been conceived without sin, as the greater portion of 
the Koman Church has now decided, why should she not then 
have been worshipped as well as now ? for she was then already 
the Mother of the Bang, who was to be worshipped. — tovs ^rieau- 
poig airSiv, their treasures) or receptacles of treasures. The 
Hebrew ISIS, which is rendered by the LXX. ^riaavpog in Prov. 
viii. 21, etc., signifies a storehouse, a repository, even a portable 
chest or casket. — vpoerin'^Kav, they offered) as to a King. They 
were not offended by His present poverty. — %putfJi', xal Xi^avov, 
xul a/jb6pvav, gold, and frankincense, and myrrh) from the produc- 
tions of their own country. There was a prediction concerning 
gold and frankincense in Isaiah Ix. 6. These first fruits showed 
that all things were to belong to Christ, even in the mineral and 
vegetable kingdoms, etc. — See Haggai ii. 8. 

12. Xpri/j,ari(^iiiTSi, being warned of God) sc. either each of 
them separately, or all of them through one of their number. 
Thus they had wished or prayed : for Xpri/ji^aTig/ihs signifies an 
oracular answer, [and an answer impUes a preceding question.] 
The same word occurs at ver. 22. — fi,ri ava,xa,/i-^a.i, not to return) 
They had therefore thought of doing so. — avs^'J^pngav, they de- 
parted) by a road, which led in another direction. 

1 BCDo read sTiov. be, Vulg. and Rec. Text, with less authority, «Sjo» — 

VOL. J. i 


180 ST MATTHEW II. 13-15.. 

13. 'Eyep^f!g, rising) i.e. immediately. — rj iraidiov, the child) 
Greater regard is paid to Him than to His mother. "^ — sws a"? x.r.X., 
until, etc.) Thus the faith of Joseph was exercised ; all things 
were not revealed to him at once ; he was to await the time of 
returning [till it should please God to direct him to do so] : nor 
did the angel speak to him ia the meanwhile. — -'HfwSrjs, Herod) 
of whom Joseph appears to have hoped well from the discourse 
of the Magi. 

14. 'Swrhc, hy night) The benefit of night is great in times of 

15. Asyon-os, saying) This must be construed with roD '^rpopTjnv, 
the prophet, and so also in ver. 17. — ig AiyL-rroM ixaXeea rbv viov 
Mou, out of Egypt have I called my Son) Thus Hosea xi. 1, in the 
original Hebrew, though the Lxx. render it, J| A/yuTrrou /utixo- 
Xisa TO, Ttxva, auroO, out of Egypt have I called for (summoned) his 
children. Aquila,^ however, renders it airh A/yinrrou sxaXisa rot 
vliv Mou, From Egypt have I called [him] My son. The meaning 
of the passage in Hosea is, " Then when Israel was a child, I 
loved him : and from the time that he was in Egypt, I called 
him my son." This is evident from the parallelism of either 
clause. And the expression, "from the land of Egypt," occurs 
in the same sense in Hosea xii. 9, and xiii. 4 ; and from the 
Egyptian era, Israel began to be called the son of God ; see 
Exod. iv. 22, etc. And God is always said to have led forth, 
never to have called, His people out of Egypt. In like manner, 
St Matthew also, when interpreting the passage of the Messiah, 
and that, too, of Him when a child, connects the quotation with 
His sojourn in, rather than His return from, Egypt. — Cf. Isa. 
xix. 19. Jesus, from His birth, was the Son of God; and im- 
mediately after His nativity, He dwelt in Egypt. It behoved, 
however, that the Messiah, as well as the people, should return 
from Egypt into the land of promise, for the same reason, viz., 
because God loved each of them, and called him His Son. The 

' And it is rather towards the name and kingdom of Christ, than towards 
any power external to Christ, that the world bears a grudge.— Vers. Germ. 

* A native of Sinope, in Pontus, of Jewish descent, who flourished in the 
second century of the Christian sera. Having renounced Christianity, he 
undertook to execute a new translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek 
-(I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW II. 16-18. 131 

sojourn of Christ in Egypt was the prelude to the Christianiza- 
tion of that country; see Devt. xxiii. 7. In the first ages of 
Christianity, the Egyptian Church was greatly distinguished : 
perhaps it will be so again hereafter : cf. Isa. xix. 24, 25. Con- 
cerning the double fulfilment of the single meaning of a single 
prophecy, cf. Gnomon on ch. i. 22. In short, God embraced 
in one address, as with one love, both the Messiah Himself, in 
whom is all His good pleasure, and His people for His sake. The 
Messiah resembles His people in His adversity ; His people re- 
sembles the Messiah in its prosperity. The head and the body are 
the whole Christ. Moreover, when His people was in Egypt, 
Jesus Christ was there also in one of those patriarchs who are 
enumerated in" ch. i. 4. — Cf. Heb. vii. 10. 

16. 'Evs-jral^tj, was mocked) Such was the king's impression, 
entirely at variance with the spirit of the Magi. They did, 
however, hold the royal authority at nought in compari- 
son with the Divine. Herod did not know what might be 
doing [and he, therefore, became anxious and infuriated]. — 
amsrii'kai, having sent) sc. murderers, and that suddenly. — 
aviTXe, he slew) This was a sin qrying to Heaven for vengeance ; 
cf. ver. 18. — •n-avras, all) " Of whom," says Feu- Ardent* on 
Irenseus iii. 18, — " Christ, whilst yet Himself a child, conse- 
crated fourteen thousand as martyrs, by the unutterable cruelty 
of Herod, as the Ethiopians record in the Liturgy left to them by 
St Matthew, and the Greeks preserve in their calendar." — roug 
va.Tbag, ilie hoys) not girls ; cf. Exod. i. 16. — airh dieroug, from two 
years old) The adjective is put in the masculine, as rpiiToiii in 
2 Chron. xxxi. 16 ; cf. the Hebrew original, xara riv %?i)i'o)', 
x.r.X., according to the time, etc) The time indicated by the Magi 
was, perhaps, a little beyond a year : and Herod laid down, 
therefore, two years as the limit of massacre., 

18. <^(i>V7i b 'Pa/ia ^xousSri, 6p^vos icai nXauS/Xib; xal odvpfihi -iroXiii, 
'PavflX xXalovdcc to, rejiva aOr5)S' xal oux T^hXi -TrapaxXriB^vai, x-r.X. — 
A voice was heard in Rama, lamentation and weeping and much 
mourning : Rachel bewailing her children, and would not be coin- 
forted, etc.) The passage is thus rendered by the Lxx., Jer. 

'Francois Fbu-Aedent, a Cordelier, was bom at Coutance in 1641, be- 
came Doctor of the Sorbonne in 1576, and died at Bayeux in 1610. He pub- 
lished an edition of Irenseus, with an original commentary, in 1676 — (I. B.) 

■;22 ST MATTHEW II. 18. 

xxxi. (xxxviii.) 15 : — *wv^ in 'Fa/ia (Cod. Alex, h rn '^A'n^-f) 
^xovaSr) 6i>7}vou xai xXau^/toD xal odvp/nou- Pa;^>j?\. amxXaiofihri stI 
ruv v'luv ahrng- xal oiix fjSeXrise irafaxKrjdi^voii, x.r.X. — A VOlce Was 
heard in Rama {Cod. A I. on high) of lamentation and weeping 
and mourning : Rachel bewailing herself on account of her sons, 
and would not be comforted, etc. — ^xoU6r}, was heard) so that it 
reached the Lord, Jeremiah both prefixes and subjoins, Thus 
saith the Lord. — ^p^vos xal xXav9/ihs xal bSupfubg iroKxig,^ lamentation 
and weeping and much mourning) The LXX. have 6privou xal xXau^ 
fiou xal ob\)pt/.ou, of weeping, and of lamentation, and of mourning. 
The original Hebrew, however, is D''TnDn ^33 Nnj — lamentation, 
weeping of bitternesses, (i.e., lamentation and bitter weeping). The 
shorter^ reading of St Matthew, supported by so many versions, 
viz.,* xXauifihg xal odup/ihg -soXus, weeping and much mourning, agrees 
with this so as to express the Hebrew plural 0'"'.''"'?^, bitternesses, 
by the Greek epithet 'irokiig, much. I used to suspect that the 
translators who omitted iprivog xal, lamentation and, had done so 
from the poverty of their language : but you might, with equal 
justice, say that the Greek copyists added these words from the 
LXX., from not duly weighing the force of the adjective mXui, 
much, which is not found in the LXX. 

The Hebrew words* and accents' declare the matter more gra- 
dually (rem gradatim magis declarant), and exhibit successively, 

' In his Apparatus Criticus, Bengel writes, in loc. — 

" 18 ( — ^pitvoixaX) jEth. Arab. Copt. Lat. (et inde Barb. I. veletiam Ct/pr. 
et Colbert, n. 2467), Pers. Syr. ex inopia synonymorum; Hieron. nescio an 
Justinua Martyr. Extat non solum apud lxx., sed etiam in Hebrseo." He 
then goes on, " Inopia synonymorum laborasse," etc., as in the Gnomon, and 
concludes by referring the reader to that work. — (I. B.) 

^ B. M. has the longer reading. — (I. B.) 

^ So WLabc Vulg. Hilary, 613. D is the only very ancient authority for 
the ^^iji/as x«J of the Bee. Text. — Ed. 

< « Sermo."— (I. B.) 

" " The design of the accents in general is, to show the rhythmical members 
of the verses in the Old Testament text. But, as such, the use is twofold— 
viz., a. To show the logical relation of each word to the whole sentence ; b. to 
mark the tone syllable to each word. In respect to the former, they serve 
as signs of interpunction ; in respect to the latter, as signs of the tone or 
accent. . . . The use of the accents as signs of interpunction is some- 
what complicated, since they serve not merely to separate the members of a 
sentence, like our period, colon, and comma, but also as marks of connection." 
■ — Gesenius, Heb. Gr. sec. 15, q.v. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW 11. 18. 133 

— (1.) Shrill grief indefinitely: her who mourns, and those whom 
she mourns, (2.) refusing the consolation offered to her; and 
the cause why she refused it. — The thirty-first chapter of Jere- 
miah is prospective to a great degree of the times of the New Tes- 
tament ; and so does this passage refer to this event in the New 
Testament history, whether Jeremiah regarded at the same time 
the Babylonian Captivity or not ; a greater and less event of 
distinct periods may correspond with the single meaning of a 
single prediction, until the prophecy is exhausted. — ''PayriX, 
Rachel) put antonomatically for the individual daughters of 
Eachel and other mothers, who thus had sons of pangs [Benoni]. 
— Cf. Gen. XXXV. 18. The sons oi Rachel are named: the sons 
of other mothers are understood at the same time, as in 1 Cor. 
X. 1, the Gentiles are also included under the fathers of the Jews. 
The infants of Bethlehem might also be called " sons of Eachel," 
on account of the tomb of Rachel mentioned in Gen. xxxv. 19, 
as being near that town : just as the Samaritans (John iv. 12) 
called Jacob their father, because they lived in the same place 
where he had formerly dwelt. But Rama did also belong to the 
tribe of Benjamin (see Josh, xviii. 25), who was the son of 
Eachel. It is quite conceivable that the assassins despatched so 
suddenly by Herod to Bethlehem, may have proceeded even as 
far as Rama, as the towns were very near together : see Judg. 
xix. 2, 9, 13 ; Ezra ii. 21, 26 : from which circumstance Jere- 
miah, a priest from the land of Benjamin, pointed it out as the 
limit of the massacre. — xXamea, weeping) i.e., xXaiu, weeps, a 
Hebraism. — oux rjSiXs va,pa,xkrj^n^ai, refused to receive consolation) 
A phrase which expresses intense grief. — ouk eiel, they are not) 
Thus, in the S. V. of Gen. xlii. 36, we read'lmo-iip oux hn, :zu//,iiiv 
ovx 'isri, Joseph is not, Simeon is not) ; and in 1 Kings xx. 40, 
ouros ovx riv, he was not) in the Hebrew Mi'^H, he is not, in the 
singular number used distributively. The mothers mourn each 
especially their own, or even their only sons ; for even only chil- 
dren would, in this case, be expressed in the plural number : 
the slaughtered infants were of two years old, or a little under, 
so that a single mother could not easily be deprived of more 
than one. The event was accurately foretold. Others refer the 
singular number to the Messiah, whom they suppose the women 
to have imagined slain, or mourned as banished. 

134 ST MATTHEW II. 20-23. 

20. E/'s yijv 'igpariX, into the land of Israel) Joseph was allowed 
to choose the town or district, but not the country of theJr abode ; 
since it behoved that Emmanuel should come to years of man- 
hood (adolescere) in His own land. — nhriKusi, they are dead) 
The plural concisely signifies, that Herod is dead, and that there 
are not any others who entertain evil designs.^ — ol ^jjroDi/rss t^v 
■^uxriv, who sought the life) literally, who sought the soul. A 
phrase employed by the LXX. 

22. BaaiXiuei, is reigning) Archelaus was reigning, whether 
with or without the name of king. — s(po^n^r\, was afraid) Anxious 
about the child, fearful lest Archelaus should emulate his father's 
hatred. — hiT, thither) The Hebrew n»E>, thither, is frequently 
rendered exiThj the LXX. — oc^riXhiv, to depart) Mary and Joseph 
also, without doubt, had previously dwelt at Nazareth. — si; ra, 
fiiprj, into the parts) From hence may be inferred the poverty of 
Joseph, who had not a fixed abode which he could return to as 
a matter of course. — r^s TaXiXala,;, of Galilee) This did not 
prevent attentive souls from knowing the real birthplace of 

23. 'EX6oiiv xoiTuxr}ff£ii iig, he came to arid took up his abode at) 
PE. v., he came and dwelt ai], i.e., he came to dwell at, or he 
dwelt at. The same mode of expression occurs at ch. iv. 13. 
Thus, in Gen xiii. 18, the LXX. have iX6iiv xaTuxriai mpi rrtv dpiJv, he 
came and dwelt by the oak. — 'Na^aper, Nazareth) In Hebrew, T\in- 
The final n is rendered in Greek by T. — Na^apaTo;, a Nazarene) 
Our Lord spent His private life — that is, by far the greatest 
portion of His years — in the town of Nazareth, from whence the 
surname of Nazarene was given to Him in the common speech 
of men, whether devoted or hostile to Him, and in the title on 
the cross. This is what the prophecy here cited by St Matthew 
had long ago intimated. Some seek for the whole force of this 
prediction in an allegorical interpretation of the etymology of 
the word Nazareth ; and this indeed should clearly be sought 
for in "iM, a diadem, etc., not from "IVJ, to keep or hide," which 
Jewish animosity employs maliciously; for the Hebrew "i (Tzade) 

1 What a vast host of enemies rising against Christ, from then till now, 
has perished utterly B. G. V. 

' See Pror. vii. 10, where a harlot is spoken of as a^ nilsa, subtle of heart 
_(I.B.) ■• ' 


is always rendered by the Greek 2 (Sigma), whereas the Greek 
z (Zeta) universally corresponds to the Hebrew t (Zayin), as it 
does also in the word Nalup&iog. This rule is universal, which 
no one can rightly oppose without bringing forward examples 
to the contrary. Consider what the sound and learned HUler 
says on this subject, Syntagm. hermen. p. 347, etc., and Onom. 
Sacr., pp. 695, 701, 893 ; and compare his remarks with I. H., 
a Seelen,' medit. exeg., p. 632. This belongs to the etymology 
of the name Nazareth ; it does not, however, estabhsh the alle- 
gory. For neither is there any reason why we should ascribe 
the character of a Levitical Nazarite to Christ (see Matt. xi. 
19), nor why we should think that the scope of the prophecy is 
exhausted by any signification of the word nzk, tn. 

It was predicted by Micah, that Christ should go forth fi-om 
Bethlehem : Bethlehem, DHP IT'S, signifies house of bread, and 
Christ is the Bread of Life. But who would have said that the 
prophecy of Micah was fulfilled by Christ being the bread of 
life ? We know that the town where Christ was bom was in- 
tended by the prophecy ; in like manner, the town where He 
grew up ; and the common surname which thence arose was in- 
dicated by the prediction, " 'Nat,upaTog »Xn^neiTai" " He shall be 
called a Nazarene :" and therefore the particle oti^ is prefixed by 
the evangelist, as is the custom in citing testimonies. Although 
at what time that prophet flourished by whom this prediction 
was uttered ; whether the town of Nazareth, of which no other 
mention occurs in the Old Testament, was then of any account 
or not ; whether that prophet was himself a Nazarene, and de- 
posited this remarkable verse at Nazareth, or whether he left 
it to posterity, conveyed by word of mouth alone, or also com- 
mitted to writing,' whence St Matthew obtained it, who knows ? 
what signifies it to know? In heaven, some stars illumine 

1 John Henet a Seblen, an historian and philologist of the Academy of 
Lubeck, born in the year 1688. He published his Meditationes Exegetkoe at 
Lubeck, 1732.— (I. B.) 

2 The literal meaning of bti is that ; but in cases like the present it has, by 
the Greek idiom, merely the force which inverted commas have in English. 
-(I. B.) 

' For the prophets have uttered many things which were not inserted in 
their public writings. — B. G. V. 

136 ST MATTHEW II. 23. 

either hemisphere, some both, some have various risings and 
settings ; on earth, rivers sometimes withdraw themselves from 
the sight of men, until by hidden ways they reach the place 
where they again burst forth. Thus the Divine Oracles are 
dispensed with admirable variety ; a singular example of which 
is afforded by the passage in St John, concerning the three who 
bear witness in heaven, of which the Eastern Church was for 
many ages in ignorance, whilst the Western and African 
Churches maintained it always, though not everywhere. This 
prediction, indeed. He shall be called a Nazarene, was not 
known or understood by most persons ; otherwise Galilee and 
Nazareth itself would not have been so much despised (see 
John i. 47, and vii. 52). And, rightly, many have long since 
denied that this verse exists in the Scriptures of the Old Testa- 
ment. Its condition, therefore, is the same as that of the 
prophecy of Enoch, introduced at length by St Jude into the 
Scriptures of the New Testament, and thus stamped with the 
seal of inspiration ; the same as that of the apothegm, which, 
though dehvered by our Lord, does not occur in the Gospels, 
but is quoted by the mouth of St Paul, and the pen of St 
Luke, Acts xx. 35. Nor have the Jews any ground of accusa- 
tion, because anything is quoted in the New Testament which 
does not exist in the Old ; for they relate many ancient things 
which equally are not to be found there. Where lay hid the 
Proverbs of Solomon from ch. xxv. 1 ; the prophecy of Aza- 
riah (2 Chron. xv. 2, etc.) ; the epistle of Elijah (2 Chron. 
xxi. 12), until they were inserted in the books of the Old Tes- 
tament, many ages after they were delivered ? Certainly, there 
was no sufficient reason why St Matthew should frame* this, if 
it had been a perfect novelty in his own time. By such a pro- 
ceeding, he would have more injured than advantaged the 
whole Christian cause. He had sufficiently. numerous examples 
of prophecies frilfilled in Jesus of Nazareth without this. Those 
who interpret this important verse more vaguely, so as to 
make out that it is contained here or there in the Scriptures of 
the Old Testament, in truth take away one from the ancient 

* i.e.. It would serve no purpose to insert this prediction, if it had been a 
jaiere figment. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW II. 23. 187 

prophecies ; whereas those who consider rh pn6h (that which was 
uttered), " He shall be called a Nazarene" to have been expressly 
uttered of old, recognise a homogeneous portion of the entire 
testimony of prophecy, and thus in truth maintain the integrity 
and defend the simplicity of Scripture (Cf. Calovius's Bibha 
Illustrata, and Rus's ' Harmonia Evangelistarum,p.284). WHO 
was to have the surname of Nazarene, is not added in the verse : 
for wherever anything occurs in the prophecies which is not 
foreign to the Messiah, that should be understood of the Messiah, 
although there be no express mention of His name. It is, how- 
ever, probable that more words than these two may have existed 
together with them in a very short prediction. The long con- 
cealment of this monument of antiquity was agreeable to the 
manner of Christ's private life, spent in the retirement of Naza- 
reth, and calculated to try the faith of saints, and condemn the 
falsehood of sinners. (See John i. 46, etc., and vii. 41, etc.) 

Now that we have proved that the peculiar and primary force 
of the name Nazarene, is to be found in the town itself of Naza- 
reth, we proceed to lay down as a corollary, that the etymology 
of the country, and surname of Christ thence derived, is not 
unimportant. Christ, the Son of David the Bethlehemite, was 
not called a Bethlehemite : therefore, in the etymology of the 
town of Bethlehem, a mystery is not equally sought for. Christ 
was called a Nazarene. This was indeed effected by the dis- 
course of men ; but not without the overruling providence of 
God. It was not by mere accident that PUate inscribed cate- 
gorically, in the three cardinal languages, Jesus, King of the 
Jews, and retained what he had written : it did not by mere 
accident happen that Pilate at the same time inscribed " the 
Nazarene," and that others, both before and after, used the 
expression with reference to our Lord. ' The names, " Jesus," 
" Christ," " Emmanuel," etc., intimate, that that which is 
implied by their sound is actually being exhibited : you would 
rightly deny that the surname, "Nazarene" alone should be 

1 John Rbinhakd Eds, a learned Lutheran divine of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The title of the work is " Harmonia Evangelistarum, ita adornata, ut 
investigate, sedulo textus cohserentia, nuUus versus, sive trajiciatur, sive 
prtetereatur sine brevi ac succincta explicatione, qute justi commentarii loco 
esse queat." Jense 1727-1730.— (I. B,; 

138 ST MATTHEW 11. 23. 111. 1, 2. 

without a mystical meaning : n», a diadem, is the token of a king s 
head, and mt: is, according to HUler, a town which crowns the 
summit of a mountain ; the name, therefore, of Nazarene, may 
thus be expressed in German, "Zu Ceonberg hat DER 
Geceonte gewohnet," — " The crowned one hath dwelt on the 
summit of a hill." — See Ps. cxxxii. 18. The names of places are 
frequently put for the thing itself which is signified : we pass 
by the Veronenses, Placentini, Laudiceni, of the Latins. The 
meaning of Scripture is deeper : Simon the Canaanite was also 
called Zelotes, both from his country and his distinguishing 
virtue. — See Matt. s. 4, and Luke vi. 15. See especially Is 
Ixiii. 1. 


1. 'Ef ra/s rj/iepaig exilvai;, in those days) In the Evangelistaries* 
this formula merely denotes the commencement of an extract ; 
but in the Gospels it has a more definite meaning. In the pre- 
sent case it signifies, " whilst Jesus was dwelling at Nazareth." 
— See ch. ii. 23.^ An interval of time is denoted between the 
events last recorded and those now mentioned, not short, yet 
not remarkable for any great change. — 'jrapaymrai, cometh) This 
word is pleasantly repeated at ver. 13 : the LXX. frequently in- 
troduce it in the present tense. — xripuggav, preaching) sc. loudly. 
The expression in ver. 3, pwio) jSouvrog (the voice of one crying), 
agrees with this. The words 6 fiairnerrig, the Baptist, and Anp-je- 
em, preaching, declare the two parts of John's office. — h rfi ipri/i,ifi, 
in the wilderness) See ver. 3. 

2. MsTavosTri, repent ye) A lovely word (see verses 8, 1 1), im- 

^ The Evangelistaria were selections of ecclesiastical readings from the 
Gospels. — (I. B.) 

^ At the time that John entered on his public life, Joseph was probably 
no longer in the land of the living. Therefore, in the words of the text, the 
reference is to Him, of whom it was said by the prophets. He shall be called 
a Nazarene. Jesus sojourned at Nazareth from His return out of Egypt up 
to the time of John's entrance on his ministry.— flarm., p. 63. 

ST MATTHEW HI. 3. 139 

plying change your disposition, put on a disposition royal, 
heavenly, worthy the kingdom of heaiven.' Thus Jesus Christ 
Himself, thus His apostles commenced their preaching : thus 
the Lord commanded John to write at the commencement of 
the Apocalypse. — ij jBaeiXilcc, the kingdom) See Gnomon on ch. 
iv. 17. — rZv ovpavSiv, of the Heavens) expressed in the plural 
number agreeably with the Hebrew D''Dt}'.^ This phrase v 
l3a,eiXi!a Tuv oiipavSiv, the kingdom of the JTeavens," is peculiar to 
Matthew, who employed it that he might cure the Jews, for 
whom he was writing, of the notion of an earthly kingdom. 

3. Olros, X.T.X., this, etc.) There are many circumstances re- 
corded in the New Testament, which had been predicted in the 
Old. — yap, for) The reason why it was necessary that John 
should thus arise at that time (as is described in verses 1, 2), 
was, that it had been so predicted. — <poi\i^, -/..r-X., a voice, etc.) 
See Gnomon on Luke iii. 4. " A voice," i.e., " it is a voice." 
— jSouvTog, of one crying*) i.e., of John. An analogous phrase 
occurs in Rom. x. 15, viz., «/ -jroBig rZv ivayyiXi^ofi'imv, the feet of 
them that preach. — Iv tyi eprifiui, in the wilderness) Not in the 
temple, or the synagogues. Some construe this passage thus, 
" Prepare ye in the wilderness, etc," because the accents^ in the 
original Hebrew of Isaiah requii-e it to be so construed there. 
But if such had been the evangelist's meaning, he would sub- 
sequently have expressed, in equivalent terms, the parallel phrase 
naiyai in the desert.^ As the passage stands, the expressions, 
" preaching in the loilderness,'' in ver. 1, and " a voice of one 
crying in the wilderness," in ver. 3, correspond with each other. 
It comes to the same thing : for where there is the voice, there 

1 In the original, " regnum ccehrum," " the kingdom of the heavens." — See 
f. n. 3, infra.— (I. B.) 

" See Genesis i. 1., etc.— (I. B.) 

3 E. v., " The Kingdom of Heaven." I have generally rendered it thus, 
as being a phrase more familiar to the English reader. — (I. B.) 

* " Clamantis " — crying wit, uttering with a loud voice — not weeping. — 
(I. B.) 

"Seep. 132, f.n. 5.— (I. B.) 

°In Isaiah xl. 3, the passage stands thus : " The voice of him that crieth 
in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the 
desert a highway for our God;" where the phrases, in the wilderness, and in 
the desert, are in parallelism to each other. — (I. B.) 


also are the hearers who are commanded to prepare the way, and 
there is the Coming of the Lord. St Matthew, also, in ch. iv. 15, 
contains something different from the Hebrew accents. — Cf. 
Gnomon on Heb. iii. 7. — ttiv idov, the way) There is one primary 
way, and this includes many tracks, r/j/jSouj. — Kupiov, of the Lord) 
The Hebrew niD', Jehovah, for which the Hebrews of later ages 
substituted 'JIS, Adonai, is rendered by the LXX. Kvpiog, Lord. 
In this passage Christ is intended. The appellation Kupwc, 
Lord, when applied to Christ in the New Testament, has 
various meanings, according to the variety of circumstances, 
times, and speakers. In passages quoted from the Old Testa- 
ment it frequently corresponds to the names mri' and 'JIN, of 
which the one expresses His majesty as the Son of God, the 
other. His glory also as the Messiah. Men amongst whom He 
walked addressed Him thus with various purport, according to 
the various extent of their faith. From that time forward, the 
apostles, and the faithftd in general, frequently employed this 
appellation with reference to His dominion and authority over 
His own followers, and over all things beside, even in His state 
of humiliation,'^ but rather in His state of exaltation : in which 
cases the pronoun " my" is sometimes added, which is never 
joined with the tetragrammaton nin\ — eu^elas) straight. 

4. Aires Ss 'ludnri;, x.r-X., And the same John, etc.) A re- 
markable description. Even the dress and food of John preached, 
being in accordance with his teaching and office. Such as 
should be that of penitents, such was always that of this minister 
of penitence. — Cf. Gnomon on ch. ix. 14, and xi. 18. — okt'o 
Tfr/Siv xa/i'^Xov, of cameli hair) His dress was mean,^ and rough, 

^ " Exinanitionis ;" literally, of being emptied out : a phrase of frequent 
occurrence, suggested by the words in Phil. ii. 7, sawov ix.hms, He emptied 
Himself — rendered in E. V., made Himself of no reputation. — (I. B.) 

^ " Parabilis." It is curious to see the changes vrhich took place in the 
meaning of this word. In classical Latin, it signified (1) procurable, (2) 
easy to be procured, (3) ordinary, cheap, not costly, mean.— (See Ainsworth, 
in voc.) In the middle ages, as we learn from the Glossarium Manuale ad 
Scriptores Medimet Jnfimce Latinitatis, it had a very difiFerent signification. 
The abbreviator of Da Cange writes thus : " Pakabilis. Testamentum 
Perpetui Episcopi Turonensis: Equum. meum ParaMlem, et mulum quevi 
elegeris do, lego. Equus forte qui Gallis dicitur Cheval de parade, ad pom- 
pam, ad apparatum." — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW lU. 5-7. 141 

and coarsely woven. — Cf. Mark i. 6. — %ai Z^mriv Stp/iarivnv ■npl r))» 
l)<s(fiijv aurou, and a girdle of skin around his loins) Thus the Lxx. 
in 2 KJngS i. 8, of Elijah, xal XJnifi dep/iarlvriv vepii^aie/ihog r^i ogfiiv 
airoD, and girt around his loins with a girdle of skin. The girdle 
of John, like that of Ehjah, was not of leather, but of sldn rudely 
dressed. It is not without object that Scripture records the dress 
of many saints, of the Baptist, and of Jesus Christ Himself — 
rpo(pri, food) We gather the nature of his drink from Luke i. 15. 
— axpidig, locusts) In Lev. xi. 22, the LXX. render 3jn (an animal 
which the Jews were permitted to eat), by axplg, locust. — /a'sXi 
aypiov, vnld honey) flowing spontaneously. — See 1 Sam. xiv. 25. 
— Locusts might sometimes fail. 

5. nSa-a, all) i.e., from all parts. 

6. ' 'B.&a.irriZfiVTo, received baptism) The verb is in the middle 
voice. — £^o/j.o\oyo{i/iivoi, confessing) The preposition J^ denotes that 
they confessed their sins freely and expressly, not merely in the 
ear of John. A true confession mentions even individual sins 
(as formerly in the case of sin-offerings), although it does not 
enumerate them one by one. It holds the just mean between the 
lax abuse of a general formula and the narrow strictness of 
auricular confession. Thus it reheves the soul. At the Baptism 
of Repentance men confessed their sins, at the Baptism of Christ 
they confessed Christ. 

7. TloXXois, X.T.X., many, etc.) of whom some adhered to their 
purpose of receiving the baptism of John ; some, deterred by his 
just denunciations, appear to have gone back. By far the greater 
number did not come at aU. — See ch. xxi. 25, and Luke vii. 30. 
— run 'iapiactiiiv xal Ja,S&ovxaioiv, of the Pharisees and Sadducees) 
Differing sects. — auroTg, to them) i.e., to the Pharisees especially, 
but also to the people, before baptizing them. — See ver. 11, and 
Luke iii. 7. It frequently occurs, that words are mentioned 
after the act which they accompany or precede. — See 2 Sam. 
i. 16, 15. — yivv^/iUTa, broods) Yarious fanuhes. — l;^;&Sv, of vipers) 
This is said in opposition to their boasting of their descent from 
Abraham. — r!;, x-t.X., who ? etc.) As though he had said, " You 
appear to be showing the way to others, but who showed it to 
you?" He imphes that wrath was in store for them; that there 
was, close at hand, a means of escaping it, but that the Phari- 
sees and Sadducees were strangers to it. — v-jridn^iv, hath showed) 

142 ST MATTHEW HI. 8, 9. 

The compound verb has the same meaning as the simple dilxw/n- 
He approves of their coming, but with an important condition. — 
puys/v, to flee) so. by baptism. — avh rrig fLiXKobtSrig opyni, from the 
wrath to come) which they will incur, rejecting the kingdom of 
Heaven by their impenitence. That same wrath is afterwards 
spoken of, in 1 Thess. i. 10, as r^s ep^o/^hrig, which is coming. At 
the same time, the error of the Sadducees in denying the resur- 
rection is refuted. That wrath was to come upon them at the 
destruction of Jerusalem and the last Judgment. 

8. lloirjgari, produce — xap-jrhv a^iov, worthy fruit) Origen re- 
marks, that in St Matthew worthy fruit is required in the sin- 
gular number from the Pharisees and Sadducees; whereas, in St 
Luke, worthy fruits are required in the plural number from the 
people. I do not myself see what difference it makes in the 
matter. The singular xap-jrhg, fruit, is often used collectively ; and 
in the preaching of St John it may be opposed to barrenness : in 
the plural number, it implies fecundity. Men are here repre- 
sented as trees ; and the fruit is, therefore, their repentance. — t^s 
fiiroivolag, of repentance) Construe these words with xap-jrhv.^ Thus, 
m Acts xxvi. 20, we read a^ia Tijs fiiravolag spya. — fUTavoia, re- 
pentance, is an entire change of character,^ and a renunciation 
of all that is evil, by which renunciation we wish that evil void 
or undone. 

9. Mfi So^riTs, think not) The verb doxZ, to appear or imagine 
(in the same manner as (pagxa, to- allege or suppose, the particle 
ug, as; and the Latin expressions, prse raekrOjto profess ; ostendo, 
to declare ; puto, to suppose ; videor, to seem ; apparet, it appears ; 
species, appearance), sometimes denotes a thing which is true, 
and at the same apparent ; sometimes an empty appearance, 
which any one presents to himself or others. And thus the 
meaning in this passage is, " You may indeed say this, in some 
degree, with truth, but you must not plume yourselves upon it." ' 

' Bengel would apparently render the passage thus : worthy fruit of re- 
pentance ; and so in the passage immediately cited from the Acts, worthy 
ivorhs of repentance. E. V. has, in the one passage, fruits meet for repent- 
ance ; in the other, works meet for repentance. — (I. B.) 

2 This scarcely expresses the original " transmutatio mentis." Ainsworth 
gives us the first signification of mens— " That part of the rational soul which 
is the seat of natural parts and acquired virtues." — (I. B.) 

2 There is nothing that men will not rake together, especially self- 

ST MATTHEW III. 10, 11. I43 

—Xiym, to say) i.e. with safety. — rh 'A^pai/i, AbraJiam) as there 
is no lack of his posterity. — X'eyca y&p i/iiv, for I say unto you) A 
most solemn formula, employed by a great man, on an occasion 
of the highest importance. — Cf. Gnomon on eh. v. 18. — bhmrai, 
is able) The Jews supposed that they could not fall utterly away. 
— Ix rm Xi^uv tovtw, from these stones) and from any other mate- 
rial, as He produced Adam from the clod. God is not tied to 
the law of succession in the Church. — rourwK, these) The stones 
to which John pointed were perhaps those which had been placed 
there in the time of Joshua, that they might be for a testimony 
that the people of Israel had crossed the river Jordan, and 
entered the Land of Promise, and that they owed .the land, not 
to themselves, but to God. The words sound like a proverbial 
expression, as well as those in Luke xix. 40. — Tima, children) i.e. 
according to the spirit. They were indeed children according to 
the flesh, who are called nevertheless broods of vipers. 

10. "Hbn 3s, but now) Placed in opposition^ to /isXXo'uirjjs, which 
is to come, in ver. 7. — xal, x.r.X., also, etc) Where grace mani- 
fests itself, there also is wrath shown to the ungratefiil. It is not 
only possible that you should be punished, but also punishment 
is nigh at hand. — rfiv pl^av, the root) The axe was aimed not 
merely at the branches, but at the root itself. — tuv divdpcov, of the 
trees) i.e. the Jews (see Luke xiii. 7—9), in comparison with 
whom the Gentiles were mere stones. — xeTrai, lies) Although the 
blow has not yet begun to be struck. — JxxoVrsra;, is being cut 
down) The present tense is used, to show that there -will be no 
delay. — <xup,jire) See Heb. vi. 8. 

11. Ifiag, you) John, therefore, did not exclude the Pharisees 
from baptism. — h uhan, in water) The conclusion of the verse 
corresponds with this part of it. John, however, depreciates not 
so much his baptism as himself. And again, in this place alone, 
is that fire mentioned in contradistinction to water, whereas the 
Holy Spirit is mentioned in every case. — elg /iiravSiav, for repent- 
ance) This portion of the verse corresponds with ver. 12. — di, but) 
The contrast does not apply only to those who confer, but to 

justiciaries, in order to claim God as their own, even after they have re- 
jected repentance toward God. — Vers. Germ. 

' In ver. 7 he spoke of the wrath of God as future, as yet to come; he now 
speaks of it as already ^resenJ, or close at hand. — (I. B.) 

14* ST MATTHEW III. 12. 

those also who receive baptism (See Acts i. 5, hut ye shall be 
baptized with the Holy Ghost), and also to the different times. — 
omeia /lov, after me) It was fitting that John should be born a 
little before the Messiah. — ip^o/ji'ivog, iliat cometh) sc. immediately: 
see ver. 13. — lsxi>poTsp6g [lov, mightier than I) One whom you 
ought to fear and to worship, rather than me, who am feeble. 
John teaches, both here and in ver. 12, that his power is not 
great ; whereas that of Christ, as God, is infinite.^ He does not 
say directly, " Messiah cometh after me," but expresses it by a 
paraphrase more obscurely, and yet more augustly. John, more- 
over, said this at the time when he possessed the greatest power ; 
see Acts xiii. 25. — ^aeraBai, to bear) As a servant bears the 
shoes, which his master has either called for, or commanded to 
be taken away. — Cf. Psa. Ix. 8.— Aurfs, He) Believe on Him : 
see Acts xix. 4. — Ifiag, you) sc. as many as shall receive Him. — 
^itTieii, shall baptize) i.e. abundantly impart ; see Titus iii. 6 ; 
Acts ii. 3, 4, 17, and x. 44 ; and shall thereby show Himself the 
mightier. The Holy Spirit and fire have the greatest power. — 
Iv, jc.r.X, in, etc.) This was the difference between John and 
Christ; see John i. 33. — UviufLari ' Aylifi, the Holy Ghost) See 
Gnomon on Luke iii. 16. — xal '!rvpl, and with fire) St Luke has 
these words, though St Mark has not : even, therefore, were the 
reading doubtful in St Matthew, there would be no danger f it 
is certain, however, that he also wrote mpl. The Holy Spirit, 
with which Christ baptizes, has a fiery power, and that fiery 
power was manifes^-ed to the eyes of men ; see Acts ii. 3. 

12. ol, whose) This, and AuroS, His, being placed emphati- 
cally thrice, shows the power of Christ. oS — auroD is a Hebraism. 
— TO rrrvov, the fan) i.e. the Gospel. — h rjj ^tip! Ain-ou, in His 
hand) even now. The whole of John's harangue, and therefore 
the commencement of the Gospel, agrees entirely with the last 
clause of Old Testament prophecy, in Mai. iii. 19—24, where 
the connection of things fi-om Moses to the conclusion of ancient 
prophecy, and thence to Christ's forerunner and Christ Himself, 

1 A power, which there is no one who shall not experience, either 
exercised for salvation, or else in terrible vengeance. — Vers. Germ. 

' Orig. 4, 131e, 132c, Iren. 321, Cypr. Hil. Vulg. have xai ttv^L It is 
only some more recent uncial MSS. (ESV in Tischend. Gr. Test.) and Syr. 
of JeruB,, which have omitted the words. — Ed. 


and the day of His universal judgment, is exquisitely and solemn- 
ly declared. — Airou, His) Neither His forerunner, nor any of 
His apostles, had this fan in the same manner as the Lord Jesus 
Himself. The consolation of His ministers in their weakness is, 
" The Lord will do it." Their wrath, though void of strength, 
IS not vain. — rfiv dXuva AiroC, His ihreshing-jloor) The wayfarers 
are in the threshing-floor, the conquerors in the garner.^ — AuroD, 
His) See Heb. iii. 6. — xal guvd^si rov sTrov Aunu lis H' &'!ro'b^xriv, 
and will gather His wheat into the gamer) Aurou, His, must 
either be omitted or construed with dcroS^x?;!', garner ;^ of. Matt. 
xui. 30, rJv Ht eirm ewayayiri 8/5 H> avo'b^Ktjii Mou, but gather the 
wheat into My gamer. The Same is Lord of the wheat as of the 
gamer : the Same of the gamer as of the threshing-floor. See 
Luke iii. 17. — iSt^u^oi/, chaff) The chaff is held of no° account.'' — 
irupl, with fire) Every one must be either baptized with fire here, 
or burned with fire hereafter : there is no other alternative. — 
ag^'eerif), unquenchable) See therefore that your sins be first 
blotted out. In Job xx. 26, the LXX. have irup axautTov, in- 
combustible fire [i.e. fire that cannot be burnt out] shall consume 
the ungodly: or, rather, from the Cod. Alex., ois^ssrov, un- 
quenchable, unextinguishable (which word would otherwise not 
be found in the LXX.), so as to render V&i NP 0K, fire which can 
never be extinguished. 

14, A/fxwXueii, forbade) John had not yet known that this was 
the Messiah. He had known, however, that the Messiah was 
close at hand, and that He would come to his baptism, and be 
indicated by a clear sign ; see John i. 33. In the meanwhile, 
as soon as he sees Jesus, from that sympathy by which he had 
been moved in the womb, and from His most gracious aspect, he 
judges that this candidate for baptism must be the Messiah, and 
skilfully declares his conviction by a previous protest.' See 

' One cannot well express in English the contrast implied in the very 
rhythm of Bengel's Latin, " In area sunt viatores, in horreo victores." — Ed. 

' " Which Luther has rightly done."— Not. Crit. 

' Cf. Gnomon on chap. xiii. 49.— (I. B.) 

' Although at times it is not unlike the wheat. — Vers. Germ. 

" By this protest, precaution was becomingly taken, on the part of Provi- 
dence, that the humiliation wherewith Christ condescended to undergo 
baptism, shoiild not prove at all derogatory to His dignity. — Vers. Germ. 


148 ST MATTHEW III. 15. 

Luther's Krchen Postille, on this passage, Fest. Epiph., Part II., 
ed. Spen., S. 95, 96. — lyii, I) It is probable that John himself 
had not been baptized : see Luke i. 15, fin. — %p£/«v, need) For 
it is elsewhere the part of the greater to baptize, of the less to 
be baptized, and to come on that account to one who baptizes. — 
um 2oD /3airr;iiS?va;, to be baptized by Thee) sc. with Thy baptism 
of the Spirit and of fire. If either of us is to be baptized by 
the other, I am he. — Ju 'ipxv i oomest Thou ?) sc. seeking to be 

15. "Apsg, permit) He courteously reduces John to silence. 
The word apinin, he permits, at the end of the verse, refers to 
this. — afri, now) sc. without delay, this once. — olirw, thus) as I 
have come to thee. — 'xpiirov, becoming) That, which did not to 
John appear becoming, was in reality especially so, because it 
was righteous. The propriety which is manifested in all the 
counsels and works of God, claims our attention and admira- 
tion. See Heb. ii. 10, vii. 26. The discourses and actions of 
Christ are pre-eminently conspicuous for that propriety, which, 
so well expressed by the Evangelists, afibrds a proof that they 
wrote under the impulse of the Holy Spirit, since it could not 
have been the product of human genius, however exalted. — 
i7/t», to us) Our Lord speaks as if He were not yet fiiUy known 
by John. It becomes Me, as the principal ; thee, as the minister. 
In the mind of Jesus it might also have this sense, " It becomes 
Me and My Father that I should fulfil all righteousness." See 
V. 17, and cf. Heb. ii. 10. — ickr^ftasai, to fulfil) all righteousness. 
This is effected, not by John and Jesus, but by Jesus alone, who 
undertook that very thing in His baptism ; whence the appella- 
tion, " baptism" is transferred also to His passion, Luke xii. 50. — 
iraaa,]/ Sixaiogmrit, all righteousness) i.e. all the component parts of 
righteousness ; and therefore this part also, the earnest of the 
other greater parts. In accordance with the particular view of 
righteousness, it would seem that John should be baptized by 
Jesus: in accordance with the universal compass of righteousness, 
the matter was inverted. Jesus uttered the words here recorded, 

Subsequently, by reason of the sign which, in accordance with the promise 
of God, was added after the baptism, John was so lauch the more confirmed 
and fitted for bearing testimony of Jesus being the Son of God. — Harm., 
y. 146. 

8T MATTHEW 111. 16-17. U7 

instead of that which others who were baptized, being sinners, 
confessed concerning their sins. Such a speech suited none save 
the Messiah Himself. In matters even the most humble, the 
Son of God watches over the right of His own majesty. See 
John xiii. 7, seqq., xiv. 30, xviii. 5, xx. 36. — rSre, then) sc. forth- 

16. 'Av£/3»j lu^vg, went up immediately) There was nothing to 
detain Him longer. Thus also He rose immediately from the 
dead. — Idov, x.r.x., lo, etc.) A novel and great occurrence. — 
AurjB, to Him) This implies far more than if the Evangelist 
had said " above Ilim." — ol oipavoi, the heavens) in the plural 

16, 17. Kal, x.r.X., and, etc.) A most glorious manifestation of 
the Holy Trinity, and a proof of what occurs when we are 
baptized, since Christ was not baptized for Himself. And He 
received the Holy Spirit to baptize us with. See John i. 33. — 
uiail inpigTip&v, like a dove) See Gen. viii. 10, 11. 

17. *wni, /c.r.X., a voice, etc.) A most open manifestation of 
God, such as those recorded in Acts ii. 2, 3 ; Exod. xix. 4, 9, 
16, xl. 34, 35 ; Num. xvi. 31, 42 ; 1 Kings viii. 10, 11, xviii. 
38. — ouros ieriv. This is) St Mark and St Luke record that it was 
said, " 2u il" " Thou art." St Matthew has expressed the mean- 
ing. The words, " ouro's — euSoxnea,," occur again in xvii. 5. 
Faith assents, declaring, " Thou art the Son of God," as in xvi. 
16. — 0, the) The article introduced twice has great emphasis. — 
T'lh;, Son) See John i. 18, and iii. 16 — &,ya.mnrli, beloved) This 
might appear to be a proper name (cf. ch. xii. 18), so as to pro- 
duce these two predications: (1.) This is Mi/ Son; (2.) He is 
the Beloved, in whom I am well pleased. It is clear, however, 
from Luke iii. 22, that Beloved is an epithet. Love is something 
natural, because This is the Son ; good-pleasure, something, as 
it were, additional, because He does the things which please the 
Father. He is the Beloved, the only one ; He shares not the 
Father's love with another. — b ^, in whom) The preposition in, 
in, indicates especially the object, and then also the cause of the 
Father's good-pleasure. The Son is of Himself the object of the 
Father's good-pleasm-e, and in the Son, all persons and all things. 
A phrase of the Lxx. ; cf. Gnomon on Col. ii. 18. — luSoxrjga, I 
am well pleased) The verb ixidoxZ, to be well pleased, and the noun 

14S ST MATTHEW IV. 1, 2. 

tuioxla,, good-pleasure, are employed when one is pleased either by 
what one has, or does ones's self, or by that which another has 
or does. Both parts of this notion agree with the present pas- 
sage concerning the good-pleasure of the Father in the Son ; for 
there is an eternal eropyfi (natural affection) towards the only- 
begotten, a perpetual graciousness towards the Mediator, and in 
Him towards us, the sons of reconciliation. In ch. xvii. 5, are 
added the words, " Aurou axouire," " Hear Him ;" for then He 
was about to speak of His passion : now they are not added ; for, 
at the commencement of His ministry. He only taught that 
which the Father spake, " This is My Son" 


1. ToTi, then) so. on His baptism. — dv^^^jj. He was led up) sc. 
towards Jerusalem, by an inward impulse. — i/'s rriv 'ipri/iov, into the 
wilderness) a wilder part than that mentioned in ch. iii. 1. — virh 
Tou nvii/Maros, by the Spirit) sc. the Holy Spirit; see ch. iii. 16. 
— mipaifyn^ai, to be tempted) This temptation is a sample of our 
Lord's whole state of humiliation (exinanitionis), and an epitome 
of all the temptations (not only moral, but still more especially 
spiritual), which the devil has contrived from the beginning. — 
wJ T(i\j A/a/3oXou, by the Devil) The lxx. generally render the 
Hebrew \t2&, Satan or Adversary, by i^idjSoKog, Devil or Accuser ; 
only in 1 Kings xi., and there twice or thrice, they translate it 
'Sa.rdv, Satan. 

2. N»)ffr£ii(rac, when He had fasted) no doubt by virtue of His 
baptism. Fasting implies also abstinence from drink. — fiM-'^pa;, 
days) In these days, during this retirement, matters of the 
greatest importance passed between God and the Mediator. — 
Ttgiapaxovra, forty) A celebrated measure of time, also, in the 
lives of Moses and Elijah. But the condition of Moses, when 
without food, was one of glory ; that of Christ (which" is more to 
be wondered at), one of humihation. An angel brought food to 
Elijah before his fast commenced ; many angels ministered to 
Christ after His fast ended. Jesus passed forty days before He 

ST MATTHEW IV. 3, i. 149 

appeared in public : forty days, as if for the sake of preparation 
before His ascension. — 'iKSrifov, afterwards) up to this point it had 
not been so much a temptation as a preparation for it : cf. the 
beginning of the following verse. — iitilmdi, He hungered) Hunger 
is a very bitter temptation ; thirst He experienced in His passion. 
This temptation may be compared with that which is described 
in Gen. iii. : the Tempter employed the same arts ; but that cause, 
which the first-formed pair of the human race had lost, Christ 

3. Jlfoesk'biiv Airp, having come to Him) sc. in a visible form. 
The Tempter watched his time.' — 6 ■ireipd^m, the tempter) who 
did not wish it to be known that he was Satan : yet Christ at 
the conclusion of the interview, and not till then, calls him, in 
ver. 10, Satan, after that Satan had plainly betrayed his satanity, 
i.e., pride, his peculiar characteristic. Thus, by Divine skill, 
He defeated his infernal skill. The tempter seems to have 
appeared under the form of a yfia/t/iarsif, scribe, since our Loru 
thrice replies to him by the word, yiypavrai, " It is written." — 
£/', if) Thus also, in ver. 6, Satan both doubts himself, and en- 
deavours to produce doubt, to take away that which is true, to 
teach that which is false. He solicits our Lord, stating that 
hypothetically, which had been (iii. 17) declared categorically 
from heaven. — slm, x.r.X., command, etc.) The tempter acknow- 
ledges that He who is the Son of God must be Almighty. — 
ol, x.r.X., these, etc.) i.e., that some one of these stones become 
bread [or a loaf} : see Luke iv. 3, [where it is, " Command this 
stone (sing.) that it be made bread."] — Xl^oi, stones) q. d., " You 
are in the wilderness, which has hard stones, but no bread." 
Nay, on very diflFerent grounds shalt thou become convinced, 
O Tempter, that this is the Son of God. Soon wiU He com- 
mence the work of thy destruction. See Luke iv. 34, 41. 

4. Viypavrai, it is written) Jesus does not appeal to the Voice 
from heaven: He does not reply to the arguments of the 
Tempter : against those argimients He employs the Scripture 
alone, and simply cites its assertions. He declines to state 

* Our Lord spent that season of the year in the wilderness, in which the 
nights are longer, the wild beasts more ravenous, the weather more incle- 
ment, and when there was no means of obtaining food either from trees nr 
herbs. — See Harm. Evanp. 149. 

150 ST MATTHEW IV. 4. 

whether He be the Son of God or not. When addressing man- 
kind, our Lord seldom quoted Scripture, but said, " I say unto 
you." He says that only in answer to Satan, " It is written ; " 
i.e., " Whoever I am, I assuredly keep to that which is. written." 
All the statements which He thus advanced were in them- 
selves indisputable : and yet He keeps to that, " it is written." 
By doing which. He declares that He is the Destined One who 
should fulfil Scripture ; and at the same time shows the high 
authority of Scripture itself, irrefragable even to Satan. — oiix si: 
afTtji fiovtf) XJneiTai avS^WTo;, aXX' Jm' Tair/ pruiari sxiropiuoftihifi dia ero- 
/j^arog Qeou, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word 
that proceedeth out of the mouth of God) The LXX. (Deut. viii. 3) 
prefix the definite article o to av^puirog (man), and repeat after 
©sou (of God) tfi<Sira,i 6 avbpiifxoi (shall man live). Even in the 
wilderness, the Israehtes had felt the force of these words. The 
sixth chapter of the same book is cited in ver. 7 and 10 : so that 
the two paraschae,' prinKl and Dpjf. contain the three sayings 
propounded to the Israelites in the wilderness, and in -the wil- 
derness employed by Christ as a sword against the tempter. 
At the same season of the year'' at which Moses had uttered 
them, Jesus employed these sayings against the tempter, — 
\i\<siTai, shall live, etc.) Jesus had experienced this during these 
forty days. It is equally easy to live without bread, or to make 
bread out of stone. This is truly aurdpxeia,^ constant tranquillity 
of mind (prcesens animi quies), to require nothing besides life. 
Jesus knew that He should live. — av^pum;, man. He does not 

' The Pentateuch is divided into 50 or 64 Paraschioth, or larger sections, 
according as the Jewish lunar year is simple or intercalary; one of which 
sections was read in the synagogue every Sabbath-day. This division many 
of the Jews suppose to have been appointed by Moses ; but it is by others 
attributed, and with greater probability, to Ezra. These paraschioth were, 
as in the instances referred to by Bengel, called by the Hebrew words with 
which they happened to begin ; they were further subdivided into smaller 
sections, termed Siderim, or orders (I. B.) 

'^ Grestell gives, as the date of our Lord's being led up into the wilder- 
ness (v. 1), Sebat 28, Jan. 24, Fer. 1 (i.e. Sunday) ; and of Satan's coming 
to Him (v. 3), Veader 9, Martii 6, Per. 6 (i.e. Friday). — See his Harmonia 
Evangelica. — (I. B.) 

' Literally, self-sufficingness — a word which sometimes signifies independ- 
ence, at other times has the force of entire contentedness. — (L B.) 

ST MATTHEW IV. 5. 151 

reply to the tempter with reference to the appellation, " Son 
of God," but speaks as if one of many, who were bound to the 
Written Word. And already in the time of Moses, Divine 
Wisdom had expressed all this testimony in those words with 
which the Saviour was to smite the tempter. Jerome says, 
" Propositum erat Domino humilitate Diabolum vincere, non 
potentia," — " The Lord had determined to overcome the Devil, 
not by power, hut by humility." — sri vavrl ^tulcuti sx-!ropevo/ji,'evw ha 
erof/iaTos Qioij, by every word that proceedeth out through the mouth 
of God) Thus in Psalm Ixxxix. (Ixxxviii.) 34, the LXX. have, 
concerning a Divine promise, r6t, sKVipiuo/jiista di& ruv ^nXsuii Mou 
— the things which proceed out through My lips. Cf. concerning 
vows : S. V. of Num. xxx. 13, and Deut. xxiii. 23 : Cf. also 
Jer. xvii. 16, and Num. xxxii. 24. — That which goeth forth out 
of the mouth (exitus oris), is put by Metonomy for that which is 
uttered by the mouth. — &<i eT6f/,arog, through the moutK) and, there- 
fore, from the heart. 

5. Tors, then) St Matthew describes the attempts of Satan in 
the order of time in which they were made ; see Gnomon on 
verses 8, 10 : St Luke observes a gradation in the places, and 
mentions successively (iv. 1, 5, 9) the desert, the mountain, the 
temple ; which change of order, not only harmless but beneficial, 
is a proof that the one evangelist did not copy from the other. 
Perhaps, also, the tempter assailed our Lord with something of 
the third temptation before the second, and appeared in various 
disguises. — •xapa'kaii^a.iiu, toketh along with him^) An abbreviated 
mode of expression^ for he takes and leads. The same word is 
used with the same force, in ver. 8. St Luke, iv. 9, 5, uses the 
words ^yayiv, led [Him], — amyayiiv, leading [Him] up. A 
marvellous power was granted to the tempter, until our Lord 
says to him, in ver. 10, "Depart." " It is not to be wondered 
at," says Gregory, "that Christ should permit Himself to be led 
about by the Devil, since He permitted Himself to be crucified 
by the Devil's members." Satan tempts everywhere. — Cf. on 
the change of place. Num. xxiii. 13, 27. Christ was tempted 
everywhere, in all places where afterwards He was to exercise 

1 See Blomfield in loc— (I. B.) 

» See Appendix on Concisa Oratio. — Ed. 


His oiBce. — ilg rfiv ayiav itL>.ii, into the holy city) where an angelic 
guard might have seemed especially to be expected. — ivl upon) 
Our Lord was as truly on the pinnacle, and on the mountain, as 
He was in the desert. — itrifxjyiov, pinnacle) to which the ascent 
was far more easy than the descent from it. What this pinnacle 
was, antiquarians doubt.^ Christ was tempted by height and 

6. Tiypa-jtrai, it is written) A most specious temptation, which 
appears to quote Scripture appositely. There is no doubt 
but that Satan must have often felt the force of this saying, from 
the protection which the angels extended to the godly against 
him. — 6V/ — vipl Sou xai iirl, x.r.X.) He shall give his angels charge 
concerning thee, and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest 
at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. The LXX. render 
Ps. xci. (xc.) 11, 12, — oTi — 'Tipi gov, Tou dioi.(pvXd^al ffs h irdgai; raTi 
itinTg eou M, x.r-X; He shall give his angels charge over thee, to 
keep thee in all thy way : they shall bear thee up in their hands, lest 
thou dash thy foot against a stone. The fraud of Satan consists 
rather in false apphcation, than in omission. — i-^ti x^'P^h *** their 
hands) That is, they shall guard Thee with great circumspection. 
— xtSov, a stone) i.e., one of those of which the Temple was built. 
The tempter applies the psalm speciously. 

7. ndXiv ysypavra,!, it is written again) Although Satan re- 
torted the phrase, " It is written," Jesus does not suffer it to be 
forcibly taken from Him as something trite, but employs it three 
times. Scripture is to be interpreted and reconciled by Scrip- 

' TO wTspiyiou. The article ro indicates something single of its kind ; and, 
therefore, wripvyiou cannot mean a porticus or corridor ; nor would there be 
any special emineTice in 'irrtpiyiov so understood. It rather signifies the apex 
of the fastigium, dtTafiec, or tympanum of the Temple. Cf. the use of the 
word (to TTTtpvyiov To5 lepov), also rov vativ, by Hegesippus (in Euseb, ii. 23, 
and Rovih, R.S. i. 210, 339), in his account of the martyrdom of St Jame.s. 
There, also, it is evidently a pointed eminence ; and it would seem that a 
person there standing, would be visible and audible to a large concourse of 
people, such as we may suppose collected in the court of the Israelites." — 
Wordsworth in loc. " The general opinion, that our Lord was placed on 
Herod's royal portico, described Jos. Ant. xv. 11, 6, is probably right. That 
portico overhung the ravine of Kedron from a dizzy height." — Alfordm.\oc. 
Various other suppositions have been speciously supported and illustrated. 

—a. B.) 

ST MATTHEW IV. 8-10. 163 

tnTe.~-tlx hveipdaiig, x.r.X.) thou shall not tempt, etc. — Thus the 
LXX. in Deut. vi. 16. According to the usage of those interpre- 
ters, ix'jriipd^eiv is not a word of stronger signification than veipa- 
i^iiv. — Jesus, however, means, " It is not Mine to provoke God by 
tempting Him.'' — Khpiov, the Lord) This is put as a proper 

8. ndXiv, again) This was the third and last conflict, as is evi- 
dent from the expression " Depart," ver. 10. — opos, a mountain) 
A new theatre of temptation. — dilxwuv, shows) To His eyes those 
things which the horizon enclosed : the rest, perhaps, by enume- 
ration and indication. Satan is a subtle spirit. 

9. Aueia, I will give) But the Son is the heir of all things, and 
whatever authority Satan possessed on account of man's defec- 
tion from God, that, Christ, stronger than he,^ took from him, 
not by compact, but by conquest. What the devil could not 
persuade Christ to do in his temptation, that he wiU effect by his 
vassal the Beast, see Rev. xiii. 2. And what he offered to 
Christ, he will give to that adversary of His, viz., the kingdoms 
of the world. — inv, x.r.X., if, etc.) Vast pride, to offer all the king- 
doms of the earth as a gift, in return for one act of adoration 
acknowledging that gift.' Without doubt, he appeared in an 
august form. 

10. "TTays, depart) " Get thee behind Me, Satan," said the Lord 
to Peter, when he took Him and endeavoured to dissuade Him 
from undergoing His passion ; thus commanding Peter to retire 
into the proper place of a disciple, i.e., behind Him. But to 
Satan He said. Depart, Satan : go, not behind Me, but plainly 
from Me. — SaravS, Satan) q.d. " Thou hast tried to discover who 
I am, and I tell thee who thou art." He calls the tempter, 
when he wished to appear specially gracious to Him, Satan.' — 
Kipiov — -jrpogxuvfieiig, x.r.X., Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, 
and Him only shalt thou serve) In Deut. vi. 13, the LXX. have 
Kupiov — ipo^riSrjgfi, x.r.X., Thou shalt fear the Lord, etc. Jesus 
substitutes worship aptly for fear. — Cf. ver. 9. — /toviji), only, alone) 

1 Luke xi. 21, 22.— (I. B.) 

' " What the angel did not permit John to do, that the tempter demands 
of Jesus, the Lord of all (Rev. xxii. 8, 9)."— Vers. Germ. 

'For he had plainly showed, by his pride, that he was Satan. — Vers. 

^^* ST MATTHEW IV. H, 12. 

Thus the LXX. have it, who have inserted ^ovos also in Gen. 
iii. 11, 17, without doing violence to the meaning. 

11. "AyyeXoi, angels) Who had probably witnessed the contest. 
Cf. 1 Cor. iv. 9 ; 1 Tim. iii. 16. — dirixovouv, ministered) Un- 
doubtedly, by doing that which was then necessary, sc. bringing 
Him food. — Cf. 1 Kings xix. 5, 6. 

12, 'Axouffag 8i Sti, x.r.X., but having heard tJiat, etc.) The name 
of Jesus is expressed in ver. 17. It is not expressed in ver. 12,^ 
because this passage, verses 12—16, when taken in connection 
with what precedes it, intimates in what manner John made 
room for the Lord. But in ver. 17, etc., is described the actual 
commencement of the Lord's preaching, in which is included the 
vocation of the two pairs of brothers. Wherefore, in ver. 18, 
'iriffoijg, Jesus, is again understood, but not expressed. — ■raptSodri, 
was delivered up) sc. to confinement in prison (in custodiam). — 
See ch. xi. 2. As John decreased, Jesus increased.^ — anyj)pr\ei\/, 

' So BC»DZ Memph. Vulg. (MS. Amiat.) Orig. 3, 502c, i, l«Slc. Rec. 
Text with fewer very ancient authorities, viz., Pabc. Hil. 620, reads o ' lymis- 
— Ed. E. V. renders it, " Now when Jesus had heard." — (I. B.) 

^ Most fittingly the imprisonment of John is mentioned as it were in pass- 
ing, and the death of the same, in chap. xiv. 3, not as (when) the fact 
occurred, but as (when) it reached the ears of Jesus. And yet a long inter- 
val cannot have elapsed between the beginning of John's imprisonment and 
the report of it reaching Christ. In John iii. 24, the Baptist was not yet 
imprisoned, but yet he was on the point of ' decreasing,' ver. 29, 30. And not 
even at chap. iv. 1 is mention made of his imprisonment ; and at chap. v. 
35 he is no doubt said "to have been ('was') a burning and shining lamp," 
but it does not follow from this, that he, at that time, when Christ asserted 
this of him, was already confined in prison (for not even in that state did he 
altogether cease to be a burning and shining lamp). In fact, John is men- 
tioned in the past tense (John v. 36), in respect to the fact that the Jews 
had already become sated and weary of the joy which they had derived from 
John, and The True Light, Jesus Christ, by His infinite splendour, had all 
but eclipsed John, who was, at it were, but a wax-light lamp. Besides, we 
must take into account, that the Saviour foreknew the imprisonment and 
subsequent death impending over John. Therefore the latter must have 
been cast into prison almost six months after the commencement of his 
public ministry, about Pentecost, and about a full year elapsed from that 
time till his death. They who maintain that more than three Passovers 
intervened between our Saviour's baptism and His death, must of necessity 
assign two years to John's imprisonment, which is less suitable to the 
general requirements of the ease. For John ought rather to have passed 

ST MATTHEW IV. 13-16, 188 

he departed) The same verb occurs, ch, xiv. 13, from a siiniiar 
cause.'— £/s r^v VaXiXalav, into Galilee) and, indeed, into that 
part of Galilee which was farthest from Herod and the prison 
of John, St Matthew speaks of the whole of Galilee in opposi- 
tion to Judea, where the temptation had taken place, Jesus 
then came forth from private into public life,° 

13. N(xt,a.pir, Nazareth) where He had hitherto resided.— 
'rapaSaXaeelav, which is upon the sea-coast) See vv. 15, 18. 
A place much frequented. 

15, 16. r^ Za^ouXiiv xat yr) Nfp^aXE/'/*, idhv ^aXaffifjjs iripav toZ 
'lopidvou TaXiXaia tuv ihm, i Xahg 6 vopeuofiivog^ h exorei eTSi ipug 
uAya, xa! nT; xa67i/^svoi; h p^ufxy xal exi^ 6ava,Tou, <pug a/iruXiv 
auToTg, The land of Zahulon, and the land of Nephthalim, hy the 
way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; the 
people which walketh in darkness saw great light; and to them 
which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up) 
The LXX. thus render the passage in Is. viii. 23 and ix. 1 : * 
^wpa Za^ouXii]/, t; 7^ iHt^SaXcl/ju, xal 0; Xoivol 01 T7\v vapaXiav, xai 
Trepav roD lopddvov VaXiXaici, rSit eSvuv. ' O Xabg i •ffopiuo/J-ivos sv exorii, 
i&sre (jiug niya' 01 xa,Toixo\Jvrtg iv X'^Pf ""' ""? 6ava,Tov (pSi; Xd/i.'^ii e<p 
vfiag, — Country of Zahulon, the land of Nephthalim, and ye the 
rest who inhabit the region siticated by the sea, and bounded by^ 
the Jordan, thou Galilee of the Gentiles ! Thou people which 
walketh in darkness, behold ye a great light : ye who dwell in the 
country and shadow of death, a light shall shine upon you. The 
two verses are in Isaiah most closely connected together, on 
which ground the Evangelist takes part of the topography from 

over the scene quickly, even including his imprisonment. The One Great 
Prophet, Jesus, passed the principal part of His appointed time alone in His 
Omce.— Harm., p. 183, 184. 

* Our Lord now departed on account of the imprisonment. He afterwards 
did so on account of the death, of the Baptist. — (I. B.) 

- Viz., that of Galilee.— (I. B.) 
"E. M. x»6ifcei>os.—(I. B.) 

* This is the Hebrew notation. In the lxi., the Vulgate, and the Eng- 
lish Version, the extract is contained in Isaiah ix. 1, 2. — (I. B.) 

' I have rendered irspct:/ bounded by, instead of beyond, in accordance with 
the remarks which immediately follow on the ""a* of the original Hebrew. 
I may add in illustration, that LiddeU and Scott say of iripa and ■ripxp, 
" They are, no doubt, the dative and accusative of an old substantive — n 
vfp» = vupap, itilp»i, xiptiSt fnd, boundary." — (I. B.) 

166 ST MATTHEW IV. 16. 

the former [to explain the application of the latter]. Many of 
the apostles were from this region. See Ps. Ixviii. 28 ; Acts i. 11, 
ii. 7. — 'y^, land, and XaJs, people, are placed in opposition.— 
idhv, the way) The LXX. render TiT {wa^) by odhv (way). We 
must here understand xara, by. The exactness of the pro- 
phetical topography is marvellous, minutely accurate both in 
latitude and longitude. — SaXauirjis, of the sea)) See ver. 18. — 
vipav Tou'lop8dvov, beyond the Jordan) The Hebrew "13J?,^ rendered 
in the present passage by the Greek -x'spav {beyond), is used with 
reference to a boundary considered in reference to, not only 
the farther side, but the hither side also. — TaXiXaia. roiv J&kwv, 
Galilee of the Gentiles) Galilee, though inhabited by Israelites, 
was conterminous to the Gentiles, especially as far as the tribes 
of Zabulon and Naphthali were concerned. — See Killer's Ono- 
mata Sacra, p. 816. Galilee, previously to the time under con- 
sideration, was behind Judaea in the cultivation of sacred 
learning : the .citadel of the Levitical worship was at Jerusalem : 
the Jews therefore ought to have acknowledged our Lord more 
readily than the Galilaeans, to whom a compensation is now 
made for their previous disadvantages. 

16. 'O mpiuoij.tvoi, that walketh) There is here a threefold 
ascending climax.' 

FiEST Clause. 
The people that Walketh 

In Darkness 

Hath seen a Great Light. 

Second Clause. 

And on those sitting 

In the Region and Shadow of 


A Light hath arisen. 

It is worse to sit, detained, in darkness, than to walk in it.^ — 
a(3e, hath seen — (pZg, aLight^) No one is saved except he be illu- 
minated [by that Light]. See Acts xiii. 47. — xa/ roTg xa.%fihoig, 

1 Sc. of Galilee.— (I. B.) 

2 Commonly, The region beyond. — (I. B.) 

' i.e. The three expressions used in the latter clause of this sentence are 
respectively stronger than those used in the former clause. — (I. B.) 

* Unfortunately for this remark, there is no very ancient authority for 
Tro^evoftsiio;. All the oldest MSS. and versions, Vulg., etc., read x,a.6^ntH<s. 
Lachm. and Tischend. do not even notice the former reading Ed. 

» " Wb:ch illumines the whole world."— B. G. V. 

ST MATTHEW IV. 17. 167 

x.r.X., and to those sitting, etc.) The LXX. in Ps. cvii. (cvi.) 10, 
have xa^ri/ihov; h <sx6tu xa.1 e%i^ 'ha.vaTou, sitting in darkness and 
the shadow of death. The verb to sit aptly denotes a sluggish 
solitude. — x'^f't ""^ *""?) '''sgion and shadovi) one thing expressed 
by two words.^ The natural situation of the country was low, 
and such was also its spiritual condition. — avim'kiy avroTg, hath 
risen upon them) In the original Hebrew it is m, shines, upon 
them. This increased force of expression corresponds with the 
epithet iiisya, great, in the preceding clause. 

17. "Hp^an, leganY A word of frequent occurrence. It indi- 
cates the commencement of an action to be often repeated, or of 
one deHberate and ample, or even of long continuance. — n ^aai- 
Xela, the kingdom) It is an example of elegance in the Divine 
style, that first the kingdom should be said to have come in the 
abstract, then the King or Messiah in the concrete. The former 
mode of expression suits the hidden beginnings, the latter the 
triumphant consummation, [of the Gospel Dispensation]. — Cf. 
Gnomon on Luke i. 35, and 2 Thess. ii. 3. — ii pamXiia, tuv oupa- 
iSiv, the kingdom of the Heavens) i.e., the kingdom of God (cf. ch. 
V. 3, with Luke vi. 20); for it is called also thus by St Matthew, 
sometimes, as his book proceeds, and is always thus denominated 
in the other books of the New Testament,' e.g. Acts i. 3, xxviii. 

' In the original, tu S/oJ Ivolu. See Explanation of Technical Terais — 
(I. B.) 

* " Jesus had indeed begun to teach in the schools at Nazareth before He 
had come thence to Capernaum (see Lukeiv. 16), but now raising His voice, 
He betook Himself to x^pvyfia also, or proclaiming the kingdom of God. 
The King Himself acted as His own herald." — B. H. E., p. 190. 

^ The Kingdom of the heavens. Repentance, and the Gospel, are three terms 
which are found most frequently, not only in St Matthew, but also in BS. 
Mark and Luke ; but never in the Gospel of John. But the latter propounds 
the same truths substantially by very graceful modes of expression. He no 
doubt uses the phrase, the Kingdom of God, in accordance with the custom 
of the rest of the Evangelists, but only in the conference with Nicodemus ; 
indicating that same truth by implication, when Jesus is described as the 
Son of God, as the Life, as the Light, as the Bridegroom, as He into whoa 
hands the Father hath given all things, to whom He hath committed power 
over all flesh, as also all judgment ; who, in fine, is to draw all men to Himself, 
and such like declarations. John intimates Repentance, when he urges on 
us the birth from above, the need of coming to Jesus, and having faith in Him, 
etc. That which he delights m terming the Testimony, is the same thing 

168 ST MATTHEW IV. 18-2^. 

31, and Eom. xiv. 17. The Metotiomy by which Heaven is sub- 
stituted for Grod, is of frequent occurrence, and very suitable to 
the j5rst times of the Gospel. — See ch. iii. 2. By the expression, 
" The Kingdom of the Heavens," which is almost peculiar to 
the books of the New Testament, the hope of an earthly king- 
dom was cut away,^ and all were invited to Heavenly things. 
It is thus called with a regard to its final consummation. — See 
Luke xxi. 31, and Acts i. 3. 

18. QaXaeeav rng TaXaXalag, Sea of Galilee) See verses 15, 23. 
— 'Sl/, Simon) Simon, the first who followed on this occasion, 
was the first to remain. 

1 9. AiuTt, come ye) This word has the force of calling com- 
bined with the idea of the present moment ; see xi. 28, xxi. 38, 
etc. This is evident from the-singular 8evpo, hither. — mifigoi, x.r.X., 
I will make, etc.) The authority of Jesus Christ [is here asserted]. 
— aXiiTg, fishers) See Jer. xvi. 16. 

20. EMew?, straightway) A promptitude and quickness in fol- 
lowing our Lord is denoted in James and John, in ver. 22, 
where ibSiias occurs again. The same quickness is denoted in 
ver. 19, in the case of Peter and Andrew, by the word AsDrs, 
whether you read lO^swj or not. In the very ardour of doing 
their daily work, they received the call. Thus also Matthew 
ch. ix. 9, blessed moment I — n^aXobirivav, they followed) Ingenu- 
ously, without any immediate stipulation concerning reward. — 
See ch. xix. 27. 

21. Mfrii Zi^iSalov, with Zebedee) They were therefore youths ; 
their father Zebedee being still in his prime, and both their 
parents ahve. John lived seventy years longer. James was the 
first of the apostles who died ; John survived him a long time.^ 
— xaTa,pTit,ovTa,g, adjusting for work) This word is said of a vessel 
or tool,' which is either prepared for work or repaired after work. 
The first meaning is more suitable to this passage. The sons 
of Zebedee, as well as those of Jonas, on more than one occa- 

as the Gospel. These his variations of phraseology are calculated to edify 
the attentive reader, provided only that we do not fasten wholly on the mere 
words, but admit their power to pervade the inmost recesses of the heart. — 
Harm., p. 190, 191. 

1 "Praecidebatur."— (I. B.) 

^ These two are more frequently joined together in the New Testament 
than Peter and Andrew. — B. G. V. 

ST MATTHEW IV. 23, 24. 16q 

sion, abandoned the work in which they were respectively en- 
gaged with the greatest promptitude and obedience. 

23. Kal vipiijyev, x.r.X., And Jesus went about, etc.) Thus, also, 
clearly in ch. ix. 35.' — xripunfiav, preaching) His teaching in the 
synagogues was public, but His preaching more public still. — See 
ch. X. 27, and xi. 1 ; comp. also Luke viii. 39 ; John iii. 2, 4. — to 
ixiayyeXiov, the Gospel) The chief teaching of Christ was the 
Gospel : the other things which He taught concerned only the 
removing impediments [to its saving reception]. — rra ^aaiXelag, 
of the kingdom) sc. of God. In Holy Scripture God is the per- 
petual object of contemplation. — ■jrana.v, every) No one sick or 
dead, whom Jesus met, remained in sickness or death. — voaov, 
disease) vogog signifies a disease of the whole body : /iaXaxla, an 
infirmity of any particular part, attended with pain : Bdaavog 
(ver. 24), a torture, or malady accompanied by excruciating 
pain : /iden^ (Luke vii. 21), a scourge. — h rffi Xap, among the 
people) Among the people of Israel : and it was among the people, 
[i.e., in public,] that, as the sick were promiscuously brought to 
Him, even those were healed whose disease was a matter of 
public notoriety ; see John ix. 8, and Acts iii. 10. But in the 
case of miracles of later times, men, or dumb images, to whom 
they are pretended to have happened, are thrust forth from some 
obscure nook or other by collusion. 

24. 'A'jt^X^iv, went out thence) sc. afar. — dxofi, fame) The LXX. 
frequently render nj(DB'^ by axorj. — 2u»'av, Syria) The province 
of which Palestine was considered apart — mpoefiviyxav A\ira,they 
brought unto Him) Even the Syrians did so. — roiig xaxSig 'i'xpvTo.g, 
those who were ill) ° The miracles of Jesus Christ were performed 
for the good* of men. — See John vi. 2 ; Matt. xi. 5 ; Acts 

' See also Mark vi. 6 ; Acts x. 38, etc. It was by this system that He, 
in so short a ministry, benefited a vast multitude of men by His teaching 
and miracles; thereby He the more trained His disciples; and, moreover, 
produced this efiFect, that men, so far from being weary of Him, even from 
time to time conceived the stronger yearning desire after Him. — Harm., p. 
235, 236. 

2 ns^no and nsao prop, that which is heard : hence (1). a message, tidings, 
whether joyful or sorrowful, especially a message sent from God: hence (2), 
iq. instruction, teaching doctrine ; (3), rumour. — Gesenius. — (I. B.) 

3 " Male hahentes."—{l. B.) 

« Salutem, health or salvation— i.e, they were [with rare exceptions] 

leO ST MATTHEW IV. 25.-T. 1, 2. 

X. 38. — da,i/iovit^o/j.svous, possessed with devils) The sick and the 
possessed are frequently mentioned together. — See Acts v. 16. 

25. "o^Xoi, multitudes) The plural is used on account of the 
various places from which they came. — AmanXsug, from Deca- 
polisY situated on both sides of the Jordan. Samaria is not 
mentioned in this enumeration. — mpav, beyond) i.e., dm rra -ir'sfav 
— from the country beyond. 


1. 'Idiiv, seeing) sc. afar off. — ofog, mountain) and moreover ttie 
higher part of the moimtain. There He prayed and selected 
His apostles ; see Mark iii. 13—19 ; Luke vi. 12—16. After- 
wards he came half way down the mountain ; and, as He was 
coming down with His disciples, He met the people coming up, 
and sat down there to teach ; see note on Luke vi. 17.^ A 
mountain, as being a lofty part of the earth, and thereby nearer 
to heaven, is best suited for the most holy actions. — •irpceriXScn 
AOrS, came unto Him^) The close admittance and docihty of 
recent disciples. 

2. 'Avol^ai, X.T.K., having opened, etc.) A beginning studiously 
made is great part of a great matter. In commencing narra- 
tions of great and deliberate affairs. Scripture uses the phrases, 

miracles of mercy, the effect of which was to improve the condition of those 
on whom they were performed (I. B.) 

1 The region called Decapolis comprehended the ten cities of Scythopohs : 
Hippos, Gadara, Dies, Pella, Philadelphia, Gerasa, Canatha, Capitolias, and 
Abila.— PT. Hughes.— {I. B.) 

' The night, which is mentioned in Luke vi. 12, succeeded to [followed 
immediately after] miracles, as appears from Mark iii. 10, and preceded 
miracles, according to Luke vi. 18. What is said in the beginning of 
Matt. V. is suited to the even-tide, which put a close to both classes of 
miracles, viz., Seeing the multitudes, He went up into a mountain : the day 
following will thus claim to itself the rest of His proceedings, viz., When He 
was set (seated), i.e., after the cures recorded in Luke, which he had per- 
formed standing, — His disciples came unto Him. — Harm., p. 242. 

' Not only the twelve— B. G. V. 

ST MATTHEW V. 8. 161 

He turned hvs sJwulders, He moved his feet, He raised his eyes, 
He opened His mouth. See Acts x. 34, Here the fountain 
began to pour forth water. Cf. Matt. xiii. 35. — edldagxiv. He 
taught) He instructed by doctrine, by consolation, by exhorta- 
tion, by precept. — auroug, them) the disciples. For He addresses 
these, in the hearing of the multitudes ;^ see vii. 28. The Evan- 
gelists have transcribed at full length two discourses of our Lord, 
as models of all the rest ; the one delivered publicly at the com- 
mencement of His ministry, that namely which we are now 
considering ; the other privately at its conclusion, recorded in 
John xiii.— xvi. Our Lord's object in the present discourse is to 
teach true righteousness (see Isa. Ixiii. 1) : and He also declares 
at the same time, that He came to establish the Law and the 
Prophets, and exposes the spurious character of the righteous- 
ness of the Scribes and Pharisees. In the exordium, there is 
firstly, ver. 3, 4, a sweet invitation to the fellowship of true 
righteousness, and therein of blessedness ; secondly, ver. 13, 14, 
to the communication of it to others. From ver. 17 to vii. 12, 
there is a treatise, the end of which corresponds with the begin- 
ning, even to a word. The conclusion of this discourse, firstly, 
oil. vii. 13, 14, points out the gate of righteousness ; secondly, 
eh. vii. 15, 16, warns against false prophets, who go themselves, 
and lead others, into all kinds of error ;^ and thirdly, vii. 24, 25, 
exhorts us to fulfil these precepts of righteousnesss. The im- 
pression produced by the Heavenly Teacher's discourse on those 
who heard Him, is described in the two last verses of the same 

3. Maxcipwi, blessed) This initial word, so often repeated, indi- 
cates the object of Christ's teaching.' By means, however, of 
striking paradoxes, blessedness is proposed not only by itself, 
but inasmuch as, in Christ now present, it is within the reach of 
all who are capable of receiving Him. There were some such 
amongst our Lord's auditors, though undistinguished by the eye 
of man (see ch. ix. 36, 37, xi. 28 ; Isa. xxix. 19), although 

' [He, however, addressed the latter also at the same time; v. 17.— V. g.] 

' In alia omnia ducentibus et euntibus— literally, "leading and going into 
all other things"— sc. other than the strait gate.— (I. B.) 

' The first word of this discourse announces its whole scope ; a great 
blessedness is here p'aced before us by the Lord.— See Heb. ii. 3.— 
B. G. V. 

VOL. I. I' 

162 ST MATTHEW V. 3. 

compared with the rest they were not many in number : for the 
epithet blessed frequently impHes both the excellence and rarity 
of a thing (as in Ecclus. xxxi. 8), from which the expressions, 
theirs, they, etc., exclude those otherwise disposed : cf. Luke vi. 
24, 25, 26, where the woes are denounced. Seven however of 
the ij.ts.nafi«ijjtsl, or predications of blessedness, are absolute, declar- 
ing the condition of the godly, as far as regards themselves ; 
two are relative, having respect to the conduct of men towards 
them. In both cases the kingdom of heaven is placed first, as 
embracing the whole of the beatitudes. All are enumerated in 
a most beautiful order. With these may be compared the 
matter and order of the eight woes, which are denounced 
against the Scribes and Pharisees, in ch. xxiii. 13-16, 23, 25, 
27, 29. In both cases mention is made of the kingdom of 
heaven, here ver. 3, there ver. 13 ; of mercy, here ver. 7, there 
ver. 23 ; of purity, here ver. 8, there ver. 25 ; and of persecxir 
tion, here ver. 10, 11, and there ver. 29, 30 : and undoubtedly 
the other clauses may also be respectively compared with each 
other. In the subject, the saints are described as they are now 
in this life ; in the predicate, as they will be hereafter on that 
day : see Luke vi. 25, 23. Our Lord, however, frames His 
words in such a manner, as at the same time to intimate the 
blessedness of individual saints already commencing in the pre- 
sent life, and to signify prophetically the blessedness of the holy 
people, which will hereafter be theirs also upon earth : see ver. 5. 
— 01 Trw;^o(, the poor) A vocative, either expressly or such in 
meaning (cf. ver. 11, and Luke vi. 20). Nor does the pronoun 
auruv, theirs, oppose this view. Cf. Gnomon on xxiii. 37. Poverty 
is the first foundation. ITe is poor, who has it not in his power 
to say, this is mine ;' and who, when he has anything for the 
present, does not devise what he will have for the future, but 
depends on the liberality of another. The riches which are dis- 
claimed by such poverty, are either spiritual or natural, and are 
either present or absent. Such cardinal and fundamental virtues 
are despised by the world : whereas those which the world ad- 
mires as such, are either no virtues, or false ones, or merely the 
offshoots and appendages of Christian virtues. — vviv/j^aTi, in 

• i.e.. Has nothing which he can call his own. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW V. 4, 5. 163 

spirit) i.e. in their inmost self. This word is to be understood 
also in the following passages as far as ver. 8, where the words 
rfi xaidlcc, in heart, occur. — or/, because) Each Hnd of blessed- 
ness which is predicated corresponds with the previous descrip- 
tion of [the character or condition which is] its subject,^ and is 
taken, either (1.) from the contrary (for the works of God, 2 Cor. 
iv. 6, vii. 6, xii. 9, are effected in the midstof their contraries);'' 
or (2.) regulated by a law of benignant retribution or exact 
conformity.* — esriv, is) sc. already. The present in this verse, and 
the fdture in those which follow, mutually imply each other. — 
ij ^atiXila rZv ou^awwv, the kingdom of heaven, literally, the king- 
dom of the heavens),* which, promised in the Old Testament, is 
actually conferred by the Messiah. 

4 and 5. 01 'ffinSouvreg, x.r.X.) they that mourn, etc. — o/ •!rp(ftii, x.r.X., 
the meek, etc.) Most of the Latins transpose these verses, and 
certainly the third and fifth verses correspond with each other. 
Blessed are the POOK in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of 
HEAVEN ; blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. 
''iy =z-7rTuy;h;, poor, 13J? = -jr^aiis, meek, especially in Ps. xxxvii. 11, 
where the inheritance of the earth is spoken of, and ibid. ver. 14. 
But this does not interfere with our order of the verses; for ver. 4 
is subordinate to ver. 3, and ver. 6 to ver. 5." Mourning has a 

' Sc. of the present state of the subject. Ex. gr. " Blessed are they that 
mourn : for they shall be comforted." — Ed. 

' In the original, " in mediis contrariis," the full force of which it is diffi- 
cult to give by a single phrase. Bengel's meaning is best obtained by a re- 
ference to the texts which he gives. — (I. B.) 

2 In the original, " a talione benigna proximave convenientia," where 
talio (talion) is used in a sense cognate with its original derivation from 
talis, such, but unknown (as far as I am aware) to classical usage. It is 
one of those peculiar adaptations of words frequently occurring in Bengel, 
and sanctioned (in its principle) by no less an authority than Horace. — See 
his ArsPoetica, ver. 47, 48. For an example of Bengel's meaning, cf ver. 7, 
8 of this chapter.— (I. B.) 

* This expression, the Hngdom of the heavens, marks the commencement 
of the discussion (tractatio) in this verse, as it also marks the close of the 
discussion in ver. 10. — Vers. Germ, 

« For the arrangement, whereby the beatitude of oi ■r^a.sif comes before 
that of 01 ■yrtviovm;, there are Dae Vulg. Orig. 3, liOd, Euseb. Canon. 
Hilary 61\d, 622a. For the arrangement of the Kec. Text, o/ vivi. — o/ 
Tfociis, there are of very old authorities BA. — Ed. By the word avrol it is 

164 ST MATTHEW V. 4-6. 

more widely extended signification than sorrowing for onis own 
sins. See Gnomon on 1 Cor. v. 2. 

4. nafaxXj]^^<ron-a/, shall be comforted) Tiie future tense indi- 
cates promises made in the Old Testament, and now to be per- 
formed; see liuke xvi. 25, and 2 Thess. ii. 16. The poor and 
the meek are joined together in ver. 3, 5, as in the frequently- 
occurring p'^Kl ''iV, poor and needy, of. also eh. xi. 29. 

5. o'l 'TrpoiiTi, the meek) Those are here named for the most part, 
whom the world tramples on. — ^^9605 is connected with the Latin 

pravus, which has frequently the meaning of segnis, slow, slug- 
gish, etc. — xXripovof/ii^tovfi, shall inherit) the future. The meek 
are seen everywhere to yield to the importunity of the inhabi- 
tants of the earth ; and yet they shall obtain possession of the 
earth, not by their own arm, but by inheritance, through the aid 
of the Father : cf. Rev. v. 10. In the mean time, even whilst 
the usurpation of the ungodly continues, all the produce of the 
earth is ordered for the comfort of the meek. In all these sen- 
tences, blessedness in heaven and blessedness on earth mutually 
imply each other. See Ps. xxxvii. (xxxvi.) 11, — OS Si ■Trpcj.tTg 
xXtipovo/iridouii jrst, xa,} xaraTfuipfiaovgiv M irXnhi iiprivrii;, But the meek 
shall inherit the earth, and shall delight themselves in the abund- 
ance of peace. This is, indeed, the subject of that whole Psalm ; 
see ver. 3, 9, 22, 29, 34. 

6. O/ •jrinSivrtg xal Si'^Zimg, x.t.X, who hunger and thirst, etc.) 
who feel that of themselves they have no righteousness by which 
they may approve themselves either to God or man, and eagerly 
long for it. Faith is here described, suitably to the beginning of 
the New Testament. — rrit SixawaCvriv, righteousness) Our Lord 
plainly declares Himself here to be the author of righteousness. 
That which is signified here is not the right (jus) of the human, 
but of the Divine tribunal. This verse is the centre of this pas- 
sage, and the theme of the whole sermon. Our Lord does not 
say. Blessed are the righteous, as he presently says. Blessed are 
the merciful, etc. ; but. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after 
righteousness. Pure righteousness wiU become their portion in 
due time. (See 2 Pet. iii.13; Is. lx.21.) — ^opTaae^sovTai, they sliall 

implied that the contraries to these beatitudes shall be the portion of those 
oppositely disposed. — Vers. Germ. 

8T MATTHEW V. 7-Tl. 1« 

be filled) with righteousness ; see Rom. xiv, 17. This was the 
meat of Jesus himself: see John iv. 34 ; cf. Matt. iii. 15. 
This satisfying fulness He proposes to His followers in the whole 
of this sermon, and promises and offers them in this very verse. 

7. 'EXiri/ji,on;, the merciful) The Greek word 'iXio;, ruth, from 
which iKtriiMoni is derived, corresponds to the Hebrew HDn,^ and 
does not refer merely to miserable objects. 

8. 0/ xaSapol rri xaphicj,, the pure in heart) Ceremonial purity is 
not sufficient. Jesus requires, and teaches, the virtue of the 
heart. Purity of heart includes both chastity and freedom from 
the other defilements of sin. — rhv Qehv b'-vj/oira/, shall see God) 
A clear knowledge of God is promised even now, but in words 
which will be more literally ftilfilled in life eternal : see 1 John 
iii. 2, 3, 6 ; cf. concerning the opposite to purity, 1 Thess. iv. 5. 

9. Eipnvomici!, peacemakers) They who make all lawful peace 
between those who are at variance, at discord, or at war, — uiol, 
sons) How great is this dignity 1 — ©sou, of God) who is the God 
of peace. — x\rt6ri(iovra.i, shall be called) i.e., shall be in name and 
in reality. 

10. O/ hihw/jj/im, they who endure persecution) In the next 
verse, SsSniiyfiim signifies. Those who have offered themselves to 
undergo persecution. Our Lord already announces the treat- 
ment which He and His followers will receive from the world. 
He unfolds this truth, however, gradually. He speaks of His 
yoke in ch. xi. 29 ; of His cross in xvi. 24. By comparing Mark 
viii. 34, and Matt. x. 38, it appears that He speaks of His cross to 
His disciples alone. — hixev dixaioauvrj?, for righteousness' sake) 
In the next verse. He says, for My sake ; cf. ch. x. 39, 42, xn. 
25, xviii. 5, xix. 12, 29. 

11. ' Onihlemeiv, shall revile) sc. in your presence : understand 
Mpoimi, men. They inflict insult by words, persecution in fact. 
— u/iac, you) Jesus speaks sometimes in the first person plural 
of Himself, and mankind, taken collectively, when the matter 
treated of is one plainly external (see John xi. 7), or when He 
speaks as one unknown (see ch. iii. 15, John iv. 22) ; but mostly 

' ■'?'?. • • (1) in * good sense, zeal towards any one, love, kindness, spe- 
cially (a) of men amongst themselves, benignity, benevolence, as shown in 
mutual benefits ; mercy, pity, when referring to those in misfortune < Gen. 
xxi. 23 ; 2 Sam. x. 2. Lxi. often eXeof.— Gesenius — (I. B.) 

leS ST MATTHEW V. 12-14. 

uses the second person, to signify that He is not on a par with 
others. See ver. 12, 13, 20; John vi. 49, x. 34, xiv. 9, xx. 17. 
— iWugi, shall say) sc. in your absence. 

12. Xalperi, rejoice) Joy is not only a feeBng, but also a duty 
of the Christian (see Phil. iv. 4) ; and in adversity, the highest 
grade and very nerve of patience. — ayaWiaek, he exceeding glad) 
so that others also may perceive your joy. — on, x.r.X, because, etc.) 
You may therefore rejoice on account of your reward. — o /iig6h;, 
the reward) sc. of grace. The word Reward implies something fur- 
ther beyond the beatitudes, which spring from the very disposi- 
tion of the righteous. Therefore it is said, Rejoice. — roug vpoip^rai, 
theprophets) who, by bearing witness to Christ, have encountered 
hatred (see Acts vii. 52), whose reward you know to be great. 
Persecution has not occurred only in the case of barbarous nations 
whilst they were being converted to the Gospel, but always in 
the times of both the Old and New Testament: see 1 John iii. 
12, 13. 

13, 14. 'TfiiTs, you) sc. the first disciples and hearers of the 
Messiah. Salt and light are, in nature, things essential, and of 
widest use. Frequently in Scripture the same thing is first de- 
clared by metaphorical expressions, that our attention may be 
excited ; and then, when we have not understood it as we ought, 
and in the meanwhile have perceived our blindness, it is disclosed 
in plain words. — rrjg yjjs, of the earth). — rou xos/jjov, of the world) 
The earth of itself is without salt, the world without light. — 
eav, x.r.x., if, etc.) It is not affirmed in this passage, that salt does 
lose its savour ; but it is shown what, in such a case, would be 
the lot of the Salt of the earth. — /napavSri, should lose its savour) 
Gralen,' in his observations on Hippocrates, explains fn/idipu/jbha 
(the perf. pass. part, of this verb) by r& umisdn^a., i.e., which have 
no feeling; in Mark ix. 50, we find avaXov yivtirai, become saltless. 
It is the nature of salt to have and to give savour; and to this 
savour are opposed saltlessness, want of taste, value lost. — 
aXisS^gircci, shall it be salted) Impersonal. Neither can the salt 

^ Hippocrates, the greatest physician of antiquity, was born at the island 
of Cos in the 80th Olympiad, and flourished during the time of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War. Galen, second only to Hippocrates, was born at Pergamus, 
in the Lesser Asia, about the year 131. — See Encyclgpjldia Bbitannica 
-(I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW V. 14-17. 167 

(see Mark, cited above) nor the earth be seasoned from any other 
source. — 'i^ai, out of doors) far from any household use. — xai, 
and) sc. an(^ therefore. — xarwiraTiTgia.!, to be trodden underfoot) 
There is nothing more despised than one who wishes to be 
esteemed divine, and is not so.^ — utJ ruv avSpui'jruv, by men) i.e., 
by all who come in its way. This is the force here of the article 


14. ^"Opouj, a mountain) Appositely, cf. ver 1. Concerning the 
thing itself, see Rev. xxi. 10. 

15. Kaiovdi, do they light) Impersonal, c; xalovreg, those who 
light must be understood, cf. vii. 16. — wJ, under) i.e. behind. In 
Luke viii. 16, we find Imxdrca, underneath. 

16. "E//,'!rpo<t6iv ruv avSpui-jruv, before men) sc. all men. — otws, in 
order that) The force of this particle does not so much refer to 
the verb 'Ibaeiv (they may see) as to do^deuei (may glorify). — v/j,uv 
— ipya, your works) Your works, not yourselves. The light, not 
the candle.' — rJn Xiaripa, u/iwv, your Father) Who has begotten 
you like unto Himself. In the. whole of this address, the Son 
shows God to us as our Father, and that more richly than all 
the prophets of old. 

17. M)5 vo/iigriri, Do not think) An elliptical mode of speech by 
Metonomy of the Consequent.* Do not think, fear, hope, that 
I am a teacher like those teachers to whom you have been ac- 
customed, and that I, like them, shall set aside the law. He 
who thinks the former, thinks also the latter. — ^Xhv, I have come) 
Our Lord, therefore, existed before He came upon earth, which 
is implied also in ch. viii. 10, by lupov, I have found. — xaraXiJeai, to 
destroy, to abrogate) To the compound verb, xaraXinv, to unloose 
or dissolve, is opposed •zXripouv, to fulfil ; to the simple verb XUiv, 
to loose, combined with diddsxiiv, to teach, is opposed iraiilv, to do, 

* The mere man of the world is not so much disgraced by his vanity as is 
such a one. — Vers- Germ. 

^ By the words ou 'iiva.ra.i, it is implied that there is no need of a eon- 
strained feigning to be what we are not ; so also, a. light or lamp, provided it 
is not stifled, cannot but shine. — Vers. Germ. 

' So there follows [That men may See] Your Father; not yourselves : 
comp. ch. vi. 2. — Vers. Germ. 

* The consequent — that I, like them, shall set aside the law : the antecedent 
— that I am a teacher like those to whom you are accustomed. — (I. B.) 

168 ST MATTHEW V. 18. 

or perform^ joined with the same verb BiSdaxiiv : from which the 
relative force of the words appears ; those are said of the whole 
law, these of the separate precepts. xaraXviiv, to unloose, and 
Xis/i', to loose, both signify to render void.^ — rhv v6//-ov n roig -xpoipn- 
ras, the law or the prophets) Many of the Jews esteemed the 
prophets less than the law. They are joined also in ch. vii. 12. 
— •sXnpZect,!, to fulfil) By My deeds and words, to effect that all 
things should be fulfilled vrhich the law requires. See the con- 
clusion of the next verse.'' The Rabbins acknowledge that it is 
a sign of the Messiah to fulfil the whole law. 

18. 'A/ijji', Amen, verily) Jesus alone employed this word at 
the commencement of His addresses, to give them greater force 
and solemnity. No apostle did so. Wagenseil,* in his Sota, p. 
379, says, that this word had sometimes with the Jews the force 
of an oath. And wherever ''JX Tl (/, living) occurs in the 
Hebrew, the Chaldee Paraphrast has D''p S3X, /, constant : and 
D''p, to confirm, etc., is found there passim for V3tJ>3, to swear. See 
Louis le Dieu on this passage ; and Kimchi interprets [ON, amen, 
itself by DVp. stability.* 

In the New Testament, however, it is not, strictly speaking, 
an oath : for it corresponds with val, yea, and AXtiSSi;, truly ; cf. 
Luke xi. 51, xxi. 3, with Matt, xxiii. 36, and Mark xii. 43. It 
is, however, a most grave asseveration, exclusively suitable to 
Him who asseverates by Himself and His own truth, and from 
the dignity of the Speaker, is equivalent to an oath, especially 
when it is uttered twice, sc. " verily, verily ;" see note to John i. 

' The Latin verb solvo, which is used in this passage, represents the Greek 
J^iu far more fully and accurately than any English word can. xetraJ^ia is 
also more adequately rendered by dissoho than by any English word. — (I. B.) 

^ He was not the founder of a new law ; but, by His own obedience, Him- 
self fulfilled the law, and showed how it should be fulfilled by His disciples. 
— Vera. Qerm. 

^ John Christopher Wagenseil was born at Nuremberg in 1633, and 
educated at the University of Altdorf, where he was appointed Professor of 
History in 1667, and of Oriental Languages about 1675. He died in 1706. 
The full title of the work referred to in the text is, Sota, hoc est liber Mix- 
lenicus de uxore adulterii suspecta, una cum libri ex Jacob excerptis 
Gemarse, versione Latina et commentario perpetuo, in quo multa sacrarum 
literarum ac Hebrsorum Scriptorum loca explicantur. — (I. B.) 

* Firmitas, ftabiUtaa, duratio Bcxtobf. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW V. 18. 1C9 

52. The Hebrew word is preserved in all languages.^ — Xlyw 
i/i/v, I say unto you) This formula, frequent and peculiar to the 
Lord, possesses the highest authority, and denotes frequently a 
matter declared by Him, which, for special reasons, is neither 
written expressly in the Old Testament, nor can be clearly 
proved from any other source, but is first produced by Himself 
from the secret treasuries of wisdom and knowledge, so that the 
assent of the hearers may rest on His sole affirmation, and the 
dull in heart may be deprived of all excuse for the future. The 
prophets were wont to say in the third person, DSJ," saith the 
Lord; the apostles, It is written; but Christ, in the first person, 
I say unto you; see ver. 20, 22, 26, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44, ch. vi. 2 ; 
John iii. 3, xiv. 12, 25, etc. Cf. notes on John iv. 21, andxiv. 
25. St Paul, when again and again compelled to speak in the 
first person, takes especial care not to trench on the Divine pre- 
rogative. See Rom. xii. 3 ; 1 Cor. vii. 6. Faith is the corre- 
lative of this, " / say unto you" and by this formula is, suit- 
ably to that time ( pro mode illius temporis), placed, as it were, as 
the foundation on the very threshold of the New Testament. 
Christ seldom quotes passages of Scripture, and not except for 
some special reason : He befittingly rests on His own authority. 
— tug &v irapeXSrj, until pass away) The verb, iiapi'kSri, leaves un- 
determined the manner of the end of the world. — o olpaiihg xal n 
yn, Heaven and earth) The whole system of nature. — iuto,, jot) 
iota, yod. Yod, the smallest and most elementary letter in the 
Hebrew alphabet, and one in which Keri and Kethib' very fre- 

' And it (the Hebr. amen) ought to be retained in translation, as in the 
end, so also in the beginning of sentences. The same principle holds good 
of other Hebrew words. — Not. Crit. 

' " DS5 . . to mutter, to murmur, to speaJc in a low voice; specially used 
of the voice of God, by which oracles were revealed to the prophets. By far 
the most frequent use is of the part. pass, constr. in this phrase, '^_ Wi 
nVi'; DS3, rfsas. ' The voice of Jehovah (is) ;' or (so) hath Jehovah revealed. 
This the prophets themselves were accustomed either to insert in the dis- 
course, like the Lat. ait, inquit Dominus, Am. 6 : 8, 14 ; 9 : 12, 13, or to add 
at the end of a sentence." — Gesenius. — (I. B.) 


" The margin of the Hebrew Bible exhibits a number of various readings 
of an early date, called "'fl? {to he read), because, in the view of the Jewish 
critics, they are to be preferred to the reading of the text, called a'rs 
(written). Those critics have therefore attached the vowel signs, appropriate 

170 ST MATTHEW V. 19. 

quently differ, so that it almost appears to be indiscriminately 
absent or redundant. In the course of the Hebrew Scriptures, 
66,420 yods are numbered. The Greeks frequently write the 
iota below, or omit it altogether. — xspala, a tittle) An appendage 
to a portion of a letter, a mark by which one letter is distin- 
guished from another, as 2, Beth (B), from D. Kaph (K), or ^I 
Eesh (R), from 1> Daleth (D), or one sound from another, as a 
vowel point or an accent ; in short, anything which in any way 
belongs to the signification of the Divine wUl, or assists to declare 
that signification as revealed in the law. — ou fi^, a double nega- 
tive) oh 117) always has a subjunctive, and its emphasis ought not 
to be stretched too far ; cf. ver. 20, 26. — ou ft,)) irapikSrt, shall not 
pass away) From hence may be inferred the entireness of Scrip- 
ture ; for, unless the Scripture were entire, it could not be entirely 
fulfilled. — a.'jrh roD vo/iou, from the law) Understand and supply, 
" or from the prophets." The smallest portion of the law is con- 
trasted with the whole world. — 'ia; an, x.r.X., until, etc.) For 
righteousness shall dwell in new Heavens and a new Earth. See 
2 Pet. iii. 13. — 'savra^ all particulars) sc. of the law. Observe 
the contrast between this and fj^ian, one, in the next verse.' — y'evn- 
Tai, be fulfilled) They have been fulfilled, and they are being 
fulfilled by Jesus Christ, [not only in Himself, but] even in 
Christians : they had not been fulfilled before His coming. 

19. Aiiff)), shall break) The antithetical word to this is -jroifisri, 
shall do, which occurs further on in this verse. The Scribes, who 
thought themselves " great," were in the habit of breaking them. 
The same verb, Xuu, occurs in John vii. 23, and x. 35. — toutuv, 
of these) those, namely, which follow in ver. 22, 28, etc.— r£» 
i'ka-)(j(!ru\/, of the least) These precepts, " Thou shalt not Mil," etc., 
are not essentially the least, for in them the whole law is con- 
to the marginal reading, to tlie consonants of the corresponding word in the 
text; e.g. in Jer. xiii. 6, the text exhibits w, the margin ■'ip tram. Here the 
vowels in the text belong to the word in the margin, which is to be pro- 
nounced I3tj5g ; but in reading the text iw, the proper vowels must be sup- 
plied, making 13s. A small circle or asterisk over the word in the text al- 
ways directs to the marginal reading." — Oesenius, Heb. Gr. Sect. 17. — 
(I. B.) 

^ In the original, " Antitheton, unum, in v. seq." I have endeavoured in 
this, as in other instances, to give such a rendering as shall convey Bengel's 
meaning to the general reader. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW V. 20. 171 

tained. But they are so only inasmuch as, when rightly ex- 
plained, they regulate even the most subtile affections and 
emotions of the soul, and the slightest movements of the tongue, 
and thus, when compared with other precepts, appear to men to 
be the least. — iXd^iaTo;, least) Referring to the preceding Vkayjs- 
roii. An instance of Ploce} As we treat the Word of God, so 
does God treat us ; see John xvii. 6, 11 ; Rev. ui. 10. " A 
little" signifies " almost nothing" whence " the least" comes to 
mean " none at all" (for they considered anger, for instance, as of 
no consequence whatever) ; cf. in ver. 20, " ye shall not enter." 
ixd^igros has a different force in this passage from that which 6 
(iixpoTipos (the least) " in the kingdom of heaven" has in ch. xi. 11. 
— sy rr\ (SoieiXsIci, rSiv oupoivSiv, in the kingdom, of heaven) which cannot 
endure the presence of the unrighteous. — wo/jjirjj xat Bi&a^p, shall 
do and teach) The same order of words occurs in Acts i. 1. — 
voiriffri, shall do them, sc. all ; for it is not lawful to break or 
neglect even one of them. — ouros, this man, he) A pronoun used 
emphatically. Comp. with this use of olrog, ch. vii. 21 (Latin 
Version^); Luke ix. 24; John vii. 18. — /J-iyoi.g, great) All the 
commandments are of great account to him, especially in their 
full compass' (see ver. 18) ; therefore he shall be called great. 

20. 'E(i>' /ij) Ti/neesuffr} ri Sijcaiosuvri i/iuv, except your righteousness 
shall exceed) Our righteousness, even though it should satisfy, 
could never exceed, the requirements of the law ; but the Scribes 
and Pharisees thought that theirs did so. We are bound to sur- 
pass their righteousness. Cf. the force of mp/eeeigri (abound, or 
exceed), with that of iriptssh (more than others, exceeding the gene- 
ral standard), in ver. 47. We must surpass both Pharisees and 
publicans : see ver. 48. — liiuv ^ hmaioeLvn, your righteousness) 
The pronoun, u/aSv (your), being placed first, is opposed with 

1 See Appendix. The same word employed twice : in the first instance, 
expressing the simple idea of the word itself; and in the second, an attribute 
of it.— Ed. 

^ See Gnomon on vii. 21, and notes. — (I. B.) The Vulgate, referred to, 
thus renders the ovtos, etc., which ahc Hil. and Cypr. read, but which BZ 
omit, " Qui facit voluntatem patris, etc., ipse intrabit," etc. — Ed. 

* "Prsesertim in complexu suo,"— i.e. when considered with reference to 
all that they involve, as explained by our Lord in this discourse, v. 21, etc. 
_(I. B.) 

172 ST MATTHEW V. 21. 

greater emphasis to the righteousness of the ScribesandPharisees.* 
Others read ij Sixaiosivri {i/iZv." That righteousness is intended, 
of which specimens are given in ver. 19, 22, 23. This language 
does not make void the righteousness of faith ; but the language 
of Jesus Christ before His ascension, keeps, as it were, the mean 
between Moses and- the apostles. — tXe/ov tuv yf>a,ft,fiaTiuv, x.r.X., 
more than the Scribes, etc.) i.e. -ffXeTov r^g Sixaioaivris rSiv ypa/i/iaTiuv, 
x.r.X., more than the righteousness of the Scribes, etc. — rSiv ypafir- 
/jt^ar'sciiv, of the Scribes) Our Lord does not command the righte- 
ousness of His followers to be greater than the righteousness of 
Moses, as if the law of Moses had been imperfect, which promised 
life to those who performed it, and was (see Eom. vii. 12, 14) 
just, holy, good, and spiritual ; but greater than the righteous- 
ness (which word, however, is elegantly omitted) of the Scribes 
and Pharisees, who observed ceremonial and legal, but neglected 
moral righteousness. The Pharisees urged traditions ; the Scribes, 
or Karaei,^ the letter, which was written, and constantly read out. 
It seemed to be especially the part of the Scribes to teach ; of the 
Pharisees to do. Our Lord does not name Moses ; but He says 
impersonally, It has been said. — ou /ijj iiaiXStjTe, ye sliall not enter) 
See ch. xviii. 3 ; John iii. 5 ; 1 Cor. xv. 50. 

^ Which was esteemed in those days as superlatively good. — Vers. Germ. 

" Lachm. and Tischend., with the oldest MSS. Vulg., etc., read si hKatoavur, 
vfA-av. For the order ifiiuv ij S<x. there are of good, though later authorities, 
only L A. — Ed. 

^ Bengel's words are, " scribce sive iarccj, literam, quae erat scripta et lecti- 
tabatur ;" where "scripta erat" (was written) refers to "scribce" (scribes), 
derived from the Latin verb scribo, to write : and lectitabatur (was constantly 
read out) refers to " karcei," derived from the Hebrew verb s'y, of which 
Gesenius says, " (4) to recite, to read aloud (from the signification of crying 
out, — see No. 1) anything, with an ace, Exod. xxiv. 7; Josh. viii. 34, 35; 
2 Kings xxiii. 2 ; also isea sy , to read what is written in a book. . . . 
Neh. viii. 8, 18, ix. 3 ; Isa. xxxvii. 14. seqq. . . . Hence generically 
to read, Deut. xvii. 19 ; 2 Kings v. 7, xix. 14." 

The Karaites, a sect which existed before the destruction of the Temple 
of Jerusalem, have been called the Protestants of Judaism. Their name is de- 
rived from the Hebrew l=''sip, which signifies, according to Calmet, " people 
perfected in the study of Scripture ; people attached to the text, and to the 
letter of Scripture." They are, of course, diametrically opposed to the 
Eabbinists, who zealously maintain the Rabbinical traditions. For an 
account of their history and tenets, see Milman's History of the Jews, and 
Calmet in voc. — (I. B."> 

ST MATTHEW V. 21. 17» 

21. 'Hxoitfarj, ye have heard) From public readings, to which 
you have given your assent. In the New Testament the 
teachers are referred to their reading of the law, the people to 
their hearing of it. See John xii. 34 ; Rom. ii. 13, 18. — 
on Vfliiiri, that it has been said) An impersonal form of speech, to 
which is elegantly opposed, / say. Moses said it truly ; the 
interpreters of Moses said it with altered meaning : the hearers 
did not distinguish the meaning of Moses from that of his in- 
terpreters. The name of Moses occurs, but with a less forcible 
contrast, in ch. xix. 8, 9, sc. Moses permitted, but [7] say unto youj 
where I is not expressed in the original, for there is no conten- 
tion between Moses and Christ : the Jews had departed from 
both Moses and Christ. The language of Christ does not 
exceed the law of Moses (see ch. vii. 12) ; for concupiscence, pro- 
scribed in ver. 28, is also prohibited by the law : see Rom. vii. 
7. He however restores the truths which the Scribes had taken 
from the law, and clears away the falsehoods which they had 
added ; see ver. 43. The phrase, " But I say," is an antithetic 
formula, by which Christ, as if Moses had never existed (for 
the servant gives place to his Lord), orders all things simply, 
not in the guise of a Legislator or Interpreter, but as the Son 
declaring the will of His Father : see ch. vii. 21, and cf. ch. iii. 
17. The law is perfect : whatever the Saviour prohibits or 
commands in this passage, the law had previously prohibited 
or commanded : it judges the secrets of the heart (see Rom. 
vii. 14) ; but on account of the hard heart of the people, 
it more frequently expresses outward acts. Therefore the 
Lord says, " But I say unto you," not, " Moses however said 
unto you." The Jews were in many things otherwise cir- 
cumstanced in the time of the Pharisees than in the time of 
Moses. — ro/5 ap^aioig, to them of old tim.e]~) sc. the fathers in 
the time of Moses. The Scribes wished to appear to be in 
conformity with the ancient and primitive rule. Antiquity 
should be maintained, but it should be genuine antiquity.' 

1 E. V. by them of old time.— (I. B. ) 

• In fact, it was not in the time of Moses, and to the ancients [•' to them 
of old time"], that the rather lax interpretation of the law was set forth, but 
in the time of the Scribes and Pharisees, and to the men of that age. The 
Scribes themselves were the persons who crusted over with the plea of anti- 

174 ST MATTHEW V. 22. 

— !i/iTv, to you) This word is antithetic' to roTs &px<'^">''h ^^m 
whence it is evident, that roT; apxaloig (antiquis) is not in 
the ablative, but in the dative case ; and the construction is 
more easy if we render the passage thus, " it was said TO them 
of old time, than thus, " it was said by them of old time." — 
o!) poviiieiig, thou shalt not kill) Our Lord begins with the clearest 
precept. — r^ xplgn, to the judgment) The Hebrew \n, rendered 
xpieig, was the inferior tribunal existing in the several towns, and 
consisted of twenty-three judges, who had the power of life and 
death. The dative, rjj xplgii, signifies, as far as belongs to" the 
iudgment, or municipal tribunal : in like manner, in the next 
verse ra gwedplw signifies as far as belongs to the Sanhedrim : for 
£iio;^oj, criminal, is here used absolutely. 

22. lias, jc.r.x., every one, etc.) This is opposed to the lax rule' of 
the Scribes. — o opyi^ofisvoi, who is angry) either with a lasting 
feeling or a sudden emotion. — rffl abekf^ ahnZ, with his brother) 
This appellation shows the unworthiness of anger. — i/xij, without 
a cause) This gloss' evidently betrays its human origin.* He 
who is angry without a cause is superfluously angry : not even the 
Pharisees taught that it was lawful to be angry without a cause. 
Even if there be a cause for being angry, there ought to be no 
anger, God also forbids us to hate even with cause, in that He 
commands us to love our enemies. — TertuUian de Spectaculis, 
ch. xvi. On the other hand, the magistrate, in killing those 
who ought to be killed, does rightly, and yet it is never said. 
Thou shalt not kill without a cause. — 'ivo^o; 'israt tjj xplssi, shall 
be criminal as far as belongs to the judgment or municipal 

quity their own innovations, as generally happens in religious controversies, 
or when morals are being corrupted. — Vers. Germ. 

^ See Explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

' In the original, " quod ad judicium altinet," where in the phrase, " quod 
attinet," generally rendered " with respect to" '■^as regards" etc., attinet seems 
to have its own more peculiar and precise force of pertains; — and to signify, 
"is the province of," "comes under the jurisdiction of;" — a meaning which 
appears to coincide with Bengel's observations on the next verse. — (I. B.) 

' In the original " sanctione," a somewhat peculiar expression. — (I. B.) 

* " Which Luther rightly omitted."— iVb«. Crit. 

' It is retained by E'. M. — (I. B.) B Vulg. Origen, omit it, and Lachm. 
and Tisch. read accordingly. But Dabc Iren. 242, 247, Cypr. 306, Lucf. 
121, and after opyi^ofi., Iren. 165, Hilary 128 (626) retain e/x^. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW V. 22. 175 

tribunal) i.e. he is a murderer, Cf. ver. 21.* As he who looks 
upon a woman to lust after her is an adulterer, so he that hateth 
his brother (1 John iv. 15) is a murderer. This verse does not 
indicate three degrees of human or temporal punishment ; for 
neither was it the part of the municipal tribunal and the Sanhe- 
drim to punish the emotion of anger or the utterance of Raca, 
nor was the valley of the son of Hinnom the place for any 
punishment, much less for any punishment inflicted by any other 
power than thai of the municipal tribunal or the Sanhedrim, 
still less for punishment on account of the abusive epithet of 
Fool. The judgment, therefore, and the council, are assigned 
to the emotion of anger and the utterance of Kaca, as to the 
first and second degree of murder, deserving the first and 
second degree of punishment in hell: and the fiery Gehenna' 
is appropriately assigned to the third degree of murder, the abu- 
sive epithet of Fool, and indicates a more fiery punishment in 
hell. There is, therefore, a metonymy of the consequent for the 
antecedent. " He is criminal as far as belongs to the tribunal," 
etc. ; signifying, he is a murderer in the first, second, and third 
degree. Civil guilt denotes spiritual guilt, both as to the fault 
and the punishment. — eJVji, shall say) in his heart or with his 
lips once or continually. — 'Faxoc, Raca) A Hebrew word, fre- 
quently used by Hebrews according to Lightfoot, the force of 
which no Greek word expresses. It denotes a sort of middle 
term between anger and the appellation of Fool.'- Chrysostom 
on this passage says, that Raka denotes in Syriac the same as 
" thou," uttered contemptuously: others derive it firom the Syrian 

' For whatever is repugnant to meekness and love, is a principle rising 
up against life, and so breathes the spirit of murder. — Vers. Germ. 

2 " yieiipctu — N'".; (vallis), s'ljn Hinnom, the valley at the foot of Moriah, 
and in which Sifoa flows (Jerome on x. 28), on the east of Jerusalem, dese- 
crated by the idolatrous fires of Moloch (Jer. vii. 31 ; Isa. xxx. 33), and 
called Topheth, from Tuph, the tympanum used to drown the cries of chil- 
dren there immolated." — Wordsworth in loc. 

" Josiah therefore polluted it (2 Kings xxiii. 10) ; and thenceforward it 
was the place for casting out and burning all offal and the corpses of 
criminals ; and therefore its name, ^ yesnuiit toS irvpi;, was used to signify the 
place of everlasting punishment." — Alford in loc — (I. B.) 

' Dreamy indolence (oscitantia) was the reproach usually meant to be 
conveyed by it, or else a headlong and hasty mode of action. — Vers. Germ. 

178 ST MATTHEW V. 23 

" Rak," he spits. An old English Version renders it Fie. 
Light persons are called D''p''T in Judges ix. 4, xi. 3 ; 2 Chron. 
xiii. 7 ; and aevhg, empty or vain, is thus used in James ii. 20. 
Reproof should reach even the trivial expressions and common 
manners of mankind, and that specifically; see ver. 34, 35, 
etc. ; 1 Cor. xv. 32 ; James ii. 3, iv. 13. — rSi eunSplu, the San^ 
hedrim) or Great National Council of seventy-two Judges, which 
was held at Jerusalem, and decreed the more severe punish- 
ments. — Mwf£, thou fool) A most harsh taunt denying common 
sense, without which a man is incurable and utterly deplorable ; 
cf. fiupavSfi in ver. 13, and the note upon it. The LXX. used the 
word /jioiphg very sparingly, the Son of Sirach frequently. — mxoi 
idrai i!g rriv yUnav To\i 'jrvpog, he shall be criminal for the fiery 
Gehenna) An elliptical mode of speech "^ for, so that he may he 
consigned to the fiery Gehenna — sc. the vaUey of the Son of 
Hinnom, where carrion and carcases lie unburied, and at length 
are burnt. The word yima, Gehenna, does not occur in the Sep- 
tuagint ; in the New Testament it is used by St Matthew, St 
Mark, St Luke, and St James ; but not by either St John, St 
Paul, St Peter, or St Jude. Hiller (in his Onomata Sacra, p. 
811) derives it from the Hebrew ''an '5, the Valley of Lamentation. 
Concerning the fire of that valley, see Jer. vii. 31, 32, etc. — :ilg, 
etc., is used with the same force as in the expression sle xopaxue, 
to the ravens.'^ 

23. 'Eaii oh, x.r.X., if therefore, etc.) Reconcihation is not said 
to be only then necessary, for the word hiT, there) indicates that 
you ought to have remembered it before ; but the meaning is, 
Whatever you are doing, even if you have already undertaken 
the best and most holy and most necessary matter, leave every- 
thing until you have been reconciled to your brother : see Eph. 
iv. 26. They sin who do not make it up with their brother, 
until they are just about to receive the Holy Supper. Yet re- 
conciliation is especially necessary, and an examination of the 
conscience especially imperative on those who are about to per- 
form the most solemn act of devotion. — 1«", to) For it was the 

1 See, on the Locutio Concisa, Appendix. — Ed. 

2 A phrase used by the Greeks to denote not only the disgrace of the 
gallows, but the still greater one of remaining unburied. — Liddell and Scott. 

-a. B.) 

ST MATTHEW V. 24-27. 177 

part of the priest to offer on the altar, and afterwards occurs the 
expression, e/j.vpog6iv rov hgiasT7ip{ov,before the altar. — xal sxsT /ivrie- 
6rie, and there rememberesi) The word of God portrays the most 
hidden secrets of the human heart. In the performance of a 
sacred rite, the remembrance of offences arises more naturally, 
than in the noise of human affairs. — 'ix^i, Katli) as having been 
offended [by thee]. 

24. "TTrays, ■jrpZrov, go thy way, first) placed antitheticailly to 
roVs sXSiiv, then having come, — SiaXXdyriSi rip adiX<pp eSi, be recon- 
ciled to thy brother^ that thou mayest be reconciled to God. 
— ekiiiv, coming) not returning ; for the first going being in vain 
is not reckoned. 

25. "le6i ivvoZv, be friendly) Seek kindly feeling by showing it 
yourself. — rSi w/niixtf), with the adversary) to whom you owe 
money. — Cf. ver. 26. The language is paraboUcal, it applies 
principally to an adversary who entertains grave animosity even 
beyond death. — ra;^!), quickly) The pride of the human heart is 
slow in deprecation and satisfaction. — h rr\ odiji,in the way) sc. to 
the tribunal. — fjLir alroD, with him) The plaintiff used himself to 
apprehend the defendant. — ai TafaSjB, delivef thee) Great is the 
power of the adversary. God, as Judge, prosecutes the demand 
of him who pleads for jtistice. — puXaxiiv, ward) where thou thy 
whole self wilt be the pledge of payment for the debt. 

26. "Ewf av. Until) The debtor is left to hiniself ; see ch. xviii. 34. 
It is strange that the expression, eug av, should have been urged 
by those, who hence infer the possibility of payment, rather than 
rill ig^arov xodpdvrriii, the Ictst farthing. — riv 'igp^arov, the last) Thus 
does Divine justice exact everything, not a single farthing more 
or less than you owe.* — xoSpavrriv, quadrantem) Substantives 
which express foreign articles are very frequently transferred 
from one language to another, instead of being translated.^ 

27. 'Epp'sSr], it has been said) Murder and adultery are equally 

' O the vain and most deceitful persuasion of the old man, whereby he 
supposes that drod will only lightly exact the debts due to Him. Nay, unless 
remission interpose so as to remove utterly one's countless faults, the utter- 
most avarice of man does not exercise as great rigour, as the divine justice 
justly and deservedly maintains. — Vers. Qerm. 

^ The quadrans, the fourth part of an asse, about a farthing and a half of 
our money. — (I. B.) 

VOL. I. M 

378 ST MATTHEW V. 28, 29. 

sins against our neighbour, and so is revenge, and therefore the 
words, roT( afxaioiij to them of old time, are not expressed but 
understood in ver. 27, 31, 38, 43, from ver. 21. They arc, 
however, expressed in ver. 33, where our Lord treats of oaths, 
and, therefore, of oui* duty to God. 

28. 'o ^x'ivm, that looheth) Kefer to this expression the right 
eye mentioned in the next verse. — ^r^Jf, to) This particio deter- 
mines the character of the looking. — ^Jj), already) by that very 

29. 'o bi^ihi, the right) The right, strictly speaking in the case 
of the hands, is most useful and most precious, thence also, it is 
mentioned in the case of the eyes, feet, etc. — See Zech. xi. 17 ; 
Exod. xxix. 20. — exavdaXl^ei, is a stumbling-Mock to) so that you 
should see wrongly ; as in the case of your hand, so that you 
should act wrongly. — 'i^iXe aurhv, pluck it out) not the eye abso- 
lutely, but the eye which is a stumbling-block, i.e., make ail 
things hard to thyself, until it cease to be a stumbling-block to 
thee. Not the organ itself, but the concupiscence which animates 
the eye or hand is meant : for this is the soul of the eye where 
that organ proves a stumbling-block ; in like manner us soon 
afterwards the body is said for the [whole] man [soul as well as 
body]. He who, where his eye proves a stumbling-block, takes 
care not to see, does in reaUty blind himself. On the other hand, 
a man might pluck out his material eye, and yet cherish con- 
cupiscence within. A similar mode of expression occurs in 
Coloss. iii. 5, where the apostle says — Mortify, therefore, your 
members which are upon the earth ; fornication, etc. A negative 
maxim is frequently expressed by affimiing the opposite. — Sec 
ver. 39, 40, and ch. vi. 17. — ^aki, cast) with earnestness. The ex- 
pression jSXjitfj), be cast) in the next verse has reference to this. — 
Bv/j,pepii, it is profitable) to thy salvation. Not only is it not hurt- 
ful, but also it will be glorious. — AvSkriTai, should perish) True 
self-abnegation is not of less amount than the loss of an eye, etc. : 
and it is so necessary that it is better to be deprived of an eye 
itself, than to sin with the eye, unless the sin may bo separated 
from the eye. An eye which is actually plucked out, as in the 
case of a martyr, will be restored in the resurrection. — 'h ru» 
<iix£v gov, one of thy members) Many, indeed, have been destroyed 
by neglecting the mortification of one member, as, for example, 

ST MATTHEW V. 30-34. ITtf 

the gullet. — oXov rh eufid sou, thy whole body) If one member sin, 
the whole man sins and pays the penalty. — y'smav, hell) of eternal 
fire. — See ch. xrai. 8, etc. 

30. X'sip, hand) The matter proceeds from sight to act. 

31. "O; av acroXuff)), whosoever shall put aioay) They held di- 
vorce to be an arbitrary matter.^ — avoerdeiot, a divorce) i.e. a 
■writing of divorcement. A metonymy wliich occurs in ch. xix. 
7, and is also employed by the T.xx. 

32. Aoyou, for the cause) The Hebrew 12^ corresponds to the 
Greek Xo'yos in the sense of a cause, why anything may be 
rightly done.' — -rroisT a'u'rr,v fioi^aeiai, makes he)' to cotninit adultery) 
sc. by other nuptials into wliich the divorce permits her to 
enter. — a-oXsXu/tsHjw, one that has been divorced). 

33. 'A-oSiiff.-/;, thou shalt render)^ Perjury therefore is the 
non-performance of promises attested by an oath. Christ, 
therefore, especially forbids promissoiy oaths, since men by them 
asseverate concerning futm^e things, none of which is in their 
power, see ver. 36. The human oaths concerning which Moses 
gives regulations, or which holy men have sworn, have more 
frequently reference to confirming, more rarely to promising, 
and in fact more persons perjure themselves with regard to 
future, than past matters. Wherefore the Romans prudently 
preferred binding with oath their magistrates at the conclusion, 
rather than at the commencement of oflSce. — opxovs, oaths,) sc. 
things promised by oath. 

34. Mrj iiioeou oXw,-, not to swear at all) The oXais, at all, ex- 
tends this prohibition to swearing truly as well as falsely : it 
does not, however, universally prohibit all true swearing. The 
right employment of oaths is not only like divorce permitted 
but clearly estabhshed by the law, nor is it here aboKshed by 
Christ; see ver. 17. But the abuse of oaths was extremely 
frequent with the Jews of that age, to the destruction of their 
legitimate use, as is clear from the forms of swearing cited in 

^ S<rr£i does not indicate a command but a pennission. [He viay ffive.'] 
They seemed to think Moses had nothing in view save the observance ot 
certain formalities. — Vers. Germ. 

' These words, •zxpixro; Xoyos; vooyiiai, apply also to the following clause 
«ai o; sin ivoT^ih. yetfi, and are to be supplied in it, — Vers. Gftrm. 

s E. V. " Thou Shalt perform."— (I- B.) 

180 ST MATTHEW V. 34. 

this passage; nor did they think him guilty of perjury who 
called only creatures to witness in his oath, however falsely he 
might swear. See Samuel Petit,^ Variae Lectiones, ch. xvi. 
The following decree of the Jews is to be found in Elle 
Schemoth Eabba/ section 44, As heaven and earth shall pass 
away, so shall the oath pass away which calls them to witness. 
There is clearly, however, a prohibition, whilst the prevalent^ 
abuse of oaths is forbidden, and their true use restored. Many 
of the ancient Christians received this command simply and 
literally, and so much the more readily declined the heathen 
oaths which they were commanded to take. See however, 
Rev. X. 6 ; Jer. xxiii. 8 ; Is. xlv. 23, the last of which passages 
refers to Christian times. On the contrary, there is now-a-days 
a great danger lest a very small proportion of the number that 
are made be true, and of the true a very small proportion neces- 
sary, and of those that are necessary a very small proportion free, 
fruitful, holy, and joyful. Many are employed for show, for 
calumny, for silencing just suspicions. — iv, by) That which is 
sworn by is offered in pledge : it should therefore be in the power 
of him who swears. He who swears Wrongly (ver. 34, 36) is 
guilty of sacrilege. Therefore, in this sense a man ought not to 
swear by God, because, in case of his swearing falsely, he pledges 
himself to renounce God. This, however, it is not in his power to 
do. But we must swear in that manner which is sanctioned in 
the Divine law itself, so that our oath should be an invocation of 
the Divine name. Even the customary formula, So help me God, 
is not to be taken in the former but in the latter sense, so that 
the emphasis should fall upon the word GoD. This interpreta- 
tion is at any rate favourable to him who swears, and makes the 
matter rather easier. — r^ ovpavip, by heaven) How much greater 
is their sin who swear by God Himself! — ^povog, throne) How 
great is the majesty of God ! God is not enclosed by heaven, 
but His glory is especially manifested there. 

' A celebrated scholar, iDorn at Nismesin 1594, studied at Geneva, raised 
at an early age to the Professorship of Theology and of Greek and Hebrew 
in that city. Died 1645. A man of vast and profound erudition. — (I. B.) 

' i.e. " Mystical Commentary on Exodus,'' a rabbinical work in high esti- 
mation among the Jews. — (I. B.) 

• " Grassatus," a word used of a fiercely raging epidemic. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW V. 36-38. 181 

35. Eig, upon) There is a difference between this and h (by) * 
used in the last verse. The Jews were accustomed to pray 
for all blessings upon Jerusalem, The meanings of the formula 
therefore was — So may the city be in safety, as — So may it light 
upon the city, as' — ttoX/s, the city) the royal abode. — roD' 
MiyaXov BadiX'eug, of that* Great King), (see Ps. xlviii. 2), i.e. 
of the Messiah whom (ver. 34, 35) heaven and earth obey. It 
is not unbecoming in Him to speak thus of Himself. See ch. 
ix. 38, and xxii. 43. 

36. Ki(pa,Xfi, head) Their sin is stiU graver who swear by their 
life or their soul. — /Jiiav rfiya Xivxiiv fi /iiXaivav •jrohjffai, to make one 
hair [thereof] white or black) The dye of human art is not 
real whiteness or blackness. Not merely is a single hair, but 
even the colour of a single hair, beyond the power of man. 

37. 'O Xoyoi bfjjuv, your conversation) your daily ordinary speech. 
vai, \ial. ou, ou, yea, yea ; nay, nay) Let " yea" or, " it is, be 
employed to affirm what is true, — " Nay" or, " it is not," to 
deny what is false.* Cf. Gnomon on 2 Cot. i. 17, 18, and James 
V. 12. — irspigahv, exceeding, that which exceeds) Excess is faulty.— 
Ik roO mvripov, of evil) ; the word is here in the neuter gender, 
[and signifies evil in the abstract] : see ver. 39. 

38. 'OdiSaXmv, an eye) sc. Thou shalt require. In Exod. xxi. 
24, the LXX. have oipSaXfihv avrl 6(p()aX//,ov, odSvTO, avr! ofiovro;, eye 
for eye, tooth for tooth. The lex talionis was most suitable for 
punishments, as in the greater injury, murder, and in the less, 
theft, so also in that which stood midway between them. See 
Lev. xxiv. 20. Mutilation was frequent in punishments without 
reference to the principle of the lex talionis ; why then should 
it not be used to carry out that principle itself? Cf. Jud. i. 7.° 
Penalties would avail more, if human judgment did not depart 

1 E. V. renders both words " by" — sc. " by Heaven," " by Jerusalem," 
etc.— (I. B.) 

' Perhaps it may refer to the Jewish custom of praying with the face to- 
wards Jerusalem, Daniel vi. 10. — Ed. 

' The article has a magnifying force. — Not. Crit. 

' Magni illius regis. E. V. renders it " of the Great King." — (I. B.) 

* Lit. Let the " It is" of fact be also the " Jt is" in your words : let the 
" It is not' of fact be also the " /* is not" in your words — Ed. 

s What had been prescribed to the magistrate, that the Scribes allotted 
to prirate vengeance, — B. G. V. 

182 ST MATTHEW V. 39-41. 

SO far from the wisdom, the equity, and the severity of the 
Divine law. 

39. Mj] airiST^vai, not to resist) The infinitive is governed by 
Xtyw , / say, as in Eev. xiii. 14. To resist evil is to return 
injury for injury. — aXX', but) Our Lord gives examples of pri- 
vate, legal, and political wrong, ver. 39, 40, 41. — pavlsei, shall 
smite) elsewhere pam^sis is to strike with rods, but in this passage 
as the cheek is mentioned, it means to smite with the open 
hand. — dji/ di^idv gov emyova, the right cheek) or the left either. 
See Luke vi. 29. An instance of Synedoche} — grpi-^av, turn) It 
is sometimes advisable to do so literally.^ The world says, on 
the other hand, Assert thy courage by a duel. Those who are 
able ought ere this to have made a stand against this evil, this 
disgrace of the Christian name, and to have given all diligence 
that they might do so effectually. One man who becomes a 
murderer by a duel involves a whole camp in his guilt. Many, 
so far dilute and extenuate the lessons here given by the 
Saviour, that they slide down to a level with the righteousness 
of the Scribes and Pharisees, or even below it. 

40. XiTum, the tunic) or inner garment. — i/idnov, the vest) or 
outer robe. These are inverted in Luke vi. 29. (Cf. in the 
same chapter, ver. 44, with Matt. vii. 16, for a similar inversion 
in the case of the grapes and the figs.) The sense remains the 
same ; sc. Give up both. The i/idncv was more precious than the 
X.i'tZv. See Mark xiii. 16. — gov, thine) by right. 

41. ' Ayyapiugii) A word of Persian origin.^ They who tra- 
velled on the public business could press a person into service. 
See Vriemoet on this passage.* 

' See Explanation of Technical Terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

* Spiritual prudence will teach the children of God, when they ought to do 
so. The words of Christ are not words belonging to the mere human and 
natural life, but to the eternal life. What seems folly to the world, appears 
in a quite different light in the eternal Life. — Vers. Germ. 

' "Ayyapos, a Persian word for a royal courier, who had authority to 
press horses, etc. into his service in execution of his mission. The word 
>'"i^? (angaria) (whence avania and avanie in Ital. and Fr.) is used in the 
Talmud for any forced work. Connected with this is the Hebrew fr;;!*! (i^- 
ffereth), a letter." — Wordsworth in loc. — (I. B.) 

* Emo-Lucius Vriemoet, born at Embden, in Friesland in 1699, became 
Professor of Oriental languages and Hebrew antiquities at Francker, and 

ST MATTHEW V. 42^4. 18S 

42. Alrowri, to Mm that asheth) who wishes you to give to him 

gratuitously, even though he do not ask with the best claim 

it&dM, give) as God does ; see Luke xi. 10. — tIv SiXovra, him that 
would) even though he does not venture to beseech thee 
vehemently. — //,fi amsrpa^ijg, turn not thou away) although you 
have a specious pretext for so doing. 

43. TJv wXriam, Thy neighbour) Gataker^ in his Adversaria 
miscellanea posthuma, ch. x. f. 527, remarks, that in Sophocles 
and Aristotle, all men are indiscriminately called oi mi\a,i;? — 
liieriseii rhv Ix^pov em^ thou shalt hate thine enemy) The Jews 
abused the precept which had been given in reference to certain 
accursed nations, as in Deut. xxiii, 7 ; for they had also been 
commanded to love even their enemies. Christopher Cart- 
wright^ cites decrees of the Jews concerning the hatred of 
enemies. — See Book 2 ; Mellif. Heb. ch. 1. 

44. 'AyawSrs, love ye — ivXcyiTri, bless ye — xaXus iroiiire, do ye 
good to — xa/ <!fpoai\i-^iek virif, and pray ye for) Here are four 
clauses, the second and third of which are wanting in some of 
the ancients — the second in the Yulgate, the third in Tertullian,'' 
De Patientia, ch. vi. Four clauses ought, therefore, to be read, 
although the third is almost contained in the first, and the second 
in the fourth by Chiasmus :^ on which account St Luke trans- 
poses them.' In ver. 46, the verb ayairaa, to love, occurs again, 

published many learned works on these subjects. He died in 1764. 
-(I. B.) 

^ Thomas Gataker was bom in London 1574 ; became Preacher of Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1601, Bector of Rotherhithe 1611, and died 1654. He was one 
of the most learned theologians of his time. He subscribed the Covenant, 
but declared in favour of Episcopacy, and during the Commonwealth pre- 
ferred the Presbyterians to the Independents. His works are many and 
various. — (I. B.) 

' i.e. neighbours. — (I. B.) 

' A most vile gloss. — B. G. V. 

' Christopher Cartwright, a learned English divine ; born 1602 ; died 
1658. The work here cited is Mellificium Hehraicum, sive observationes ex 
Hebraeorum antiquiorum monumentis desumptse. — (I, B.) 

* Quintus Septimius Florens TertuUianus, a native of Carthage, where 
he became a Presbyter, the earliest of the Latin fathers, flourished in the 
third century. — (I. B.) 

° See explanation of technical terms m Appendix. — (I. B.) 

" Vulg. Memph. Versions, Orig. 4,329c; 361a ; Cypr. 248, 260, 319, Hil. 

184 ST MATTHEW V. i8^7. 

and in ver, 47, the word ai'Trdensh, salute, corresponds with eOXo- 
yiM in the present verse. — run evrtpia^ovrciMi i//,as, them winch 
despitefully use you) l-Trfipua, [the substantive from which the 
verb i-jYie^"-^" is derived] signifies an injury inflicted, not for the 
benefit of the injurer, but for the damage pf the injured party. 
— See my notes to Chrysostom on the Priesthood, p. 429. It 
is, therefore, a sign of extreme hatred. A striking contrast. 
Pray for such persons as these : obtain by your prayers blessings 
for those, who take blessings from you. 

45. "O'TTto? yhneh, that ye may become) When they love their 
enemies, they become His sons [but] in such a manner as [not 
to contravene the fact], that they already previously have Him 
for their Father.^ An instance oi Ploce :' Sons become sons, as 
disciples become disciples. — Cf. John xv. 8. Thus, the God of 
Israel became the God of Israel ; 2 Sam. vii. 24. Great is 
God's condescension in not disdaining to invite His sons to imi- 
tate Him. oTi, jL.r.'K., for, etc.) Such is the principle upon which 
the Father is to be imitated. As God treats and rules us, so 
ought men to treat and rule each other. — rh riXiov AursD, His sun) 
A magnificent expression. He both made the sun and governs 
it, and has it exclusively in His own power. — amriXXsi, maketh 
to rise. — ^pix^i, raineth, sendeth rain) It is the part of piety to 
speak of natural things as received from God, rather than to say 
impersonally, It rains, it thunders. — See ch. vi. 26, 30 ; Job 
xxxvi. 27, 28, and chapters xxxvii.-xli. ; Ps. civ., etc. Franzius 
urges this strongly in his treatise on the Interpretation of Scrip- 
ture, pp. 83, 632. Rain is a great blessing. 

46. Tha /iiffShv, what reward) God seeks in us an occasion for 
giving us a reward. — rikumi, publicans) who refer all things to 
gain ; but have none in Heaven. 

47. Ea» aairagniik, if ye salute) contrasted with, bless ye, etc., 
in ver. 44. The very verb ayamu, to love, is repeated in ver. 

303 omit iv7\0'yilre t. xarctpafiivov; ift&s, xaXSf voiilTt roii fiiaoiaiu vftA;. 
Dcd Lucif. insert these words with Rec. Text (which, however, has t. 
fiMOUvrec;.') — Ed. 

1 i.e. He first loves them, and is their Father already ; but they become 
His sons, and prove their sonship afterwards, when they love their enemies, 
even as He loved them when still enemies. — Ed. 

• See Appendix. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW V. 48.-V1. 1. 185 

46 from ver. 44 ; but as tte heathens do not also bless and pray, 
the verb to salute is put here instead of either blessing op pray- 
ing. — Tolg aSsXpoOs u/iSv, your brethren ' — sSvixol, the heathen) T^he 
Publicans regard their own interest, the Heathens perform also 
offices of kindness towards their connections and friends, and 
more especially towards their blood relations. In ver. 46, there- 
fore, the example of the Publicans is cited ; in ver. 47, that of 
the Heathens. — rl ■jripiaghv, what remarkable thingY such as befits 
the sons of God.* 

48. 'T/AE/'s, you) In honourable contradistinction to them. — 
■riXhoi, perfect^ sc. in love towards all.* 


1. JJpoaixsTi, take ye heed) The hortatory address,' ntpnetx^ eiauriii, 
take heed to thyself was famihar to the early Christians ; since 
the Hebrew "iDtJTi ° (which occurs so frequently in Deuteronomy), 
was thus rendered by the LXX. — rfiv bmaioeuvnv,'' liJ^Siv, your right- 
eousness) This depends upon /iij vonTv, not to do.^ — dixaiosiivriv, 
righteousness) The treatment of the subsequent divisions relating 
to almsgiving, prayer, and fasting, exhibits such an exact analogy 
that from a comparison of them it becomes evident, that the 

^ The margin of Beng. Ed. «• and Vers. Germ, prefer (pixov; to «5e7v(po5f : 
But not so the larger Edition of «. 1734. Lucifer reads amicos, also of se- 
cond rate Uncial MSS. L A. But the oldest MSS. and Vulg. aSfXcpouj, 
fratres. — Ed. 

2 E. v. What do ye more than others 9— (I. B.) 

' He who does nothing but what is customary ought to st^nd in fear 
(soil in Sorge stehen.) — B. G. V. 

* SeeCol. iii. 14.— (I, B.) 

^ Celeusma, from the Greek xiXeva-ftic — properly an exhortation to any 
work ; especially of sailors : Either the cry of sailors for encouraging one 
another, or a beating of time to the rowers. — See Riddle. — (I. B.) 

6 E. v. Take heed, etc.— See Deut. xii. 13, etc.— (I. B.) 

' B. M. T^s shinfioavvny. — (I. B.) 

° i.e. r^v hxttioavi/nii is the accusative after ftvi ■jroiiiv — so that the passage 
must be rendered " Take heed that ye do not your righteousness" etc.— 
(I. C.) 

186 ST MATTHEW VI. 2, 3. 

warning contained in this verse does not apply solely and exclu- 
sively to the first division, but has the force of a general proposi- 
tion. The design of the whole discourse is to teach true righteous- 
ness ; (see ch. v. 6, 10, 20, and vi. 33) ; and this reading accords 
with that design. Others read sXirif/joavv/iv,^ almsgiving? Sighteous- 
ness is the whole (cf Gnomon on ch. v. 6), three divisions of which 
follow immediately ; viz., almsgiving, as being our especial duty 
towards our neighbour — prayer, as occupying the same position 
with regard to God — fasting, as holding the same place with re- 
ference to ourselves. These three relations, to God, to ourselves, 
and to our neighbour, are frequently enumerated in Holy Writ; 
see Kom. ii. 21, 22-vii. 12-xiv. 17 ; 1 Cor. vi. 11-xiii. 5, 6, 13; 
Eph. V. 9 ; 1 Tim. i. 13 ; Tit. i. 8-ii. 12 ; Heb. xii. 12, 13.— 
SsaS^na;, to be seen as a spectacle) Theatre and hypocrite* (spoken 
of iii the next verse) are words of cognate meaning. 

2. M)j gaXviini i/ji^'!rpo<^iv Bov, do not sound a trumpet before thee) 
This affected and insolent ostentation of actually sounding a 
trumpet is not inconsistent with the practices of hypocrites among 
the Jews of that age : cf. ver. 5, 16. The poor would be easily 
summoned by a trumpet : hypocrisy, therefore, employs it as a 
means of display. — o'l iiwoxpirat, the hypocrites) Hypocrisy is the 
combination of actual vice with apparent virtue, by means of 
which a man deceives either himself or others. — a/^riv, assuredly) 
our Lord [by virtue of His essential and proper divinity] knows 
the secrets of the Divine counsels. — a'jr'ey^ovffi rbv fhie^h aurSv, they 
have their reward*) An example of metonymy of the antecedent 
for the consequent, i.e. they will not receive any reward here- 
after at the hands of their Heavenly Father ; see ver. 1. 

3. M)5 yvwroi ri apidrepa, x.r.X., let not thy left hand know, etc.) 
So far from holding a trumpet, let it not even know what thy 
right hand doeth. Do not thou even consider over again the 
good that thou doest. 

^ See f. n. 7 to last page.— (I. B.) 

^ BDa5c Vulg. Hilary read liKaiotrvvtiu. But Z supports iMnftomuviii, the 
reading of the Eec. Text. — Ed. 

3 The word originally signifies one who answers, thence, one who takes 
part in a dramatic dialogue, thence, one who assumes a feigned character. — 
(I. B.) 

* Which consists in the praise of men. — ^B. G. V. 

ST MATTHEW VI. 4-7. 187 

4. 'E; rtfi xpuvrifj, in secret) The godly shine, but shine in secret. 
— XJ.aT^I> ecu, thy Father) John Despagne observes, that to em- 
ploy the possessive pronoun of the first person singular, and say, 
" My Father" is the exclusive privilege of the Only Begotten ; 
but " Tht Father" is said to the faithful also ; Fathee, or OuK 
Father" hy the faithful; see John xx. 17. — h rjS xpvvra, in 
secret) He is Himself in secret, and performs His works in secret, 
and approves most those things which are done in secret. The 
whole essential being of things, has its existence in secret. — 
amhiissu, shall reward) This word, without the addition of AIt'o; 
(^Himself), expresses a reward awarded by God and not man. 
This reward is sure : see ver. 1. The Aurij {Himself), appears 
to have been inserted here, and the h rp <pa,vipa (openly) in 
ver. 4, 6, 18, from a fear that the words might have otherwise 
been rendered, " Thy Father, who seeth that, shall reward thee 
in secret."^ 

5. <^iXo\Jgiv, x.T.K; they love, etc.) and, therefore, make a prac- 
tice of doing so. — h ra/j yaiviaig, in the corners) sc. where the 
streets meet. — igTZreg, standing) in order that they may be the 
more conspicuous. 

6. 'En rOi ■/.pvwra, in secret) God both is, and sees, in secret. 

7. M^i jSa.TTo'koyfisriTi, use not vain repetitions) Gattaker has col- 
lected from antiquity many persons called Battus, celebrated for 
their stammering, and thence for their frequent repetition of the 
same word (tautologia), and deriving their name from that cir- 
cumstance. Hesychius" renders /3arroXoy/a by apyoXoyla (idle 
talking), axaipoXoyia (unseasonable talking) : he says, "^aTrapl^nv 
appears to me to be derived from an imitation of the voice," etc., 
and he explains ^aTTapig//,bi by fXuapia,i.* It is clear, therefore, 

' In the original, " Pii lucent sed latent." — (I. B.) 

" Bee. Text has etiro; with D. But BLZaic Vulg. Memph. Versions, and 
Cyprian omit it. So also h r^ (panep^ added in Rec. Text with abo, is 
omitted in BDZ Vulg. Memph. Versions. — Ed. 

' Hesychius. There were several distinguished men of this name. The 
individual here intended was a celebrated grammarian and lexicographer of 
Alexandria, who lived somewhere about the fourth century. — (I. B.) 

* ^a,rree.piaft6g signified either originally stuttering, or derivatively idle 
prating : (p'hva.piei, silly talk, nonsense, foolery. It is used also in the plural. 
The kindred adjective (p'Kvapoi is rendered tattlers in 1 Tim. v. 13, and the 
cognate participle (phuapoy, prating in 3 John 10 by the Eng. Ver.— (I. B.> 

188 ■ ST MATTHEW VI. 8, 9. 

that ^arrokoyin means the same here which iroXvy-oyia, (much 
speaking) does immediately afterwards, sc. when the same thmgs 
are repeated over and over again, as is the case with stammerers, 
who endeavour to correct their first utterance by a second. — 
ugmp 01 ehuol, as the heathen do) In all things the practice of 
hypocrites is to be avoided, in prayer that also of the heathen. — 
h rfi 'jroXvXoyiq, aurSv, in their much speaking) i.e. whilst they say 
many words. They think that many words are required to in- 
form their deities what they want of them, so that they m'ay hear 
and grant their requests, if not at the present, at some future 
time. Cf. on the other hand, " your Father KNOWETH," etc., 
ver. 8. The same word, itokvXoyia (much speaking) occurs in the 
S. V. of Proverbs x. 19. Ammonius* says, /iaxfoXoyos is one 
who utters many words concerning few things, voXvXoyo;, one who 
utters many words concerning many things. Christ commands 
us to utter few words, even when praying for many things ; see 
ver. 9—13. — e!ea-/iov(^rieovTai, shall be regarded. The Hebrew 
njy, to answer, is rendered by the LXX. iieaxoiiiv. God answers 
substantially;^ see ch. vii. 7. 

8. Upi x.r.K., before, etc.) We pray, therefore, not with the 
view of instructing, but of adoring, the Father. 

9. OuTtag, thus) i.e. in these words, with this meaning; sc. 
with a short invocation of the Father, and a short enumeration 
of the things which we require. To have truly prayed thus, is 
sufficient, especially in meaning, one portion being employed at 
one time, another at another, to express our desires ; and thus 
also in words. For this formula is given in opposition to much 
speaking, has words best suited to the things which they express, 
a most perfect arrangement, and a fulness combined with 
brevity, which is most admirable ; so that the whole discourse 
may be said to be contained in it. The matter of this prayer is 
the basis of the whole of the first epistle of St Peter ; see Gnomon 
on 1 Peter i. 3. — Udnp, Father. An appellation by which God 
is never addressed in the Old Testament : for the examples which 

' Ammonius the grammarian must not be confounded with the author of 
the Ammonian Sections. He was a native of Alexandria, and flourished in 
the fourth century. The work here alluded to is his treatise De differentia 
dictionum. — (I. B.) 

" In the original " Deus respondit solide."— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW VI. 9. 189 

Lightfoot has adduced, are either dissimilar or modem, and 
prove no more than that the Jews spoke of God as their Father 
in Heaven, a formula to which Christ now gives Hfe. The glory 
of the faithful in the New Testament is thus to pray. In this 
place is laid the foundation of praying in the name of Christ : 
see John xvi. 23. He who is permitted to address God as his 
Father, may ask all things from Him in prayer. — rif^t^v, our) The 
children of God individually pray for all His children collectively: 
but even their prayers are, by this little word our, declared to be 
more acceptable when offered in common : see ch. xviii. 19. — 
IV ToTs oupavoTg, which art in the Heavens) i.e. Maxims et optime* 
{Almighty., and All-good) ; see ch. vii. 11. Shortly afterwards we 
find in ver. 10. — Iv oiipava, in Heaven ; nor is it without cause 
that the number^ (which is elsewhere frequently used promiscu- 
ously, as in ch. xxii. 30, and xxiv. 36), varies in so short a passage 
as the present : oiipathg (in the singular number), signifies here 
that place, in which the will of the Father is performed by all, 
who wait upon Him ; ovpavol (in the plural) signifies the whole 
Heavens which surround and contain that one as it were lower 
and smaller Heaven : cf. note on Luke ii. 14. — ayiaeSrjra, hal- 
lowed be) The petitions are seven in number and may be sepa- 
rated into two divisions, the former containing three petitions 
which relate to the Father, " Thy Name, Thy Kingdom, Thy 
Will," the latter containing four which concern ourselves. In 
the former we declare our filial affection subscribing to the right, 
the dignity, and the good pleasure of God, after the manner of 
the angehc chorus in Luke ii. 14 : but in the latter we both sow 
and reap. In both divisions is expressed the struggle of the sons 
of God from Earth to Heaven, by which they as it were draw 
down Heaven to Earth. The object of the first petition is the 
sanctification of our Divine Father's Name. God is holy : i.e. 
He is God. He is sanctified therefore, when He is acknow- 
ledged and worshipped and celebrated as He really is. The mood' 

' The mode in which the ancients addressed the Supreme God (I. B.) 

' i.e. mpttvos Heaven in the singular — oupceuoi heavens in the plural. — 
(I. B.) 

' i.e. all the three verbs are in the same mood, the Imperative, and have 
the same precatory force. It is scarcely necessary to remind the general 
reader that tlie Imperative Mood tntreats as well as commands. — (I. B.) 


in ayiadhriTta (hallowed be), has the same force as in iX'beroi, come 
and yivri^rirai (be done) : it is, therefore, a prayer and not an ex- 
press doxology. 

10. 'EXSi™ — yivri^^Tu x.r.X., come — be done, etc.) Tertullian 
has transposed these two petitions for the sake of his plan. For 
in his book on prayer, after he has treated of the petition, " Hal- 
lowed he Thy name" he says, " ACCORDING TO this FORM, we 
add, ' Thy will be done in the heavens and on the earthy And 
he then refers the coming of God's kingdom to the end of the 
world. — n jSaeiXiia, '2ov, Thy kingdom) See Gnomon on ch. iv. 17, 
and Rev. xi. 15, 17. The sanctification of God's name is as it 
were derived from the Old Testament into the New, to be con- 
tinued and increased by us ; but the coming of God's kingdom 
is in some sort peculiar to the New Testament. Thus with 
these two petitions respectively, Cf. Eev. iv. 8, and v. 10. — ri 
SeXjj/ia "Sou, Thy will) Jesus always kept His Father's will before 
His eyes, for His own performance and for ours. See ch. vii. 21, 
xii. 50. — iig, K.T.x, as, etc.) " It will be the part of the pastor to 
admonish the faithful, that these words, ' as in heaven so on 
earth,' may be referred to each of the (three) first petitions as, 
' Hallowed be Thy name, as in heaven so on earth,' also, ' Thy 
kingdom come as in heaven so on earth,' in like manner, ' Thy 
will be done as in heaven so on earth.'" — Roman Catechism.^ 
The codices however which in Luke xi. 2 omit the words, 
" Thy will be done," omit also the words, " As in heaven so on 
earthr — h ovpavSi, in heaven) We do not ask that these things 
may be done in heaven : but heaven is proposed as the normal 
standard to earth — earth in which all things are done in diffe- 
rent ways.' 

11. Tbv aprov, the bread) sc. nourishment of the body ; see 
ver. 19, etc., 25, etc., from which it is evident that the disciples 
were not yet raised above the cares of this life. This short 

* sc. that, issued under the sanction of the Council of Trent. — (I. B.) 
' In the original " in qua aliter alia fiunt omnia." — Lit. : " in which all 
things are done, some one way, some another." — i.e. The unvarying unifor- 
mity of Heaven, which conforms itself undeviatingly to the Divine Will 
should he the standard by which to correct the multiform variety of Earth, 
the infinite diversities of which are none of them in strict accordance with 
that Will.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW VI. 11. 191 

petition is opposed to the much speaking of the heathen, men- 
tioned in ver. 7, which principally referred to the same object ; ' 
and it is placed first amongst those petitions which refer to our- 
selves, because the natural life is prior to the spiritual. Every 
want of ours is cared for in this prayer. — ^/ji,uii, of or belonging 
to us) our, sc. earthly. But the spiritual bread is the bread of 
God, i.e. that which is [given] by God, and [cometh forth] from 
God. — I'jrioiimv, daily) This adjective is derived a^o r^s Imouerig, 
from the following day, and is composed of i-rrl and huea.^ For 
from fift,i, to he (from which also comes inpio-baioc) or from ohsia, 
essence or private property, would be composed, ewoigiog, in the 
same manner as Ivimpavioi, etc. : since although sir/ does not 
always lose the / in composition before a vowel, it does lose it in 
iirtdriv, as also in aVsZ/A/ from which this adjective must be ori- 
ginally derived according to this hypothesis. Our heavenly 
Father gives each day what is needed each day. Nor is it 
necessary that He should give it before. This His paternal 
and providential distribution suggests the expression imoUiog, 
for the coming day. The continuance, therefore, of our indi- 
gence, and of God's fatherly beneficence as from year to year, 
so from day to day, is denoted by this phrase. Cf. 2 Kings 
XXV. 30. — Xoyov ij/ispas ev rnj^ipoj, avrou, the proportion for the day 
on its day. Cf. Acts vi. 1, Siaxovia naSrifiipnri, daily ministration. 
The bread, as a whole, is appointed us for all our days ; but the 
" giving" of it is distributed through the several days of our life, 
so as to take place each day. Both these ideas are expressed 
by the word ivioxteiog. What was necessary for the support of 
my hfe on any particular day, needed not to be given me on the 
day before that, but on that very day ; and what was necessary 
on the following day, was given soon enough on that day, and 
so on. The sense therefore of imoUws extends more widely 
with regard both to the past and the future, than that of " cras- 
tinus," to-morrow's. — stj/i^ipov, to-day) In Luke xi. 3, we find rh 
xdg ij/ispav, day by day. Day by day we say and pray, " to- 
day." Our confidence and contentedness {aiirdpxeia,)^ are 
thus expressed. Thus in James ii. 15, we have eip^/iipog 

* viz. the cares of this life. — Ed. 

' The feminine of iiiji, the participle present of tifti to go. — (I. B.) 

» Spc p. leo and f.n. 3.— (I- B.) 

102 ST MATTHEW VI. 12, 18. 

Tf>o<p^, daily food. Cf. also Prov. xxx. 8. Thus was manna 


12. Ka.1, and) The three remaining petitions regard the com- 
mencement, progress and conclusion of our spiritual life in this 
world ; and those who utter them confess, not only their own 
need, but also their guilt, their peril, and their difficulties. 
When these have been removed, God is all in all to them, by 
virtue of the three first petitions. — 6<piiXrifji,aTa, debts) In ver. 14 
we find mapaitruiLaTct, lapses. In Luke xi. 4, we have a/iapr/as, 
sins. Cf. Matt, xviii. 24.^ — ws, as) Before it was " As, in heaven, 
so on earth" now it is " SO in heaven AS on earth." 

13. Mj) eleivsyxrig fi/^ag, Lead US not into) Temptation is always 
in the way : wherefore we pray, not that it may not exist, but 
that it may not touch or overpower us. — See eh. xxvi. 41 ; 1 Cor. 
X. 13. — aXXA, but) The sixth and seventh petitions are so closely 
connected that they are considered by many as forming only one. 
— pueai, deliver) See 2 Tim. iv. 18. — a-Trh rotj tokji/joi;, from the evil 
one) i.e., from Satan. — See ch. xiii. 19. 38. 

"Or/ eou IsTiv ij '^aSiXiia xal fj dvva/jLig xai ri ho^a. tig Toug aiSivag. 
'A/Ajjv, For thine is the hingdom, and the power, and the glory, for 
ever and ever. Amen) This is the sfcope of the Lord's Prayer, 
that we may be taught to pray in few words (ver. 8), for the 
things which we require ; and the prayer itself, even without the 
doxology, involves the praise of God in all its fulness (summam 
laudis Divinae imbibit). For our Heavenly Father is sanctified 
and glorified by us, when He is invoked as our Heavenly Father, 
when things of such magnitude are asked of Him alone, when 
to Him alone all things are referred. We celebrate Him, how- 
ever, in such a manner as should content those who are fighting 
the fight of their Salvation in a foreign land. When the whole 
number of the sons of God shall have reached their goal, a simple 
(mera) doxology will arise in Heaven, Hallowed be the name of 
our God. His kingdom has come : His will has been done. He 
has forgiven us our sins : He has brought temptation to an end : 
He has delivered us from the evil one. His is the kingdom, and 

' We ought not merely in general to pray for deliverance from guilt con- 
tracted by our sins ; but whoever offends God in this or any other peculiar 
manner, is bound also specially to acknowledge and pray for deliverance from 
such offences, and so to give Him the honour due to Him. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW VI. 13. 193 

the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen. A prayer 
was more suitable than a hymn, especially at the time in which 
onr Lord prescribed this form to His disciples. Jesus was not 
yet glorified : the disciples as yet scarcely comprehended the full 
extent of these petitions, much less the amount of thanksgiving 
corresponding thereto. In fine, no one denies that the spirit of 
the whole clause is pious and holy, and conformable to the doxo- 
logies which frequently occur in Scripture : but the question is 
whether the Lord prescribed it in this place in these words. 
Faithfiil criticism regards little, in doubtfal passages, what may 
happen to be the reading of the majority of Greek MSS. now 
extant, which are more modern and less numerous than is gene- 
rally supposed : the question under consideration is rather, 
what was the reading of the Greek MSS. of the first ages, and 
therefore of the spring itself, i.e. the first hand.^ The Latin 
Vulgate, which is certainly without this clause, stands, and will 
continue to stand, nearest in antiquity to the spring : but the 
force of its testimony is not appreciated till after long experience. 
In this passage, however, Greek witnesses, few indeed, but those 
of high authority, support the reading of the Vulgate. I wish 
what I have said on this subject in my Apparatus" to be careftdly 
considered.* Nothing has occurred since I pubHshed that work 

' BDZabc Vulg. Memph. Origen, Cypr. (who adds " Amen ") omit the 
doxology. Orig. Nyssen, Cyril, Maximus all omit it in giving expressly an 
explanation of the prayer. So all the Latin Fathers. It rather too widely 
separates ver. 12 and 14, which are connected together. Moreover Jesus 
was not yet glorified when He gave the prayer : it therefore was hardly 
then appropriate. It was probably added after the kingdom had been 
founded by the Holy Ghost on Pentecost. Ambrose de Sacram. vi. 5 im- 
plies that the doxology was recited by the priest alone, as a response 
(im(paii*ifict) after the people had repeated the Lord's prayer. Alford, from 
2 Tim. iv. 18 where similarly pmira.! d.'ieo irounpov is followed by the doxology, 
argues that some such way of ending the prayer existed at that time. — Ed. 

^ He has devoted more than eight pages to the subject : See App. Crit. pp. 
101-109.— (L B.) 

' E.B. and those who have adopted his text, add here "especially § x. on 
this passage." It runs thus : — 

De tota re, lector judicet. 

Prsetermisit clausulam Lutherus, in Agendis Baptismi, eisque renovatis ; 
in Tract, de Decalogo, symbolo Apost. et oratione Dominica ; in Catechismo 
utroque, et Hymno : ubi etiam Amen cum Hieronymo ad rogationes refert 


1&4 ST MATTHEW VI. 13. 

to weaken the arguments which I there brought together on this 
point, whereas something has occurred to confirm them very 
greatly: I allude to a passage in Enthymius, who flourished at 
the beginning of the twelfth century. For when inveighing 
against the Bogomili^ for not using this clause, he does so only 
on the ground that it was an addition of the Fathers, calling it 
rh vapa ruv hlaiv (pugrripcov xat rra ixxXrjSiac xaSriyriTcHiv '!rpoereSev dupo- 
riXiuT/ov evKpuivtifiba, The choral conclusion added by those who were 
the divine illuminators and guides of the Church. La Croze," 
relying on this testimony, clearly prefers in this passage the 
Latin to the Syriac version ; see his Histoire du Christianisme 
des Indes, p. 313. One thing ought to be considered again and 
again : the more that any one diminishes the authority of the 
Vulgate on this passage, so much the more does he injure his 
own cause if he maintains the genuineness of that most import- 
ant passage in 1 John v. 7 : for it at present rests solely on the 

lion ad clausulam, quanquam in Homil. ad. capp. v. vi. vii. Matth. earn 
tractat. Appendicem earn esse persuadent nobis rationes § ix. collectae ; quan- 
quam margo noster in suspense rem reliquit, dum rationes fuissent expositse : 
et plane pro appendice habet Brentius; Hunnius vel pro appendice vel pro 
epilogo, cujus moderationem recte sequentur, qui nil certi secum hie possunt 
constituere. Liberum saltern est privatim vel Matthsei receptam, vel Lucse 
lectionem in orando sequi : quin etiam publice, in choro coenobiorum Wir- 
tembergicorum, et alibi hodienum prsetermitti solita est clausula. Cavendum 
vero, ne idiotse intempestivis de hSc clausula sermonibus perturbentur. Hac 
quoque in re et veritati et paci inserviendum est. " Sincera crisis," etc., as 
in the Gnomon Ed. mdcclix, which is followed in this translation. — (I. B.) 

' The BoGOMiLES were a sect of heretics which arose about the year 
1 079. Their founder was Basilius, a monk, who was burnt at Constantinople 
in the reign of Alexius Oomnenus. He maintained that the world and all 
animal bodies were formed, not by the Deity, but by an evil demon who had 
been cast down from heaven by the Supreme Being. Hence that the body 
was only the prison of the soul, and was to be enervated by fasting, contem- 
plation, etc., that the soul might be gradually restored to its primitive 
Uberty. Marriage therefore was to be avoided. Basilius also denied the 
reality of Christ's body, which he considered to be only a phantom, rejected 
the law of Moses, and maintained that the body on its separation by death 
returned to the malignant mass of matter, without possibility of a future re- 
surrection to life and felicity See Moshem. — (I. B.) 

^ Mathurin Vetssiere de la Croze, a distinguished Oriental scholar, 
bom at Nantes in 1661. In the course of his life he abjured Romanism, and 
died at Berlin in 1739 (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW VT. 14-21. 195 

single testimony of the Latin Interpreter, and rests upon it 

14. Tap, for) referring to the twelfth verse. See of how much 
accoimt it is to forgive our neighbour. Of the seven petitions, 
one alone, the fifth, has a certain condition or restriction, as we 
also ; the reason of this is, therefore, added in the present verse. 

15. TA ntapa.itriiiiLa.ra avrSiv, their trespasses) The copies which 
omit these words, elegantly intimate that the sins of men against 
us, if compared with our sins against the Father, will vanish 
away. Some Latin writers omit also the words nTs Sivdpumi;, 

16. 'Orav vnanhriTi, when ye fast) Fasting also ought to be of 
great account with us ; it is not a part of the ceremonial law. — 
apaw'^ouff/, they disfigure) By neglecting the daily attention to 
the person of washing and anointing. An exquisite oxymoron, 
dpaw^ouo'/, (famdi} 

17. "AXti-i^ai — vl-^ai, anoint — wash) Both verbs are in the 
middle voice ; [the meaning therefore is] anoint and wash alone 
(solus unge et lava). It was customary for the Jews to be 
anointed on feast days.^ 

18. Tffi Harpl, to thy Father) sc. thou mayest be known. 

19. " Om\j,where) i.e. on earth. This has a causative force,' being 
equivalent to because there.* — ^pugig, corrosion) This word, in 
opposition to moth, expresses rust, and every evil quality by 
which anything can become useless. — xal xXe'Trrovai, and thus 

21. Qrisavphg b/iZv — xapSia v/muv,^ your treasure — your heart) 
Others read 6rieavp6g mu — xapSla gov, thy treasure — thy heart.^ 
The objects which are mentioned in ver. 22, 23 (consequentia) 

^ i.e. a play upon these words, a.(l)ai/i'^a being the privative transitive 
formed from (pai/cj, to appear. — (I. B.) 

2 The sense is, Abstain from all rather severe exercises. — V. g. 

' Aetiology. See Appendix.— Ed. 

* Such is the principle of the life of not a few men, that they seem to exist 
in the world only for the purpose of amassing an abundance of earthly pos- 
sessions. — v. g. 

The particle Si in ver. 20 indicates that both cannot at the same time 
stand together. — V. g. 

» Thus E. M.— (I. B.) 
Q-nanvpii gov — *«;«?/« aov is the reading of 'Babe Vulg. Memph. Theb. 

19C ST MATTHEW VI. 22, 28. 

are in the singular, those which are mentioned in ver. 19, 20 
(antecedentia), with which this verse is connected, are in the 
plural number. The plural therefore must stand in this verse. 
The singular, " thesaurus tuus," " thy treasure," easily crept into 
the Latin Vulgate, and was convenient to the Greeks for ascetic 
discourses. The treasure which YOU collect is called in Luke 
xii. 34 6rieavphs v/iuv, TOUR treasure. — sarai, will be) sc. in 
heaven or in earth respectively. 

22. "O 6p6a-Kfi6s, the eye) This is the subject of the proposition.^ 
— idi,9 olv, if therefore) The particle oSk {therefore) agrees exactly 
with the scope of the passage, and has been easily left out by 
some who have understood it, though they omitted it.^ We wUl 
not linger on such matters. — airXoDs, single, simple) The word 
simplicity never occurs in the sacred writings in a bad sense. 
ttTXoDs signifies here simple and good, singly intent on heaven, 
on God. Here is an antithesis between osTrXoDs, single, in this 
verse, and hai, two, in ver. 24. That which is propoimded 
figuratively in ver. 22, 23, is declared in plain words in the fol- 
lowing verses. — fainnh, full of light) As if it were all eye. 

23. TlcDinfhi, evil) sc. shifting, double, inconsistent, imbued 
with self-love. — rJ pSs, the light) which the lamp should give. — 
rJ <fxi5ros, the darkness) How great darkness must be the darkness 
of the whole body!' — vSaov, how great) As great as the body. 

Cypr. 239, 303. The change to Sing, from Plur. ver. 20, is perhaps to im- 
ply that the heart of each individually is to be given to God. — Ed. 

Such is the reading supported by Bengel in his German Version, where 
he writes, " Denn wo dein Sohatz iit, da wird avoh dein Herz seyn." " For 
where Tht treasure is, there will Tht heart be also." He explains dein 
Schatz (thy treasure) by " Thy possession (dun Chtt), on which thy Anxiety 
is set night and day." In his App. Crit he supports the reading of the Re- 
ceived Text, and speaks of aav as having crept in from the next verse. — 

^ Not as in E. V. " The Tjight of the loijy in the eye," but " The Eye is 
ihe Ught of the hody.' — Ed. 

' i.e. Those who omitted the word actually when copying in the text must 
have supplied it mentally when reading it. — (I. B.) 

OSu is the reading of B ; J has enim ; ac Hil. 620 omit it. — Ed. 

' In the original the passage runs thus — 

" Tenebrce totius corporis, quantse erunt tenebrse !" and then proceeds, 
"Singularis tenebra, veteribus non ignotus, a multis Theologis in loco ad- 
hihitus, ssepius conveniret simplicitati hermeneuticse." — (I. B.) 


24. Kupioii, masters) God and Mammon in sooth act as master 
to their servants, but in different ways. — ^ouXsie/Hj to serve) i.e} 
to be a servant of. — ^ yap, for either) Each part of this disjunc- 
tive sentence has aa) (and) with a consecutive force, viz. The 
heart of man cannot be so free as not to serve either God or a 
creature, nor can it serve them both at once ;" for it either still 
remains in enmity with God or it takes God's part. In the one 
case, then (xaf) it cannot but love Mammon ; in the other, then 
(xai) it cannot but despise Mammon. This statement may be 
inverted, so that the clause referring to the laudable state of 
mind may precede the other. Cf. ver. 22, 23. Attachment 
and a desire to please are consequent upon either servitude. 
See ver. 21. — 0£c» dovXsutiv, to serve God) Which is described in 
Luke xii. 35, 36.° — na/ioiv^ Mammori) Mammon does not only 
mean affluence, but external goods, however few. See ver. 25.* 
Augustine" tells us, that both in Phoenician and Chaldee mam- 
mon signifies gain. 

25. M^ fispi/ivars, take no care for) The disciples had left all 
things which could be the source of care to them. — rri ■4'u%3), the 
soul) The soul is supported by food in the body, which itself 
lives on food : the body alone is covered by raiment. — xal ri 
irinrt, and what ye drink) This has been easily omitted by 
copyists, or is easily understood (subauditur) by us. The 31st 
verse requires the express mention of drinking rather than the 

1 With one's full powers. — ^V. g. 

' Although very many think themselves thoroughly versed in this art of 
combining both. — ^V. g. 

' The servants of Mammon, in obedience to their natural instincts, hate 
Him, who alone is good. — V. g. 

* Yea, even the commonest necessaries of life. Comp. ver. 32. But if 
even such a service of Mammon, as aflfects the mere necessaries of life, is op- 
posed to the service of God, what then are we to suppose it to be to aerv» 
God. It is this : to be borne towards Him with the full tide of love, and with 
uninterrupted regard. — V. g. 

^ AuRELiDS AnousTiNUS, one of the most celebrated fathers of the Western 
Church, was born at Tagasta, in Africa, in 354. His mother Monica was a 
holy Christian woman : his father a heathen, in which religion he was edu- 
cated. His early career, though one of extreme brilliancy, was disfigvired 
by profligacy. At length, however, he embraced Christianity; was baptized 
by St Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, in 387; ordained priest in 391 ; and coiw 
seerated in 395 Bishop of Hippo, where he died in 430 — (I. B.) 

198 ST MATTHEW VI. 26-30. 

present, for in it the careful are introduced as themselves speak- 
ing, whereas in the present verse our Lord speaks in His own 
person.^ — fi ■4'vx^ — ''^ eufia, the soul — the body) Both of which 
God gave and cares for. See the latter part of ver. 30.'' 

26, 28. ra inrinot, rov ohpanZ — roi Kpha, roD aypoij, the fowls Of the 
air — the lilies of the field) which men do not take care of, often in 
fact destroying them ; as for example the ravens, mentioned in 
Luke xii. 24.* 

26. 0\)ii duvdyoveiv, neither do they collect) as for example by- 
purchase, for the future.^ — l/iZv, your) He says your, not their. — 
/LuXXov, more) i.e. you more excel as sons of God, than other 
men do, or than you who indulge in such care (anxiety) con- 
sider. The word /iSXXov, therefore, is not redundant. In this 
verse, the argument is from the less to the greater ; in ver. 25, 
from the greater to the less. 

27. Th — sf v/iuv, which — o/ yow) A mode of speaking frequent 
with Christ, full of ma,jesty, and yet suited for poptdar use. — 
TiXixlav, stature) See Gnomon on Luke xii, 25, 26. — ir?%ui', a 
cubit) So as to become of gigantic height. 

28. nZs ah^dni, how they grow) sc. to a great height. — oh 
xom^, they toil not) Toil is remotely, spinning intimately connected 
with procuring raiment, as sowing and reaping are with food. 

29. Aiyta, I say) Christ truly knew the dress of Solomon. — 
(is, as) sc. is clothed, or is. — 'h, one) any one, not to say a whole 
garland.^ — rohnav, of these) The pronoun is used demonstratively. 

30. Af, but) Used epitatically.' Garments are objects of 
comeHness, as well as necessity. The mention of the lilies 

1 ab Vulg. EQl. Bas. Bpiph. Jerome (who says, however, it was added in 
some MSS.) omit »i t/ Tr/nre. But BC, Orig. 1,71 1(? Memph. read the words. 
Rec. Text has x«i instead of ij, the reading of the oldest authorities. — Ed. 

' There is nothing so small and insignificant, which His omniscience 
neglects, ver. 32. — V. g. 

' The ant (Prov. vi. 6) is an example, which we may apply as an antidote 
to slothfulness ; the birds of heaven, to anxious cares. — Y. g. 

* " Into barns:" or even into other repositories of food, as we may see 
instanced in other animals V. g. 

» Kings were wont to wear white robes ; but these are surpassed by the 
whiteness of the lilies. — V. g. 

• See Append, on Epitasis. It implies some word or words added to •& 
previous enunciation to give augmented force. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW VI. 30. 199 

with the verb -ffipi^aXXieSai, to be arrayed, refers to the former ; 
that of grass with the verb a/ji,<pimu(r6ai, to be clothed, to the 
latter notion. — xoproi/, grass, blade) as for example that of 
growing wheat. — See ch. xiii. 26. An instance of Litotes.^ — 
a^fiipov ovrcc, which to-day is) i.e., which endures for a very 
short time.^ — avpwv, to-morrow) After a short interval, the grains 
having been thrashed out, the straw serves for the fire. — xXi^avov, 
the oven) To heat it. — See Lyranus.' Pliny* says, "rinds 
beaten from the flax are useful for ovens and famaces." — B. 19, 
ch. 1. It is not said, into the fire, as in John xv. 6 (cf. 1 Cor. 
iii. 12), but into the oven. Not, therefore, for the sake merely 
of being burnt, but of some utility. — a/i<p ivmeiv, clothe, dresseth) 
The dress is properly that without which the body is naked : 
grass, although it has no external clothing, yet, because it is not 
naked, but is covered with its own surface, is itself its own dress, 
especially in its highest and flowering part, of which it is divested 
when it dries up. — mXK^ /j.SX'kov, much more) In this life few- 
attain to the adornment of Solomon, not to mention that of the 
lilies ; our Lord's words, therefore, regard the certainty, not the 
degree of adornment : but in the life to come we shall be more 
adorned than the lilies. We ought not, however, altogether to 
reject adornment in things, however perishable. — oXiyonsroi, 

1 See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

2 E. B. quotes here C. W. Ludecke, " At Pentecost all these regions are 
clad in green verdure ; but when the south wind suddenly arises, in 24 
hours, or two or three days at most, there is nothing that does not become 
white and blanched." 

' The individual thus denominated was Nicolas de Ltke, so called from 
the place of his birth, a small village in Normandy. He is supposed by som» 
to have been of Jewish extraction : he was bom in the thirteenth century : 
he assumed the habit of the Franciscan order in 1291. He was a man of 
great learning, and especially versed in Hebrew : he wrote several treatises 
in defence of Christianity against the Jews, and a series of Postills or small 
commentaries on the whole of the Bible. He died in 1340. He was known 
in the schools by the surname of Doctor utilis. So great was the effect of 
his labours, that it gave rise to the proverb, " Si Lyra non lyrasset, Lutherus 
non saltasset," i.e. " If Lyre had not played on the lyre, Luther would not 
have danced." — (I. B.) 

* Caius Plinius SecunduSj commonly called the elder Pliny, born, it is 
supposed, at Verona, about a.d. 23 ; died a.d. 79. He was a man of inde- 
fatigable study, and, though holding high offices in the state, published, be- 
sides other works, a natural history in thirty- seven books (I. B.) 

200 ST MATTHEW VI. 32, 33. 

ye of little faith) "Want of faith was clearly unknown and ab- 
horred by Christ ; for He had known the Father. He teaches 
faith in this passage.^ 

32. Iiavj-a y&p raZra., k.t.X., for all these things, etc.) and no- 
thing else. — T-ii ihri, the gentiles) the heathen nations. The faith- 
ftd ought to be free from the cares, not only of the covetous 
among the heathen, but of all heathens ; many, however, in the 
present day fall short of the heathen in this matter.^ ^emt,ririT, 
seek after) as though a difficult matter. This word is followed 
by the simple verb ^?)r£7rE, seek ye, — oJSs y&p 6 ffarjjp u/iZv i oupor- 
mg, for your Heavenly Father knoweth) An argument from the 
omniscience, the goodness, and the omnipotence of God. — i/jLuv, 
your) sc. who is your Father in a pre-eminent degree in prefer 
ence to the heathen.* 

33. ZriTiTre, seek ye) the kingdom which is nigh at hand, and 
not difficult of acquisition. — 'irpunv, first) He who seeks that first, 
will soon seek that only. — SaeiXiiav, kingdom, — biKctitevvrtv, right- 
eousness) Heavenly meat and drink are opposed to earthly, and 
thus also raiment ; and, therefore, St Luke in his twelfth chapter 
leaves raiment to be understood at ver. 29, and righteousness at 
ver. 31, although righteousness also filleth ; see ch. v. 6.* — aOroD, 
his) sc. righteousness. — See the note on Hom. i. 17. — ravra, 
these things) An instance of Litotes.' — irpodnirigiTai, shall he added 
unto) These things are a irpoeSiixri or appendage of the life and 
body (see ver. 25); and still more so of the kingdom (see Luke 
xii. 32). 

' This is the only mode of address, which Jesus employed, when wishing 
to censure the disciples : chap. viii. 26, xiv. 31, xvi. 8. — V. g. 

' In the original, " At multi faodie non earn, quam gentes, habent ainap- 
xiiaii." Bengel in Gnomon on ch. iv. 4 defines aina.px,ua as " Prcesenn 
animi quies." See p. 150 and f.n. 3. — (I. B.) 

* In the original all this is expressed by two words, "prce ethnicis." — (I. B.) 

* Sc. "Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after RiaHiEOUSNESS, for 
they shall be tilled." See also Gnomon in loc. — (I. B.) 

' The word used in the original is retveiumig, concerning which John 
Albert Burk says, in his Explanation of the Technical Terms employed in 
the Gnomon — 

"LITOTES, Me/6)<r;f, Tcfriiuaais, EXTENTJATIO, quse singula in 
Gnomone passim allegantur, vix ac ne vix quidem differunt." 

Vor explanation and examples, see Appendix. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW VI. 34.-VII. 1. 201 

34. 'H aupioy, x.r.X., the morrow, etc.) A precept remarkable 
for Asteismus,'^ by which care, though apparently permitted on 
the morrow, is in fact forbidden altogether; for the careful 
make present cares even of those which are future, wherefore, to 
put off care is almost the same as to lay it aside. There is also 
a personification of the morrow (cf. Ps. xix. 2) : " the day" says 
our Lord, {not you) " shall take care" He who has learnt this, 
will contract his cares at length irom the day to the present hour, 
or altogether unlearn them. — /ji,ipi/ivrigii iaurri,' shall take care for 
itself) A Dativus Commodi,^ as in ver. 25, /*)) /j^ipi/^vars rji 4"'XV 
— firiSe rp ffti/ian, x.r.X., take no care for your LITE — nor yet for 
your BODT, etc. — apxerhv, sufficient) God indeed distributes our 
adversity and prosperity, through all the periods of our life, after 
a wonderful manner, so that they temper each other. — ii xaxla, 
the evit) i.e. the sorrow; therefore there were no cares in the be- 
ginning. — xaxla, though originally meaning badness (wickedness), 
signifies here sorrow; just as the Hebrew 2113 (ayaShg, good) 
means joyfiil in Prov. xv, 15.^-aurj)s, thereof) Although it be 
not increased by the sorrow of either the past or the coming 


1. M^ xphiTi, Judge not) i.e. without knowledge, charity, or 
necessity. Yet a dog is to be accounted a dog, and a swine a 
swine ; see ver. 6. 

1 i.e. For skilfully conveying a stem truth in such a manner as not to 
repel, offend, or startle the hearer : in the original, " monitum mire ddttlot." 
— (I. B.) See on Asteismus in the Append. — Ed. 

' The Ed. Maj. regarded invrJi as a less reliable reading than rH ictvrvi;. 
But Gnom. Ed. 1 (1742 a.d.) and Marg. Ed. 2, and Vers. Germ, prefer 
ixvrji. — E. B. 

Sollicitus erit sibi ipse. Vulg. 

BGLo6c Vulg. Cypr. 210, 307, Hil. 635, read ftipifiv^aei eavriis. Rec. 
Text has ra iavr^;, evidently a correction to introduce the more usual con- 
struction of i^ipifiucta with the accusative. — Ed. 

' See explanation of Technical Terms. — (I. B.) 

202 ST MATTHEW VII. 2-6. 

2. 'Ev ^ /ifrpifi, with what measure) The principle of the kx 

3. 'El/ rp 6(pSa\/jip, in the eye) In that part of the body which 
is the most noble, the most dehcate, and the most conspicuous. — 
h rp ffffi, in thine own) See Eom. ii. 21, 23. 

4. Uu;, how ?) i.e. How is it fitting for you to do so ? 

5. A/ajSXs-vf/j/s, thou shalt see beyond) now that the beam has 
been taken out of the way, and no longer interposes itself be- 
tween you and your brother's eye, and that your own is relieved 
of the incumbrance. He who, having first corrected himself, 
seeks to correct another, is not a perverse judge.^ 

6. M)j huTi, give not) Here we meet with the other extreme ; 
for the two extremes are, to judge those who ought ilot to be 
judged, and to give holy things to the dogs. Too much severity 
and too much laxity.' — xue!, ;)jo;>wi', dogs, swine) Dogs feed on 
their own filth, swine on that of others. See Gnomon on 
2 Pet. ii. 22 ; Phil. iii. 2. The holy and dogs are put in oppo- 
sition to each other in Exod. xxii. 30 ;* a dog is not a wild beast, 
but yet it is an unclean animal. — !i//,Siv, your) An implied anti- 
theton.* That which is holy is the property of GoD ; pearls are 
the secret treasures of the faithful, intrusted to them by GoD. — 
frj^cagiv, rend) This also appears to refer to the swine.' — U|U.a;, 
you) From whom they expected something else, husks, etc. 

^ So it is not hard to judge, what retribution hereafter each one is likely 
to have. — ^V. g. 

' For what man is there, who does not gladly allow a straw [thorn] to 
be extracted from his finger, not to say from his eye, by a skilfully applied 
hand ? The principle is the same as in the gnat and the camel, chap, xxiii. 
24.— V. g. 

' This admonition especially has regard to our daily conversation. When 
such things are set before them in public, such persons lightly pass over 
them. — v. g. 

• This is the Hebrew notation. In the Septuagint, Vulgate, and English 
Version it is reckoned as the thirtieth. It runs thus — " And ye shall be 
HOLT men unto me ; neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in 
the field : ye shall cast it to the dogs." — (I. B.) 

• Sc. between you and sudne (I. B.) 

• Swine attack the pearls with their feet, the saints with their tusk. A 
well-disposed man is more than once apt to suppose, that what seems sacred 
and precious to him, ought to seem so to others also, until he learns, by ex- 
peiience of the contrary, to act with more caution. — V. g. 


7. AItiTti, ask) Ask for gifts to meet your needs. — ^;jrem, 
*eek) sc. the hidden things which you have lost, and return 
from your error. — xpoCiri, knock) sc. ye who are without, that ye 
may be admitted within. See 2 Cor. vi. 17, fin. Ask, seek, 
knock, without intermission.^ 

8. JlSs, everi/ one) that asketh, even from man, much more 
from God. 

9. "H, An interrogative particle, corresponding to the Latin 
an.' — 1| ii/iSiv, of you) Parables are especially popular, when 
they are addressed ad liominem, — avSpmro;, a man) One, that is, 
who is not clearly devoid of humanity.' — a^rov, bread) A stone, 
which is useless for food, resembles outwardly a loaf or roll. A 
snake, which is noxious, resembles a fish. A child can more easily 
do without fish than bread, and yet he obtains even a fish by 
asking for it. Fishes were given then to children, as apples are 
now. — iJ,n Xikv, a stone ?) Lat. num lapidem, [such must be the 
force of /iij* in this place] ; for the parent, when asked, will not 
refuse to give either bread or a stone. 

11. 'Ti^sTg, you) Christ rightly excepts Himself, and no one 
else." — The v/j-iTg here refers to Ig i/j.uv, of you, in ver. 9. — 
•jrovjjpo/, evil) An illustrious testimony to the doctrine of original 
sin. Cf. the evil one^ vi. 1 3. The Panegyric of Gregory" Thau- 

1 Never cease, I pray thee, Reader, to turn such a promise to thy advan- 
tage, as often soever as the opportunity presents itself. — ^V. g. 

' The second part of a disjunctive interrogation. — Ed. 

' The arrangement of the words in the original brings this idea strongly 
out.— (I. B.) 

« The interrogative particle, which expects a negative answer. — " He will 
not give a stone, will he ?" — Ed. 

» What man of you, ver. 9, implies that all hut Himself are included in His 
words. — (Ed.) 

• Men who are devoid of a godly disposition imitate him. — B. G. V. 

In the original the expressions used are, Malus, malitiam, male audit.— 
As the first of these = the Evil One, I have rendered the others so as to cor- 
respond with it. — (I. B.) 

*■ Gregory, surnamed Thaumaturgus, or the wonder-worker, was bom 
at Neo-Casarea, in Cappadocia. He was originally a heathen, and highly 
educated, in the learning of the ancients. He afterwards embraced 
Christianity, and studied under Origen. ..Having taken orders, he was 
ordained Bishop of his native city about 239. He died between 264 and 
271 . He was a man of high attainments and great piety.- Several valuable 

204 ST MATTHEW VII. 12. 

maturgus (p. 20, 146), has a similar confession of the evilnesi of 
human nature, with an emphasis rare in that age. Man is 
addressed as evil in the Scriptures. See ch. x. 17, and John u. 
25.' It is wonderful therefore that Holy Scripture should have 
ever been received by the human race. Bread and fish are 
good things ; man is evil, prompt to commit injury.^— o"5a", ye 
know) Distinguishing bread from a stone, etc. It is wonderful 
that this understanding ( intelligentiam) has remained in us. 
We are so evil. Cf. Job. xxxix. 17' with the preceding verses. 
— Aya^A, good things) both harmless and profitable things.*— ro/j 
r'exvoii vfiuv, to your children) especially when they ask you. — 
h ToTg ovpavoTg, which is in the heavens) In whom there is no evil.— 
To7g ahoveiv, to them that ask) sc. His children ; for where true 
prayer begins, there is Divine sonship. 

12, Out, therefore) The sum of all that has been said from the 
beginning of the chapter. He concludes [this portion of the 
discourse], and at the same time returns to ch. v. 17. The con- 
clusion corresponds with the commencement. And we ought to 
imitate the Divine goodness, mentioned in ver. 11. — 6iXriTi ha 
voiudiv, ye would that they should do) " Ye would:" this is 
pointedly said (notanter) : for men often do otherwise [than 
what ye would that they should do]. We are not to follow 
their example. Se. by benefiting, not injuring. — oJ avSpuvoi, 
men) The indefinite appellation of men, frequently employed by 
the Saviour, already alludes to the future propagation of His 
teaching throughout the whole human race. — ol/rai, thus) The 
same things in the same way : or thus, as I have told you up 
to this point. — olrog, this) The law and the prophets enjoin many 
other things, as for example the love of God : but yet the law 
and the prophets also tend to this as their especial scope, viz. 

works of his are still in existence ; that alluded to here, is his Panegyric on 
his master Origen, edited by Bengel, a.d. 1722 (I. B.) 

1 E. B. and the later editions add Matt. xvi. 23, Rom iii, 4, etc. — (I. B.) 

' It is in fact wonderful that a human father, when his son asks him for 
a fish, does not offer him a serpent V. g. 

' Where the Vulgate has — Privavit enim eam Deus sapienti^ nee dedit illi 
intelligentiam — and E. V. "Because God hath- deprived her of wisdom, 
neither hath He imparted to her understanding." — (I. B.) 

♦ And therefore also the Good Spirit Himself. V. g. 

BT MATTHEW VII. 13, H. 206 

whatsoever ye would, etc., and he who performs this, performs 
all the rest more easily : see ch. xix, 19, 

13. 'E'leiXBin, enter ye in) Make it the object of your constant 
and earnest endeavours (Id agite) really to enter.^ This pre- 
supposes that they are attempting to walk on the narrow way. 
Observe the antithetical relation between " tkixhri" " enter ye 
in" [in the first], and " 0/ ilaep^Sfisvoi" — " they which go in" [in 
the last clause of this verse]. — STivris, strait) sc. of righteous- 
ness. — vLXfi, the gate) This is put before the way; the gate 
therefore in this verse signifies that, by which a man begins in 
any manner to seek for the salvation of his soul ; as in the next 
verse the gate is that, by which true Christianity is received. — 
Aroiyousa, which leadeth away) from this short life. So also 
in the next verse. — mXkoi, many) See 2 Esdras ix. 15, 17. — 
01 t}(Stf)(pi/jtm, they which go in) There is no need that they should 
find it, for they spontaneously fall into destruction. Cf. v. 14. 
— 3/ axiTiis, through it) sc. the gate. 

14. "Or/ ffrsv^, x.r.X., because straight, etc.) Many read ri grivii, 
x.r.X.,' S.OW straight, etc., as in the S.V. of 2 Sam. vi. 20, where no' 
is rendered by r/ — sc. r! Sedo^aSTai eiifiipov 6 /Satf/XsOs 'lepariX — HOW 
glorious was the king of Israel to-day I But there the expres- 
sion is ironical. — The true reading is undoubtedly,* Sti -rXariTa — 
or/ STiv^, x.r.X. — BECAUSE broad — BECAUSE straight. Thus in 
1 Kings xxi. 15, ''3'' (rendered on by the lxx.) occurs twice. — 
Sti oux. 'isTi Na^ouS&i ^wv, or/ rihiixt : For, Naboth is not alive, but 
dead.^ The last ''2 has the force of but ; and is thus rendered 

' Into life, into the Itingdom of heaven. — V. g. 

2 Lachm. reads t/ otekj), with B corrected by a second hand, CLA 6c Vulg. 
Syr. Cypr. But Tischend. on, with B corrected by the first hand, X, Orig. 
3, 6275, and Memph. T/ for us is a Hellenistic idiom, Ps. viii. 1, where for 
the LXX. as Setvfiat7r6v other versions have rl fityit. The ri may be a gloss 
on oTi taken with the positive, as it is often with superlatives, intensively 
(oT/ ffXe/ffTOf, etc.) : so in Plato on rci%vs, valde cekriter. However Bengel 
makes on, as before irT^ctrila, so to be repeated before arsi/ti in the sense sed, 
'but.'— Ed. 

» What, or hou>.—{l. B.) 

♦ Thus also E. M.— (I. B.) 

' For a full account of this word and its meanings, see Gesenius's Lexicon 
in voce. — (I. B.) 

* Literally — " Because Naboth is not living, because he has died. — (I. B.) 

806 ST MATTHEW VII. 15, 16. 

by the Lxx. in Dan. ix. 18, and 2 Chron. xx. 15. See also 
Heb. viii. 10, 11.'— aOrijv, it) sc. the gate. Cf. the commence- 
ment and conclusion of ver. 13. 

15. -nposixiri, beware of) There are many dangers : therefore 
we are frequently warned. — See ch. vi. 1, xvi. 6, xxiv. 4 ; Luke 
xii. 1, 15, etc. — 8i, but) Whilst you are endeavouring yourselves 
to enter, beware of those who close the gate against you. See 
ch. xxiii. 13. — ■^luSo'TrpoprjrCiv, false prophets) whose teaching is 
different from that of true prophets. See ch. v. 17. [comp. 
ver. 12. He who works iniquity, however he may prophesy in 
the name of Christ (ver. 22), is nevertheless a false prophet. In 
our day, they who delight in casting against others the taunt of 
being Pharisees and false prophets, are themselves that which 
they lay to the charge of others. — ^V. g.] — hdv/j^asi vpo^aTm, in 
sheep's clothing) i.e. in such clothing as they would wear if they 
were sheep. 

15, 16. O'lTing 'ip^ovrai — s<!riyvuiste6i ahrolg, who come — ye shall 
know them) a very similar passage occurs in Luke xx. 45—47.^ 

16. 'A'Trh^Tuv xapvuv avrSiv, x.r.X., from their fruits, etc.) This de- 
claration is solemnly repeated at ver. 20. — ■Ao.p'uZi'i, fruits) The 
fruit is that, which a man like a tree puts forth, from the good 
or evU disposition which pervades the whole of his inward 
being. Learning, compiled from every quarter, and combined 
with language, does not constitute fruit ; which consists of aU 
that which the teacher puts forth from his heart, in his language 
and conduct, as something flowing from his inner being, like milk, 
which the mother gives from her own breast : see ch. xii. 33, 
34, 35. This is the true force of voiif, produces, in ver. 17—19 : 
cf ver. 21, 23, 24, 26. It is not his speech alone which con- 
stitutes the true or the false prophet, but his whole method of 
leading* himself, and others with him, by the one or the other 

' E/f T^i/ ^m^j/ is the expression used of the future life of blessedness : for 
the present life is not life at all. — V. g. 

' True judgment looks to the inward character of persons and things 
[" inwardly they are ravening wolves"]. — V. g. 

' However the margin of Ed. ii. of N. Test, more readily allows the omis- 
sion of this particle than the larger edition. — E. B. 

Ba6 Hil. 1245 read dvo : but c Lucif. ' ex,' Vulg. ' a.'— Ed. 

* See ver. 14, " leadgth."—ED. 

ST MATTHEW VII. 19-21. 2&7 

road or gate to life or death (see cli. xv. 14, 13) ; whence it arises 
that doing and saying are closely connected in ch. v. 10. The 
fruits indeed are the tokens (Gnorismata) or evidence of the 
truth or falsehood of the prophet, and therefore also of the 
doctrine set forth hy the prophet. The doctrine, therefore, is 
not the fruit by which the prophet is known ; but it is the form 
of the true or false prophet which constitutes him the one or the 
other, and is itself known from its fruit. The goodness of the 
tree itself is truth and inward light, etc ; the goodness of the 
fruit is holiness of Hfe. If the fhiit consisted in doctrine, 
no orthodox teacher could be damned or be the cause of 
anothei's destruction. — See Schemer,^ Theol. Moral, p. 252. — 
btJ AxavSHv, of tJiorns) although their berries resemble grapes, 
as the heads of thistles do figs. In Luke vi. 44 the same com- 
parison is differently turned, for cixavSa, the thorn, and ^drog, 
the bramble, are very closely allied. The grape therefore (sroKpuXri) 
is denied to each of them. Certain thorns (axavSai) also have 
large shoots :^ figs therefore can be denied to them as well as to 

19. Aiv&pov, a tree) The allegory is continued. 

21. Oil Ttts, x.T.X,, not every one, etc) for all in some manner 
say, and shall say so ; see ver. 22, and cf. Luke ix. 57, 59, 61. — 

X'syav, that saith) Put in opposition to 6 iroiZv, that doeth : cf. 

1 Cor. ix. 27, xiii. 1, 2. — Mo;, unto Me) The meaning is, "unto 
Me and My Father;" and again, "My Father's Will and Mine." 
— Kupit, Lord) Jesus acknowledged that this Divine appellation 
was due to Him. Many, even men of high rank, called Him 
LoED : He called no one so, not even Pilate. — o -sroiuv, -k.t.X., he 
that doeth, etc.) There is an antithesis between this and o'l ifjaZi- 
Ihim {that work), in ver. 23. — rh SsX^/ia, x.r.X., the will, etc.) sc. 
that which I preach, the righteous will, which is declared in the 
Law : cf. v. 19. — nu h ovpavoTg,^ which is in heaven^) No one, 
therefore, who is contrary to God wiU enter heaven. — aXX' 6 

' Justus Chkistophek Schoher, a celebrated Lutheran divine, was 
bora at Lubeck in 1648, and died in 1693, professorof Theology at Eostock. 
In 1690 he published his celebrated work, Theologia Moralis sibi constans, 
quoted in the text. — (I. B.) 

* i.e. — resembling figs in some measure. — (I. B.) 

* The word is in the plural number. — (I. B.) 

208 ST MATTHEW VII. 22. 

ToiZv rj ^i\n/ia roS narpo; Mou rou h oupatoTg,^ olro; ilsiXtigirai tl( 
rriv ^adiXeiav rZv oupavZv,^ but he that doeth the will of My Father 
which is in Heaven,^ he shall enter into the kingdom of Heaven ') 
These last words/ "ipse intrabit in regnum ccElorum,"^ "he 
shall enter into the kingdom of heaven," are found in that most 
ancient authority, the Latin Vulgate,' and from it in both 
Hebrew editions* of St Matthew, in the Anglo-Saxon Version,' 
in Jerome, and in Lupus," Ep. 84, and, perhaps from another 
version, in Cyprian. The copyists of later times, slipping from 
oupavoT; to oupavSiv, have Omitted the clause. In antithetical pas- 
sages of this character, the sacred writers frequently employ the 
figure entitled Plenus SermoJ 

22. UoXXoi, many) even of those, perhaps, whom posterity has 
canonized and commanded to be accounted blessed and saints ; 
many, certainly, of those who have had rare gifts, and have shown 
at times a good will (see Mark ix. 39), who apprehend the power 
and the wisdom, but not the mercy of God. — ipodei, shall say) 
flattering themselves in their own persuasion. Many souls will 
retain the error, with which they deceive themselves, even up to 
that day:' [A miserable expectation, previously, is theirs: an 
awful judgment, subsequently! — V. g.] see ch. xxv. 11. Hence 
may be illustrated the doctrine of the state after death. In the 
Judgment all things will at length be made known : see Rom. 

' The word is in the plural number. — (I. B.) 

' They are not fouud in E. M.— (I. B.) 

» See p. 14, f. n. 1.— (I. B.) 

' See Le Long, Bibliotheca Sacra, pt. II. Sect. 1, |§ 4, 5, 6 ; andBengel's 
App. Crit. pt. I. Sect. 32, Obs. 6.— (I. B.) 

Vulg. abc Cypr. Hil. add "ipse intrabit in regnum coelorum:'' they 
moreover must read airo; ipse, not as Beng. has it, hio, oJtoj. BZ and most 
of the oldest authorities omit the clause. — ^Ed. 

' Supposed to have been executed in the eighth century. See Hartwell 
Home, vol. II. Pt. I. chap. 3, Sect. iii. § 4.— (I. B.) 

* Lupus Seevatius (or Seevatus), a native of Prance, and disciple of the 
celebrated Aldric, who sent him to Fulda to study the Holy Scriptures under 
the famous Rabanus Maurus. He became Abbot of Ferriere a.d. 842, and 
distinguished himself both as a scholar and a theologian. His character 
stands high both as a man and an author (I. B ) 

' i.e. give the words in full, even though any reader might have readily 
supplied them. — Ed. 

• Sc. the day of judgment.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW Vll. 23-25. 209 

ii. 16 ; 1 Cor. iii. 13. — h Ixuvri r^ hl^ipcj,, on that day) that great 
day, in comparison with which all previous days are nothing. — 
lifi, Thy) The emphasis and accent fall upon this word in each of 
the three clauses : Thy, sc. that of the Lord. — 'TrpoKpyiTiuga./iiv, we 
have prophesied) We have openly proclaimed the mysteries of Thy 
kingdom. Add also : We have written commentaries and exege- 
tical observations on books and passages of the Old and New 
Testament, we have preached fine sermons, etc. — Sai//,6via,, devils) 
It is not said dia^oXovg, because did^oXos is only used in the sin- 
gular number.'^ 

23. Tore, x.r.X., then, etc.) although they had not thought so 
before. — o/ioXoyrjaiii, I will profess) sc. openly. Great was the 
authority evinced by this saying : see ver. 29. — olihi-nori, x.t.X., 
never, etc.) although you cite My Name. — o'l Jfiya^o'/iEvo/, x.r.X., 
that work, etc.) Not even then will their iniquity have been 
changed.^ — amiiAai, iniquity) how much soever they may boast 
of the Law? Unbelief exclusively damns (Infidelitas proprie 
damnat) ; and yet in the Judgment the Law is rather cited ; see 
ch. XXV. 35, 42 ; Kom. ii. 12, because the reprobate, even then, 
when they see Christ visibly manifest, will not comprehend the 
true nature of faith. 

24. ' O/io/wffw, I will liken) In ver. 26 it is, he shall be likened. 
God refers salutary, things'* to Himself; He removes evil 
things' from Himself; cf. ch. xxv. 34, 41. — (ppovl/iu, prudent) 
True prudence spontaneously accompanies true righteousness ; 
cf. ch. xxv. 2. 

25. Kal — xal — xa! — x.r.X., and — and — and — etc.) In the last 
days of a man and of the world, temptations throng together to 
the attack (concurrunt), sc, rains on the roof, rivers at the base, 

' Sc. with its technical meaning : fur S(«/3oAijf, in its original sense of 
accuser, may be used indiscriminately in all three numbers. — (1. B.) 

' He means that our Lord will address them as even then working iniquity 
with hearts still unconverted.— (I. B.) 

' There is a play upon the words di/oftla, the state or conduct of those 
who are without law, and 6 vofcos-, the Law, on which they self-righteously and 
delusively relied. — (I. B.) 

* i.e. things connected with salvation, as ex. gr. the building on the rock. 

^ As ex. gr. the building on the sand ; therefore it is here, " he shall be 
likened" not "J will liken."— Ed. 

VOL. I. O 

210 ST MATTHEW VII. 26-29. 

winds at tlie sides [of our spiritual edificel-^— )j /3/'ox'i> *^*« ™*") 
The presence of the article denotes that the rain will not be 
deficient. — '?rpose'!rim, fell upon) i.e. to try its power of endur- 
ance. In ver. 27, we have 'zposixo-^av, beat upon, as though at 
random and without object. 

26. 'O axovaiv, he that heareth) He who neither Iiears nor does, 
clearly does not build at all. — ivl rfiv afi,f^ov, on the sand) which 
frequently looks like the rock, but is not of the same con- 

27v Kai nv ri itTuigii ai/rjjg /j,iyd\fi, and great was the fall of it) 
It was great indeed, for it was entire. "We see, from the present 
example, that it is not necessary for aU sermons to end in a 
consolatory strain. 

28. ■s.vvsriXseiv, concluded) The Lord did nothing abruptly: 
see ch. xi. 1, xix. 1, xxvi. 1. — l^wX^fftfovro, were astonished) The 
attractions of true teaching are genuine ; those of profane, futile. 
You may wonder, perhaps, why our Lord did not in this dis- 
course speak more clearly concerning His own Person. But 
(1) He explained His teaching so excellently, that from thence 
His auditors might judge of the excellence of the Prophet who 
thus taught ; (2) His person had been already^ sufficiently 
declared; (3) in the discourse itself. He sufficiently intimates 
who He is, namely, " ffe that cometh," ' i.e., the Son of God, 
the Judge of all ; see ch. v. 11, 17, 22, vii. 21-27. 

29. 'fig i^ovelav £%wi', as one having authority) They could not 
withdraw themselves away.^ It is the mark of truth to constrain 
minds, and that of their own free will. See examples of our 
Lord's authority (igouir/a) in the Gnomon on ch. v. 3, 18—20, vii. 
22, 23, and also viii. 19, and John vii. 19. — 'ypafi/j,aT£Tg,^ scrl 

1 All kinds of judgments are here intimated; but especially the last judgment. 
It is indeed scarcely that the righteous man is saved, yet however he is 
saved [1 Pet. iv. 18].— V. g. 

» e.5r. Mattiii. 17.— (I. B.) 

» See ch. xi. 3.— (I. B.) 

* Thei/ felt the majesti/ of the Teacher, and the power of His word. — 
V. g. 

' The argin of Edit. a.d. 1753 regards the fuller reading, oi ypaftfianh 

ecirZu x.a.1 oi ^apiaaioi, as almost equal in probability to this shorter one. 

E. B. 

Lachm. adds the words with C corrected by the first and second later 

ST MATTHEW VIII. 1-4. 211 

;o whom the people were accustomed, and who had no au- 



1 'UxoXovSriMv, followed) They did not immediately leave 

2. Ai'irphg, a leper) The most grievous diseases were leprosy 
(cf. with this passage 2 Kings v. 7), paralysis (of. Mark ii. 3 with 
ver. 6) and fever (see ver. 14). It is probable that the leper^ had 
listened to our Lord's discourse from a distance. — sav, x.r.x., if, 
etc.) the leper does not doubt our Lord's power, but he humbly 
rests the event upon His will alone. Faith exclaims, if -Thou wilt, 
not, i/ Thou canst; see Mark ix. 22. — dumeot,!. Thou canst) At the 
commencement of His ministry, the chief object of Faith was 
the omnipotence of Jesus. This faith the leper might have con ■ 
ceived from His discourse. 

3. Tnv yfifo., His Jiand) to which the leprosy, that would have 
polluted others, was compelled to yield. — 6sX<a, I will) corres- 
ponding to. If thou wilt. A prompt echo to the matured faith of 
the leper. The very prayer of the leper contained the words of 
the desired reply. The expression, / will, implies the highest 
authority. Our Lord performed His first miracles immediately, 
that He might not appear to have had any difficulty in perform- 
ing them : but after He had established His authority. He fre- 
quently interposed a delay salutary to men. 

4. MriSsvl, to no one) sc. before you have gone to the priest, 
lest the priests, if they had heard of it before, should deny that 
the leprosy had been really cleansed ; sc. to. no one of those who 
had not witnessed the miracle. — eeuurhv, thyself) not by means 
of another. — el; naprLpm, for a testimony) See John v. 36. Thus 

hand, ac Vulg. Hil. 640, Euseb. a^roS. 276 : b also, adding aurciu. However 
the weighty authority of B is against the additional words. — Ed. 

' Whose cure Matthew places, in the correct order, between the Sermon 
on the Mount and the cure of the centurion's servant. — Harm., p 252. 

212 ST MATTHEW VIII. 5-7. 

the LXX. use the word ij,aprbpm in Euth iv. 1} The priests did 
not follow our Lord : He sends the leper to them from Galilee 
to Jerusalem : He was much in Galilee at that time. — avroTg, 
to them) that a testimony might be exhibited to them of the 
Messiah's presence, and of His not derogating from the law, and 
that they too might thus be enabled to give testimony to these 

5. TJposriXSev 'Auj-cS ixarovTap^og, There came unto Him a centu- 
rion) The centurion did not actually come to Him in person ; 
nor would our Lord have praised him, as He did just afterwards, 
in his presence. — See ver. 10, and cf. ch. xi. 7. Others, indeed, 
were praised by our Lord in their presence, but not until after 
previous humiliation, and not so singularly and in comparison 
with others as the centurion is here praised in contradistinction 
to all Israel. And the same reverence, which induced the cen- 
turion to declare himself unworthy that our Lord should come 
under his roof, prevented him from going to Him in person. — 
See ver. 8, and Lulce vii. 7, 10.^ He appears to have come out 
of his house in the first instance, but to have gone back before 
he had reached our Lord. The will, therefore, on his part 
was held in Divine estimation as equivalent and even pre- 
ferable to the deed : and this estimation is nobly expressed 
by St Matthew in the sublime style of a divine rather than a 
human historian. Jesus and the centurion conversed truly in 

6. Aiyav, saying) cf. ch. xi. 3, and Luke xiv. 18. — rmpaXv- 
Tixhs, a paralytic) Paralysis is a disease diflScult to Physicians. 

7. 'EXiiiv, coming) In His Divine wisdom, our Lord puts forth 
those addresses by which He elicits the profession of the faith- 
ful, and thus as it were anticipates them : which is the reason 
why men of those times received a swifter, greater, and more 
frequent effect from heavenly words than they do now. He 
declares Himself ready to come to the centuriorHs servant. ■ He 
does not promise that He will do so to the nobleman's son. By 

Sc. xxi nvro — ?i/ fiaprvpiop h ' lupa.'^T^. — E. V. And this was a testimony 
in Israel.— (I. B.) 

' D. Hauber has fully proved, in den harmon. Anmerk. p. 72, that the 
history here given in Matthew is one and the same as that in Luke.—Rnrxa. 
p. 2C5. 


each method He arouses faith, and shows that He is no respecter 
of persons. 

8. 2r£/j)v, roof) Although not a mean one, of. Luke vii. 5. 
There were others whose reverence did not prevent them from 
seeing and touching the Lord, see ch. ix. 18, 20. The same in- 
ternal feeling may manifest itself outwardly in different modes, 
yet all of them good. — s/Vs Xoyifi, command hy word) Thus does 
the centurion declare his belief that the disease will yield to 
our Lord's command. Some few copies have ratheir more care- 
lessly, £/Vs XSyov,^ say the word. — laSfieirai, shall be healed) The 
centurion replies by this glorious word : our Lord had said 
modestly, " kpa-itvoeuj" I will cure? — 6 itaTg /aou, my hoy) A kinder 
mode of speech than if he had said o dovXog //,ov, my slave. 

9. Kal y&p iyii, for I also) Reason might object, " The slave 
and the soldier hear the command without difficulty; not so 
the disease." The wisdom of faith, however, shining forth 
beautifully from the military abruptness with which it was 
expressed, does away with this objection, and regards rather 
those considerations which confirm, than those which might 
destroy (frangant) hope ; those, namely, which arise from the 
supreme dominion and jurisdiction of Christ, who issued His 
injunctions to the sea, and the winds, and diseases ; see ver. 26 ; 
Luke iv. 39. He commands : the thing is done. The cen- 
turion can command soldier and slave, but not disease ; the 
Lord, however, can order the disease, and that more easily, 
humanly speaking, than the will of man, who is frequently re- 
belHous. — avSpcaxog i'lfi^i M i^oueiav, I am a man under authority) 
He does not say, I am a military officer, but since he is obliged 

1 BCJc Orig. 4,278d and Vulg. read T^oya. Rec. Text, without good 
authority, has Xoyav. — Ed. 

' The word used by the centiirion was confined to the notion of healing, 
and cognate with that which denoted a physician : that employed by our 
Lord had also the signification of attending upon, and was cognate with 
one which denoted an attendant. Bengel's remark applies not to our Lord's 
meaning, but to the mode in which He expressed it. — (I. B.) 

^ Tittmann, Syn. ii., distinguishes the words thus : BipxTriva ixofixi'Aiffe- 
runt ut nostra : (Germ.) helfen et heilen. dipofa-ivia^m «wo ran xuhDnup, 
UaSai Toi/s a.<!hpov!/Ta,(,i.e. dipxTevofiai refers to the infirmities cured, iiisSxi 
to the persons cured. QspccTeia seems to me to mean, to treat a case, to 
tend, to minister to : iSiaiai, to heal. — Ed. 

214 ST MATTHEW VIII. 10, 11. 

to mention that others are subject to him, he says with great 
dehcacy,^ / myself am subject. There is also a concealed anti- 
thesis,^ sc. Jesus is supreme Lord, souverain. — wh — ■j'tt, under 
— under) Such persons are at present called subalterns. 

10. ''E6au//,ags, wondered) Faith and unbelief were both the 
objects of Christ's wonder ; see Mark vi. 6. Our Lord praises 
His friends warmly, where there is an opportunity for so doing. 
See ch. xi. 7, xv. 28, xxv. 35, xxvi. 10 ; Luke vii. 44, xxi. 3. — 
ill TM 'lgpa,nX, in Israel) sc. the people of Israel. Neither the cen- 
turion nor the woman of Canaan were of Israel ; but with 
regard to the latter, our Lord may seem to have given a higher 
testimony, because she came openly from the coasts of the 
Gentiles, whereas the former had dwelt in Israel: and the 
centurion himself anticipated that objection (id occupavit), when 
he declared himself to be unworthy, and interposed the elders 
of the Jews between himself and our Lord. — rosauTriv, so great) 
especially as the centurion had had much less intercourse with 
our Lord [than His brethren according to the flesh]. His 
faith was an example and earnest of the faith by which the 
Gentiles would surpass the Jews. — t/ot/v, faith) From this first 
mention of faith in the New Testament, we may gather that 
faith (as well as unbelief) is in both the understanding and the 
will, being the result of deliberation and free choice.' See the 
concordances on the word otSw.* Of all the virtues evinced by 
those who came to the Lord, He is wont to praise faith alone. 
See ch. XV. 28 ; Luke vii. 50.'—oudi—i6pov, I have not found) 
though I have come to seek it. 

11. mxxol, many) who, being not Jews, are similar to the 
centurion. This is intended to awaken the emulation of the 

1 Upohf,a.wi!«, anticipatory precaution; lest his mention of soldiers bein"- 
under him should offend against humility, he puts first the mention of his 
being himself under the authority of others. See Append, on the figure.— 

^ See Explanation of Technical terms in Appendix (I. B.) 

J Deliberation being the province of the Understanding; Free Clioice. the 
offspring of the W^j7/._(I.B.) 

—a'^\ '" ^^''^'^^' ^'''•' *''^ ^^"""^ f'^o"' ^^i<=l» '^''"'■'f' >'«'^ is derived. 

» In proportion to the greatness of humUity, u the greatness of faith.-^ 
See ver. 8, and Luke xvii. 6-10.— V. g. 


Jews. — Avh amraKm, from the east) see ch. ii. 1, — from the east 
and from the west ; an euphemism for " from the Gentiles." — 
jj'^fluir/, shall come) A prophecy : they shall come in spirit [and by 
faith. — V. g.J — /isra, together with) see Heb. xii. 23.'' — Iv Tr\ 
^adiXtia, in the kingdom) sc. in this life, and in that which is 
to come. 

12. O/ & ukl 7-3)5 ^agiXilag, but the children of the kingdom) i.e. 
nearest heirs to the kingdom. The same title is employed with 
another meaning in ch. xiii. 38. — <sx.orog, darhness) Whatever is 
without the kingdom of God is outer : ioi the kingdom of God 
is light, and the kingdom of light. That darkness wiU envelope 
not only the eye, but also the mind, with the grossest obscurity. 
— i^uiTipov, outer) the unbeliever has internal darkness in him- 
self already, and obtains, therefore, external darkness also as 
his fitting home. And the nearer that any one might have 
approached [to the Divine presence], so much the further will 
he be cast forth into the depths of darkness. — IxeT, there) at 
length [even though not here and now]. Without the brilhant 
scene of the feast [the marriage supper so often mentioned]. — 
o) a remarkable article, used emphatically.^ In this life, grief is 
not yet really grief. — xXa,v6/ihg, weeping) Then will weep heroes 
now ashamed to weep, from grief at the good they have lost, 
and the evil they have incurred. Oh horrible sound of so many 
wretched beings ! how far more blessed to hear the sounds of 
heaven ! — See Rev. xiv. etc. — ^puy/ihg ruv odovrun, gnashing of 
teeth) from impatience and bitterest remorse, and indignation 
against themselves, as being the authors of their own damna- 
tion.^ Self-love, indulged on earth, will then be transformed 
into self-hate, nor will the sufferer be ever able to depart from 
himself. Nor is this weeping and gnashing of teeth combined 
with darkness only, but also with fire, etc. ; see ch. xiii. 42, 50 ; 
Luke xiii. 28. Another exposition is, the soft will weep, the 
stern will rage. The same phrase occurs in Acts vii. 54.* 

1 With the Fathers in the faith, Heb. xi. 9— V. g. 

^ As though this were the true ideal of sorrow — the normal standard of 
suffermg — the archetypal reality of agony. — (I. B.) 

' As also from a spiteful and malignant feeling against others, to whom 
they enviously grudge the salvation which those others have obtained. 
Comp. Ps. cxii. 10. — V. g. 

■* Sc. they gnashed upon him [Stephen] with their teeth. — (I. B.) 

216 ST MATTHEW VIII. 13-16. 

13. 'fl; sir!sTi\jgag, as thou hast believed) A bountiful con- 

14. Uevhp&v, mother-in-law) Peter had not long before mar- 
ried a wife, and they are guilty of a mistake who paint him with 
white hair ;^ for all the disciples were young, and had a long 
course to perform in this world ; see John xxi. 18.^ This must 
be well kept in mind in every Evangelical History .° — wpsegovnav, 
sick of a fever) in the actual paroxysm. 

15. Airixovsi AvTu, waited upon Hirri) She performed the duty of 
the house-mother (mater-famihas), as a joyful sign of her entire 
restoration to health. St Mark and St Luke mention the dis- 
ciples as preferring the request in favour of Peter's mother-in- 
law, and therefore add — Sirinom avroTg, she waited upon THEM, 
se. the Lord and His disciples. St Matthew mentions only the 
Lord, and therefore wrote Alrw. The erroneous reading, avroT;, 
has been introduced from the other Evangelists.^ 

16. 'O'^tac, evening) of that day on which so much had been 
said and done. Diseases are wont to be more oppressive at 
eventide. — ra 'jrveii/jbaTo,, the spirits) i.e. the devils. — X^yu, with a 

' Although it is not improbable that he was older than the other dis- 
ciples.— B. H. E. p. 257. 

2 You may gather that concerning Judas Iscariot from Ps. cix. 8, 9 ; 
Zebedee and Salome, the parents of James and John, were likewise both 
still living.— B. H. B. p. 258. 

' For whoever will carefully weigh the youthful age of the disciples, and 
their original family connections and former condition, will readily make 
allowances for several errors which were committed by them in their state of 
discipleship, and, having regard to this consideration of the time, he will not 
require from them more than is reasonable, and so will find himself extri- 
cated from not a few difficulties. — Harm. 1. c. 

* Those who are anxious to avoid Transpositions, maintain the opinion, 
that the mother-in-law of Peter was delivered from a fever more than once. 
But in the case of sick persons healed by the Saviour, the danger that im- 
pended over them was not from the return of their disease, but from some 
greater evil. Nor did the Lord warn the mother-in-law of Peter, as He did 
others, on that head : and if she had been attacked by fever anew, it would 
have happened at a most brief interval after the former cure, and therefore 
in that case the disciples, who were as yet but novices, might have doubted, 
along with others, whether the fever (a disease liable to alternations and in- 
termissions more than all other diseases) had been really and completely 
removed. — Harm. p. 257. 

ST MATTHEW VIII. 17-20, 817 

word^) by that alone? — ^avras, all) witliout exception : some men 
are said to have a heahng power in the case only of certain special 

17. "Oiois ■n-Xjjpw^^, that it might he fulfilled^ It behoved that 
the Physician of the soul should also remove bodily complaints 
from those who came in His way.' In this manner also, there- 
fore, was fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah. Body and soul 
together form one man : the corrupting principle of both soul 
and body is one [namely sin] ; one and the same aid was given to 
both by this great Physician, as the case required. — sXa^s, took) 
i.e. removed from us. 

18. 'AviKhTv, to depart) Thus Jesus sought repose, and gave 
to the people time to bear fruit from His teaching, and kindled 
their interest in Himself for the future. 

19. eJs ypa/L/jLaTcvg, x.r.X., one Scribe, etc.) Out of so great a 
multitude, this man alone exhibits such an emotion. Yet he 
seems to have been fond of comfort, a Scribe less hardy than the 
fishermen. The Scribes came often to tempt our Lord. 

19—21. 'Eiirsv, said) The doctrine of Jesus Christ is clearly 
opposed to the natural will of man. He wisely sent away those 
who endeavoured to follow him wrongly or unseasonably ; see 
Mark v. 18. Those who showed a hesitation in following Him. 
He commanded to follow Him. He treated the Scribes in one 
way, the disciples in another ; see Luke ix. 57—62. — AiSdaxa'ke, 
Teacher*) Jesus did not address those as Eabbi and Lord, who 
were called so by human law or custom, but he was deservedly 
addressed as such by them. See Mark v. 35 ; John iii. 2, iv. 
49 ; Matt. viii. 6. The apostles addressed their hearers as 
brethren and fathers : our Lord never did so. 

20. Ka^ Xeysi aiiToJ a 'irjgoug, a.r.X., and Jesus saith unto him, etc.) 
Our Lord does nut repulse this man, but he proposes a condition 
by which' to correct the view with which he made the offer 
respecting comfort or wealth, or even the power of working 

1 That such is Bengel's meaning is clear from his German Version, where 
he renders it " mit einem wort." E. V. has " By His word." — (I. B.) 

' " Solo," i.e. without using any other means. — (I. B.) 

5 And of whom the extraordinary numbers are from time to time noticed, 
Matt. iv. 23, ix. 35, 36 (Luke iv. 21), xii. 15, xv. 30, xxi. li.— Harm, p. 259. 

* E. V. Master. 


miracles. — o Tio; roD avSpwmu, the Son of man) See Gnomon on 
ch. xvi. 13. — ouH £%£/, x.r.'k, hath not, etc.) O admirable poverty 
and endurance, combined with perpetual pilgrimage.^ 

21. MoiSnrSiv, of the disciples) of those, namely, who were not 
always present. 

22. Toiig viapo-jc, the dead) An expression urgently command- 
ing the man to follow Him, and therefore embracing many 
things. Both the dead tvho are to be buried, and the dead who 
are to bury them, must come under consideration. The dead 
who are to be buried, are without doubt those literally dead, 
whether the father of this disciple was already then dead or 
old, and near to death, and with only this one son. Cf. Tobit 
xiv. 12. The dead who bury, or those to whom the burial of 
the dead should be left, are partly those who are also about to 
die, mortals bound to the law of death (cf. Eom. viii. 10), as 
distinguished from the hope of a better life — that hope, however, 
being not altogether taken away. The appellation is to be 
limited by the context : as in Luke xx. 34, they, who never- 
theless are capable of being saved, are called the children of this 
world ; so they are called dead, who are more fit for burying 
than for announcing the kingdom of God. As in ch. ix. 24, the 
girl is called not dead, who soon shall live (cf. John xi. 4), so 
they are called dead, who soon shall die.^ In the time of pesti- 
lence, the dead are buried by those who soon themselves die. 
Nor is the case very different with successive generations of 
mortals in the course of ages. Partly, they are already dead ; 
and with regard to them the expression is hypothetical, with this 
meaning — Do thou follow Me, and leave the bm'ial of the dead 
to the dead themselves ; i.e. Let the dead, as far as you are con- 
cerned, remain unburied. A similar mode of expression occurs 
in Exod. xxi. 14, Let the murderer be taken from the altar: i.e. let 
him be slain, , even if he has fled to the altar. The appellation, 
therefore, of the dead who bury, is abrupt, and suitable to a com- 

^ Neither had He a house of His own, nor a fixed dwelling anywhere, 
Mark i. 45. The Scribe regarded it as an easier matter than it really was, 
to follow Him whithersoever He was going. — Harm., p. 269. 

2 The dead are in their lasting home, and the mourners are not far off 
from the same, but continue wandering all around it, until they themselves 
also enter it. — See Eccles. xii. 5. — ^V. g. 

ST MATTHEW VIII. 23-28. 219 

mand which could brook no delay — a command which had 
sacred grounds, and flowed from the divine perception of tlio 
Saviour. We ought to surrender ourselves wholly and imme 
diately. — rous savT^v, their own) sc. relatives. See Gen. xxiii. 4 
It was the duty of this disciple to deny his father.^ 

23. 1h tXoTov, the vessel) The article refers by implication to 
ver. 18. Jesus had a moving school : and in that school His 
disciples were instructed much more solidly than if they had 
dwelt under the roof of a single college, without any anxiety or 

24. SE/ff/ios iJ,syas, a great tempest) The faith of the disciples 
was greatly exercised by these maritime perils. — xaXu'TrTisSai, was 
covered) the danger reached the highest pitch : then came the 
succour. — ixdhvSi, slept) No fear fell on Jesus. Nay, in ver. 
26, He marvelled at the fear of men, even in the utmost peril. 
He slept, wearied by the various labour of the day. 

25. Swffof, save) An abrupt prayer. — dToXXi/Aste, ice perish) 
It is a proof of candour in the disciples to have recorded their 
own weaknesses : this was not, however, difficult to them, since 
after the coming of the Paraclete they had become other men. 

26. ^AuXol — oXr/omsToi, fearful — of little faith) Synonymous 
terms. Cf. Mark v. 36. Our Lord does not find fault with the 
disciples for their importunity in disturbing His rest, but for 
their timidity.^ — tots, then) Jesus calmed first the minds of His 
disciples, then the sea. — l'^irlfi,r]ge, rehuhed) Satan probably had 
ruled in this tempest. 

27. ' Tiraxo-boMeiv AvrSi, obey Him) Cf. Mark i. 27. The winds 
and the sea acknowledge no other control.* 

28. TspyierivZv,^ of the Gergesenes) Gerasa (said for Gergescha) 

1 The winds and the sea, on this occasion, sooner obeyed the will of Christ 
than did men. — Harm. 269, 270. 

2 K«( 7i£y£/, And He saith) Being not at all discomposed or agitated.— V. g. 
8 In the whole life of Christ, never is there any fear of any creature 

evinced in all the incidents which occurred to Him. — ^V. g. 

* In the original, "Venti et mare alias libera." — Bengel is very fond of 
tlie adverb " alias," and frequently employs it emphatically. — (I. B.) 

" This reading, which Michaelis supposed to rest on the mere conjecture 
of Origen, is estimated by the Margin of Beng. more highly in this passage 
than in the parallels, Mark v. I, and Luke viii. 26 — E. B. 

BCA, Syr. (Peschito) and Hard, (txt.) Syr. read«. Lachm. 

230 ST MATTHEW Till. 29-31. 

and Gadara were neighbouring cities.^ See Killer's Onomata 
Sacra, pp. 807, 812. — Ik tuv /ivrifielm, from the tombs) The pos- 
sessed avoid human society, in which the exercises of piety 
flourish. Invisible guests also have their dwelling in sepulchres 
(See Mark v. 3) ; those which are malignant, especially, I 
believe in the sepulchres of the impious. — ■TrapiXkh, pass by) not 
even pass by. 

29. T/ iifj^Tv xai (Tot, what have we to do with Thee ?) A formula 
of declining interference or intercourse. See S. V. 1 Kings xvii. 
18 ; Judges xi. 12 ; 2 Kings iii. 13. They confess in this 
address their despair and horrible expectation, and at the same 
time they seem to add, " we desire to have dealings, not with 
Thee, but with men liable to sin." — T/e tou ©sou, Son of God) 
Men seeking aid addressed Him with confidence as the Son of 
David ; devils with terror, as the Son of God. — udi, hither) The 
devils claimed, as it were, some right in that place, and espe- 
cially over the swine in that place. — 'jrph icaipov, before the time) 
This may be construed either with ri'Khg, hast Thou come, or 
with ^asavisa.1, to torment, or with both. Jesus came indeed 
when the world was ripe for His coming, and yet sooner than 
the enemy desired. Thus in Eom. v. 6, we read XpiSThg — xara 
xaiphv—a.'^sSa.vs, IN DUB TIME Christ died. — jSagavlsai, to torment) 
It is torment for the devils to be without the bodies of man or 
beast, which they ardently desire to possess, that they may 
thereby, for the time being, extinguish that fire with which they 
are always burning. See ver. 31. This Was a prelude to their 
being hereafter placed in subjection under the feet of Jesus. 

30. Xoipuv, of swine) The owners of the swine were either 
heathens dwelling among the Jews, or Jews greedy of gain. 

31. XlapixaXovv, besought) It is one thing to ask in an ordinary 
way (in which manner natural men, and even devils, have been 

reads TtpxcrnuZv with bed Vulg. Hilar. 646, and D apparently (its Latin 
having this reading). TepyeanvZu has but second-rate authorities, LX. etc. 
Memph. Goth. The variety probably arose from the parallel passages being 
altered from one another. Tregelles (Printed Text of N. T. p. 192) has 
shown Origen, iv. 140, Vspatrnuciu, does not refer to Matthew exclusively, but 
to the Gospel narration generally. It proves the name was sometimes read 
Tetixpniiol, sometimes Tipcurnuol, and that Ttpyianuol was not a then known 
reading, but was his mere conjecture. — Ed. 

' See Bloomfield's Greek Testament in loc. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW VIII. 32-34. 221 

ere now able to obtain something^), and another thing to pray 
in faith. Even Satan himself sometimes obtains his request, as 
we learn from the first chapter of Job. — I'l, x.t.x., if, etc.) They 
perceived already that they must change their abode. — Imrpi-^ov 
fifiTv, X.T.X., suffer us, etc.) The mischief should be ascribed to 
the devils, not to the Lord; and who would compel Him to 
hinder the devils ? 

32. 'Avt^XSov, they were come out) Our Lord performed one 
miracle by which He inflicted punishment on a tree, namely, a 
fig tree ; another on swine ; another on men buying and selling in 
the temple. A specimen of future vengeance. His other mi- 
racles were full of grace ; and even in these benefit was pro- 
duced, as, for example, in the present case, a road rendered 
safe, a region freed from spirits to which it was liable, by their 
being driven into the sea, the possessed liberated, an excessive 
quantity of animal existence removed which was forbidden to be 
eaten, and in this case liable to be possessed by devils. And 
the Gergesenes were guilty, and deserved to lose the herd. 
The circumstance shows indisputably the right and the authority 
of Jesus. — avi^avov, died) It seems that a possessed brute can- 
not live long. That men who are possessed do not thus perisli 
immediately, is an especial mercy of God. 

33. Oi 136'SxovTis, they who fed) Although they were not pro- 
fessedly herrdsmen by occupation. — 'ifuyov, fled) The devils could 
not oyertaIf:e them. 

3fj UapixdXieav, they besought) Those who are held fast by 
con,cem about their property, more easily and readily repel than 
prirsue. Even avarice is timid. Or perhaps they besought our 
iiord with no evil feeling.^ See Luke v. 8.^ 

J 1 Comp. Mark v. 10, 12.— E.B. 

2 n«(r« 'h ■saKiu the whole citj/) Such great commotion do earthly interests 

|;ause ! — V. g. 

r 3 At all events, though the Gergesenes besought Him with such a request, 
/as did also their neighbours the Gadarenes, yet He left behind a leading one 
#of those who had been possessed (Luke viii. 35, viz. the man whom the men 
\)f the city had found « sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right 
i?g^ind") as a preacher of the Gospel to them. This one ntay have been a 
Cjtadarene, and the other a Gergesene.— ^arm. p. 274. 
f! * Where Peter, from humility instead of malignity, exclaims, " Depabt 
/fuoji me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord." — (I. B.) 

222 ST MATTHEW IX. 1-4. 


1. Aii'jr'epags, He crossed over) Being asked to do so by the 
Gergesenes. The Lord does not force His blessings on the 
unwilUng.' — /Slav, His own) sc. Capernaum, exdted by this 

2. Uposeipepov AurCj, they brought to Him) Many such offerings 
were made to the Saviour, and they were pleasing to Him. — rn; 
meriv avruv, their faith) i.e. of him who was borne, and of them 
who bare him. — Sdpsii, rixvov, Son, he of good cheer'') " Neither 
thy sins nor thy disease shall stand in thy way." Thus, at ver. 
22, ^apdiif edyanp, daughter, be of good comfort. " Be of good 
comfort ;" neither thy sins shall prevail against thee, nor thy 
disease. Thus also, " Be of good comfort, daughter," in ver. 22. 
— apiwura/' Co;, are forgiven thee) Without doubt, great was 
the sense of great sins in that man.' — eol has here both emphasis 
and accent, but in ver. 5 the same words are repeated after the 
manner of a quotation, and aoi or sou is enclitic* 

3. Ewroi/ Iv iavToTg, olrog ^Xa<siprifj,iT, said within themselves, this 
man blasphemeth) Blasphemy is committed when (1.) things un- 
worthy of God are attributed to Him ; (2.) thing^ worthy of 
God are denied to Him ; (3.) when the incommunil^able attri- 
butes of God are attributed to others. 

4. E/5w;, knowing) Besides many Greek codices, which .ISIill 
first began to notice on this passage, the Gothic version and the 
margin of Courcelles reads thus. — iia\fi appears to have been in- 

' And by that very fact He excited in men the more ardent desires after 
Uim, inasmuch as He did not make too long delays in the one place.— t 
Harm., 1. c. | 

^ The word used by Bengel is " confide" which is repeated each time ini 
the remarks which follow. — (I. B.) 1 

' This was the principal benefit, by occasion of which chiefly the thoughts] 
of the men present there were thrown open and made manifest, ver. 3, 8. 
— Harm. p. 276. I 

* Never had that voice been heard put forth in this way, from the timie 
that the earth had borne men on it. — V. g. \ 

" Lachmann reads tllZtg with B, Goth. Vers, and probably a. DJc and\ 
Ucc. Text read iluv. Vulg. " Cum vidisset." — Ed. 

6 J 

ST MATTHEW IX. 5-8. 223 

troduced by some persons from ver. 2. St Mark and St Luke 
have emyvoug in the parallel passages. Thus too we find ildug in 
ch. xii. 25.—i/iiTg, you) The pronoun is expressed for the sake of 

5. T/ y&p, for which ?) In itself either is the sign of Divine 
authority and power; and the connection between sin and 
disease is in itself most close : the power which removes both 
is one. According to human judgment, it is easier to say, " Thy 
sins are remitted;" and he who can say " Arise," which appears 
greater, can also say this, which appears less. 

6; Sidijrs, ye may know) Thjs word also breathes authority.^ — 
ivl T^g jr\g, on earth) This is exclusively the place where sins 
are committed and remitted. Earth was the scene of Christ's 
works from the beginning.' See Prov. viii. 31 ; cf. the two 
clauses in Ps. xvi. 3 ; see* Jer. ix. 24 ; John xvii. 4 ; Luke 
ii. 14. I have, says He, all authority in heaven, much more 
on earth ; see ch. xvi. 19, xxviii. 18.' This speech savours of a 
heavenly origin. — e^ovalav, authority) The argument from power 
to authority holds good in this passage. — Alys;, He sailh) A 
similar change of person between the protasis and apodosis 
occurs in Num. v. 20, 21, and Jer. v. 14. 

8. 'E^ovgiopv ToiavTtiv, such authority) sc. to heal and save (see 
ver. 6), and that close at hand in the man Jesus Christ. — roTg 
avSpuirofg^ to! men) so long afflicted with sin.° An expansive ex- 
pression (Itiita oratio), as in ver. 6.^ They rejoiced that there 
was «ne of the human race endued with this authority. 

^/ Often one, whilst he is arraigning others for their sins, is sinning him- 
sfflf. And indeed the most heinous sins can be committed even in the heart 
lone. — V. g. 
' Bengal just below translates i^ovaiav (rendered in E. V. power) by 
authority," and refers to it by anticipation.— (I. B.^ 

Nay more, it is the wrestling arena between sin and grace. — V. g. 

* E. B. inserts here " Gen. vi. 5," which has been adopted by the later 
'editions. — (I. B.) 

* We also in our turn may now say : Seeing that He had that power, 
when sojourning on the earth, why should He not also have the same, now 

.that He has been raised from the dead and taken up into heaven ? Acts v. 
1 —V. g. 

" A Datims Commodi. — V. g., i.e. for the good of men. — Ed. 

' Beng. seems to me, not to take duSpuToi; as Engl. V., " God who had 
tjiven such power to men," but, as the Dative of advantage, " Who had be- 

224 ST MATTHEW IX. 9. 

9. MariaTov, Matthew) A Hebrew by nation, and yet a publican. 
In St Mark and St Luke, he is called Levi.' It is possible that 
Matthew did not like the name which he had borne as a 
publican. — xa6ri/ji,£vov, sitting) actually employed in the business 
of his calling. And yet Matthew followed. A great miracle 
and example of the power of Jesus. A noble instance of obedi- 
ence^ \_productive of eternal joy. — V. g.] 

stowed such power (in the person of the man Christ Jesus) /o^ the benefit of 
men, so long afflicted as they had been with sin. Thus the meaning of 
Bengel's " lata oratio, uti v. 6" is, that the words " on earth," in ver. 6, im- 
ply the same wide range of the Saviour's power for the good of men as 
av^fcsiroii here. — Ed. 

1 J. D. Michaelis, Einleitung T. ii. p. m. 932, etc., conjectures that Levi 
was the chief of the publicans, and Matthew his subordinate assistant. But 
it is not likely that either Matthew, consistently with his modesty, would have 
omitted to record the obedience of Levi to the Lord's call — Levi being, by the 
hypothesis, Matthew's principal and also host at the large entertainment 
given on the occasion — or that Mark and Luke should have omitted the call 
of Matthew, who was more distinguished than Levi on account of his 
apostleship. It is no objection, that Matthew is not mentioned by the men 
of Nazareth, Matt. xiii. 65, among the four sons, i.e. sister's sons of Mary : 
for not even Levi (who in Mark ii. 14 is explicitly made the son of Alpheus) 
is reckoned among those four. What suppose we say that Levi, or Matthew, 
was the son of Alpheus, though not by Mary, but by a different wife, and so 
connected with the Saviour by no tie of blood. At all events, the very ety- 
mological root of the names seems to establish the identity of the persons. 
For '■'h (Levi) is from m'' adhered, attached to, and y»i or VPss (Miitthew) 
is from the Arab, word 'riT/a, he formed a tie of connection or propinquity. 
Moreover : in the same way as Saul, from that period of time in which, after 
being solemnly set apart to the work of preaching, he gained over Serg'ius 
Paulus as the first-fruits of his mission, and so became superior to Barnabas, 
was distinguished by the name of Paul, even by Luke himself (Acts xiii. 2., 
9) : so also Levi (Luke v. 27), from the moment in which by solemn election 
lie was enrolled among the Apostles, obtained the name of Matthew even inj 
Luke (c. vi. 15). These considerations will enable the reader to decide thei 
question. — E. B. I 

^ This may be supposed to have been the series of the events: Matthew! 
a short while before went to Jesus as a publican, and even then, at that early] 
time, beyond all that he could have conceived, was called to the apostolic i 
office. Matt. v. 1, Luke vi. 15 (comp. Num. xi. 26) : whereby is evinced the. 
extraordinary clemency of the Saviour towards this publican, thus selectelja 
out from the rest of his fellows. He was present, as an apostle freshlj- 
appointed, at the Sermon on the Mount : where there is no doubt but tha„t 
the words, Do not even the publicans the same t recorded by Matthew him- 

ST MATTHEW IX. 10. 225 

10. 'E* rri olx!<f, in the house) Cf. ver. 28 ; or, if you take it 
of Matthew's house, Mark ii. 15 ; Luke v. 29. Matthew ap- 
pears in this feast to have bid adieu to his former companions,' 

self, ch. V. 46, made the deepest impression on his mind. He did not, 
however, on that very day commence foUovving the Lord daily, but had still 
some occupation in levying taxes, therein without doubt being observant of 
that righteousness which is commanded in Luke iii. 13. There was, on the 
part of the Jews, a great abhorrence of publicans, even though they were 
themselves Jews ; and it is to this abhorrence that the Saviour adapted His 
language, Matt, xviii. 17. However, the publicans were not altogether ex- 
cluded from the temple, whether they had the same degree of access to it 
open to them as the Pharisees had, or an access more remote : Luke xviii. 
13. John admitted the publicans to baptism, on condition that, in the dis- 
charge of their oflce, they would allow themselves to be stirred up to the 
duty of justice ; nay more, not even did the Saviour command them altogether 
to leave their employment, but to " make to themselves friends of the Mam- 
mon of unrighteousness," Luke xv. 1, xvi. 1, 9. Neither Christ nor His fore- 
runner were bound by the Jewish traditions, which excluded publicans from 
church-communion. And besides, it is probable that the Jews, from malice 
against Christ, subsequently established more severe enactments as to pub- 
licans. Accordingly Matthew, being called to the apostleship, and not as yet 
at that time ordered to leave the receipt of customs, may have discharged 
this duty up to the time that he was called to follow Jesus. But if Matthew 
did the same as Zaccheus, before his conversion, he was in duty bound to 
make amends to those whom he had defrauded on the same principle as 
Zaccheus, or even to compare and make up all accounts whatever with the 
other publicans. Jesus, therefore, when he saw him sitting at the receipt of 
custom,, saith. Follow Me. And he arose and followed Him. Independently 
of the general crowd of hearers and disciples, coming to Him and going away 
from, time to time, Jesus admitted cetiixa. followers to daily intimacy (Luke 
ix. 59, xviii. 22; Acts i. 21), and twelve apostles, i.e. extraordinary messen- 
gers of the kingdom of heaven. Peter and Andrew, James also, with John, 
wisre made followers before that they were made apostles : Matthew was 
ctoed to the apostolic dignity sooner than he was admitted to the intimacy 
of daily following the Lord, although not even this could have been put off 
fihr long, and in matter of fact was not delayed for more than a few days. 
At all events, he was not present in the journey to the country of the Ger- 
giesenes, who perhaps knew him well as a publican ; but he may have been 
a spectator of the other acts of the Lord at Capernaum previous and subse- 
qutMt to that journey. Even though he were ever so much behind the 
othej" apostles in following Christ : yet he followed soon enough for attaining 
thejpjbject proposed, as an apostle. Acts i. 21.— Harm. 281, etc. 
y^ He seems also hereby to have afforded them an opportunity of going to 
ri.he Lord, such as would hardly have been given to so great a number of such 
/ characters at any other time. Shortly after, Matthew came to know the 

226 ST MATTHEW IX. 11-13. 

nor does lie call the house any longer his own. — nXami xai 
a,/j,a,pT'AiXo!, publicans and sinners) who had sinned grievously 
against the sixth and seventh [seventh and eighth] command- 
ments. — euvav'sxiivTo, sat down together with) Eond and condescend- 
ing was the intercourse of Jesus.^ 

11. ToT; /j^a9riraTe, to the disciples) The Pharisees acted in an 
oblique manner, with cunning, or at least with cowardice ; to 
the disciples they said. Why does your Master do so ? to the 
Master, Why do yom* disciples do so ? see ch. xii. 2, xv. 2 ; 
Mark ii. 16, 18. — diari, k.t.x., why, etc.) The sanctity of Jesus 
was held in the highest esteem by all, even His adversaries. 
See Luke xix. 7. 

12.^ Xfilav, need) %?£&/, needs, are to be seen everywhere. — 
^xccKus, ill) Such is indeed the case with sinners.* 

13. Tlopiukvres, having gone) sc. into the synagogue, where 
you may refer to Hosea [sc. vi. 6.] Our Lord often said to 
those who were not His own," " mpiuov" " depart," see John 
vhi. 1 1. His style of quoting the Scriptures is fiiU of suitableness 
and majesty, and different from that of the apostles ; for He 
does it in such a manner as not Himself to rest upon, but to 
convince His hearers by their authority ; and lie employs it 

glory of Jesus by His acts, and especially by the raising of Jairus' daughter, 
ch. ix. 19; and he was sent forth, at no long interval afterTOrds, with the 
rest of His apostles : on which occasion he has called himself Matthew the 
publican, ch. x. 3; and, from the deepest sense of gratitude (as ift natural), has 
recalled to remembrance with what marvellous speed grace transferrefl him 
from his state as a publican (ch. xviii. 17) to an Apostolic embassy whjch 
was distinguished by miracles. — Harm. p. 282. 

1 For whose sake the banquet was given, to which, without any command 
on His part, publicans and sinners came. Therefore the objection of thf 
Pharisees, even looking at it in a mere external point of view, was void < 
all justice. — V. g. 

2 Jesus, as a faithful master, brings help to his disciples. — V. g. 
' Dost thou feel infirmity (o/ xccua; 'ixovrss), as opposed to strength (oj 

laycvone;) ? In that case betake thyself to the Physician, and seek His helnj 
-V. g. 

' In the original, " Sic sane habent peccatores.'' There is aplayher^ oi 
the word habent, sc. XiP^tav ly^omtu — x-axu; i)(fliiTis. — (I. B.) \ 

' In the original " Alieniores," — an expression which is used several ivcaW 
by Bengel in the course of this gospel, and which it is easier to understand 
than to translate. — (I. B.) 


more towards His adversaries than towards the disciples who 
believed on Him. — /idhrs, learn ye) ye who think that ye are 
already consummate teachers. — 'iXtov 6eXia, I will have mercy) A 
few read with the Lxx. in Hos. vi. 6, with whom the other 
words in this passage agree, eXsos 6e\u.^ The LXX. more com- 
monly use rh eXsog in the neuter, as in Hos. vi. 4. Sometimes, 
however, 6 'i}.io;, like the ancient Greeks. Is. Ix. 10, bdii. 7 ; 
Dan. i. 9, ix. 20 ; Ps. ci. 1 ; 1 Mace. ii. 57, iii. 44 ; and especially 
in the minor prophets, Jonah ii. 9 ; Mic. vi. 8 (which passage 
is also parallel with the evangelist). Ibid. vii. 20 ; Zech. vii. 9 ; 
Hos. xii. 6. Thus o 'iXeog occurs in the present passage, in 
Matt. xii. 7, xxiii. 23 ; Tit. iii. 5 ; Heb. iv. 16 ; but t6 iXio; 
occurs frequently in St Luke, St Paul, St James, St Peter, St 
John, and St Jude ; and in Mic. vii. 18, the lxx., have hXrirn? 
ixioug sirh, He is a wilier of mercy. We have here an axiom of 
interpretation, nay, the sum total of that part of theology which 
treats of cases of conscience. On mercy, cf. ch. sxiii. 23. The 
word Suir/av, sacrifice (victimam), is put synecdochically.* It is 
an act of mercy to eat with sinners for their spiritual profit.' — 
riXSov, I have come) sc. from heaven. — xaX'sgai, to call) Such is 
the mission, such the authority of Christ. — a/x-apruXoug, sinners) 
The word is purposely and emphatically repeated by our Lord. 
Cf. ver. 11. 

14. ToVe, then) At the time of the Feast.* — -rpogepx^ovrai Airp, 
come to Him) of set purpose. — o'l /iadj^ral 'ludmov, the disciples of 
John) They were half-way between the Pharisees and the dis- 
ciples of Jesus, and appear on this occasion to have been insti- 
gated by the Pharisees.^ — Cf. Luke v. 33. — Sou fiadnral, Thy 

^ So BC corrected later, D. This is the Hellenistic form, as to xXoSTOf, 
to' f«?iof, found in lxx. and oldest MSS. of N. T. for 6 ir\auTos, 6 ^^Xof. 
Bee. Text has £Aeov, the classic form. — Ed. 

' A part for the whole of positive performances. — Ed. 

' So far ought you to be from despising repentance ; for repentance is in 
fact the curing of the soul. — V. g. 

K«i oil haiav) This is one portion of the rigorous observance of those 
things, which are contained in the Law V. g. 

* It was also the day of the public fasts, as it appears, which were cele- 
brated not by the enactment of divine Law, but according to the private will 
of certain individuals. — Harm., p. 283. 

• For Matthew in this passage mentions the disciples of John ; Mark (ch , ii . 

228 ST MATTHEW IX. 15-17. 

disciples) They proceed modestly, and do not enquire concerning 
John or Jesus Himself. 

15. Ka/, and) Our Lord replies calmly and cheerfully : He 
draws joyful parables from the garments and the wine (which 
were being employed in the Feast) to condemn the sadness of 
those who questioned Him. — o'l ulol rov m/ipuvog, the children of the 
bridechamher) The companions of the bridegroom.^ Parables 
and riddles are suited to feasts and nuptials, and are employed 
to illustrate this nuptial period.^ — vivhTi, to mourn) Mourning 
and fasting are joined together. — iXidgovTai, shall come) He means 
His departure, which should take place at a ftiture period. — nal 
Tors, and then) Neither before nor after.' — vriSTiiigouaiv, they shall 
fast) necessarily and willingly.'' 

16. Oudilg, no one) Our Lord chose, as His disciples, men who 
were unlearned, fresh and simple, and imbued with no peculiar 
discipline. — See ch. xv. 2 ; cf. Gnomon on Luke vii. 20. The old 
raiment was the doctrine of the Pharisees ; the new, that of 
Christ. — a'ipu, taketh away) both itself and more. — airoii, Ms) 
The word is here in the masculine gender.^— ;;^s/?'ov ayjai/jo, yinrai, 
the rent becomes worse) Therefore, there was before some rent. 
A ragged garment, altogether ragged, is intended. 

17. 'Aexoug, leather bottles) which were used instead of casks. 
The old bottles are the Pharisees; the new, the disciples; the wine, 
the Gospel. — avoXovvrcci, will perish) So that they can neither 
hold that, nor any other wine henceforward. — a/j^poTipoi, both) 
masculine, as rig in ch. xxiii. 17. 

18) mentions the same persons in company with the Pharisees ; Luke men- 
tions the Scribes and Pharisees. — Harm. 1. c. 

1 The Bridegroom Himself, if you except the forty days in the wilderness, 
is nowhere recorded as having fasted. — V. g. 

" Bengel means to say, the period when our Lord was with His disciples. 
-(L B.) 

' Bengel means, neither whilst the Bridegroom was with the Church on 
earth, nor when the Church should be with the Bridegroom in heaven. — 
(I- B.) 

* This is the very characteristic aspect of Christianity : At one time is the 
nuptial and festive season ; at another time, the season for fasting and sor- 
row. — v. g. 

" Rosenmiiller more naturally refers avrov to ^xxovi, " pannus impexus a 
vestimento vetustate contrito aliquid aufert " Beng. seems to take aiirav with 
vT^Tipaftx, as " the portion put in by him to fill up the rent." — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW IX. 18-22. 229 

18. npoeixvvii, worshipped) Although in outward appearance 
Jairus was greater than Jesus. — hiXevTiigiv, is dead) Thus he 
said from conjecture, or after he had received mtelligence of his 
daughter's death, whom he, in the great strength of faith, had left 
at the point of death. — See Mark v. 23. — iXSuv,'^ coming) cf. John 
iv. 47. 

20. Tuvfi, a woman) Eusebius' narrates that the statue of this 
woman and of the Lord healing her was stiU in existence in his 
time. — H. E., Bk. vii., c. 17. — 'iwiekv, from behind) sc. out of 
modest humility. — nij xpaamSov, the hem or fringe) See Num. 
XV. 38, S. V. Our Lord performed even that part of the law. 
There is no valid argument from the dress which our Lord then 
wore to the efficacy of relics. 

21. Tou i/iariou Aurou, His garment) The woman, from the sense 
of her own impurity, acknowledged the absolute purity of Jesus. 
— eu6ri(!o/j,a,i, I shall be made whole) The expression in ver. 
22 — digiaxi ei, hath made thee whole — sweetly repHes to this 

22. sLyarsp, daughter) She was, therefore, not advanced in 
years.* — ij w/'ar/s eov issuxi si, thy faith hath placed thee in a state of 
health or salvation^) Our Lord was wont to say thus to those who, 
of themselves, as it were drew the health of their body and soul 
to themselves;" see Luke vii. 50, xvii. 19, xviii. 42; by which 

1 Lachm. with IRCDabcd Vulg. Hil. reads eis, and with BLUaJc Vulg. 
{' accessit') 'xpatnT^iaii. Tischend. has I'mt'KSm ; Beng. and Griesb. sjj iy^iuu. 
Both these last two readings are equally tenable, as the letters are not 
separated in different words in MSS.: CDXA support either reading. 
Malth. often uses els as ins = t/j-; ch. viii. 19, xix. 6. — Ed. 

2 A celebrated ecclesiastical historian ; born about a.d. 267 ; became 
Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, a.d. 313 or 316 ; and died a.d. 338 or 340. 
-(I. B.) 

' It is to a wonderful degree profitable to do simply, and without round- 
about methods, whatever the spirit of faith and love teaches; ch. xxvi. 7. — 

* Our gracious Saviour did not at all censure her on the ground that she 
neglected to offer a prayer to Him, and as it were stole help from Him. — 

" E. V. Thy faith hath made thee whole.— (I. B.) 

8 In the original, " qui salutem corporis et animse ad se ultro quasi 
attraxere" — " attraxere" " hy their own instrumentality;" " ultro" " of their 
awn accord." See Reff.— (I. B.) 

230 ST MATTHEW IX. 23-27. 

words He shows that He knew the existence and extent of their 
faith ; He praises and confirms their faith ; He ratifies the gift, 
and commands it to remain ; and at the same time intimates, 
that if others remain without help, tinbehef is the only 

23. Toig aJXjjriis, the Jlute-players) It was the custom to em- 
ploy flutes at funerals, especially those of the young. — rhv o-x^ov, 
the crowd) See Luke vii. 12. 

24. 'xmyjaptTTi, depart) That is, you are not needed here. 
Our Lord proceeds without hesitation'' to perform the miracle, 
cf. ch. xiv. 19. — ou y&f airi^avi rh xopdaiov, for the damsel is not 
dead) Jesus said this before He entered where she was lying 
dead. The dead all Hve to God ; see Luke xx. 38 ; and the 
girl, on account of her revival, which was to take place soon, 
quickly, surely, and easily, was not to be numbereid amongst the 
dead who shall rise hereafter, but amongst those that sleep.— 
xariyiXuv Aurou, they laughed Him to scorn) This very circum- 
stance confirmed the truth of both the death and the miracle. 
They seem to have feared the loss of their foneral dues. 

25. 'HyspSri, she was raised) Jesus raised the dead from the 
bed, from the bier, from the grave ; in this instance, in Luke 
vii. 14 ; in John xi. 44. It would be inquisitive to speculate 
concerning the state of the souls which had been separated for a 
short time. 

26. 'H p^/i»i, the fame) see ver. 31. — rrjv yriv hihriv, that land) 
St Matthew, therefore, did not write this book in that land. See 
ver. 31, ch. xiv. 34, 35, iv. 25. 

27. Tu^Xo/, Hind men) Many blind men received faith, and 
afterwards sight. Without doubt they sought for sight, more 
especially on the ground that, being alive at that time, they 
might see the Messiah ; and they did see Him with joy in 
credible. — Ixiriaov ri/io,?, have mercy upon us) An expressive 
formula, containing a confession of misery, and a prayer for 
free mercy. Even those who are without have employed this 

^ It more than once happened, that a person came to know that he had 
faith only when the Saviour announced the fact to him, and not before. — 

2 In the original, " certus ad miraculum accedit" — a phrase which loses 
half its force m the translation. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW IX. 28-36. 231 

fonn of prayer.^ — vie AavIS, son of David) that is, Christ. See 
ch. i. 1 and xxii. 42.^ 

28. 'EX66vti, when he was come) They persevered in praying. — 
Suva,//,a,i, I am able) The object of faith. 

29. Kar&f according to) He says this by way of affirmation, 
not of limitation. — ysvji^^rw, let it be done, or let it become) cor- 
responding with the Hebrew ^n\' 

30. ' Amfi^Pinea,)!, were opened) The same verb is used also in 
the case of ears, Mark vii. 34, 35, and of the mouth, Luke i. 64. 
— hs^pi/irjdaTo, straitly charged) perhaps lest an opportunity 
might be given to the Pharisees. Cf. ver. 34.* — opart, see) 
A word used absolutely ; for neither does the following impera- 
tive depend on this. 

32. n^otf^vsyxav AurjJ, x.r.x., they brought to Him, etc.) One 
who could scarcely come of his own accord. 

33. 'lepaiik, Israel) In the nation in which so many wonder- 
ful things had been seen. 

34. 'En rjs &fxpiiTi, through the prince) The Pharisees could 
not deny the magnitude of our Lord's miracles ; they ascribe 
them, therefore, to a great author, though an evil one.' 

35. T^s jSaff/Xs/as, of the kingdom) sc. of God. — Trasav, x.r.x., 
fivery, etc.) sc. of all who were brought to Him. 

36. ''E.isnrka.yyvigdn, He was moved with compassion) The dispo- 
sition of Jesus was most fruitftd in works of mercy.* — sgxuXfi'svoi, 

^ For instance, the woman of Canaan, the father of the lunatic, the ten 
lepers, etc. — V. g. 

' It was distressing to them, that, though living at that very time, in 
which the Son of David, who had been so long looked for, was living in the 
world, they were yet not permitted even to see Him. — V. g. 

^ Used in the celebrated passage, Genesis i. 3, "And God said, 'Let 
there be Light :' — and there was Light." — (L B.) 

* It would have been better for them to have obeyed His injunction of 
silence: and yet their conduct is not without affording us means of inferring, 
how great is the effect which the power of Christ has on those who have 
experienced it. — V. g. 

' At a subsequent period they even more wantonly poured out bitter re- 
marks of this kind. Yet, however great their wickedness, they were at least 
more clear-sighted than those, who acknowledge the reality of neither 
demons, nor demoniacal possession, nor expulsion. — -V. g. 

' It was a striking work of mercy to bring wretched souls to a state of 
spiritual soundness by praying or teaching. — ^V. g. 

232 ST MATTHEW IX. 37, 38. 

tired out) walking with difficulty ; a word especially suitable to 
this passage, concerning which see the Gnomon Mark v. 35. 
The reading, izXEXu/ilvo;, is clearly deficient in authority.^ — 
ippi/j,/isvoi, cast down) i.e. lying down. A further step in the path 
of misery,^ and yet such a condition is already the prelude of 
approaching help. Cf. concerning the harvest, John iv. 35. — 
i)gil vpo^ara firj 'i^ovra Toz/iEva, as sheep not having a shepherd) 
Cf Num. xxvii. 17, S. V. — wft/ icpo^ara, of; ovx 'ieri <!roifi,^v, as 
sheep for whom there is not a shepherd. — mi/ifiv is properly a 
shepherd of sheep. Concerning sheep, cf. ch. x. 6. 

37. ' O fih hf>ie/ii(, X.T.X., The harvest indeed, etc.) He repeated 
the same words' to the Seventy; see Lulie x. 2. — Sepisfik, 
harvest) i.e. in the New Testament, for in the Old Testament it 
was the time for sowing. See John iv. 35, 36. And again, 
the present time is the season of sowing ; the end of the world 
the harvest. — mXvg, plenteous) See ch. x. 23. — ipydrai, labourers) 
Fit persons to whom the work should be entrusted. 

38. A£^^>jr£, pray ye) See of how great value prayers are. 
The Lord of the harvest Himself wishes Himself to be moved 
by them. More blessings, without doubt, would accrue to the 
human race, if more men would, on men's behalf,* meet the 
ever ready will of GoD. See Gnomon on 1 Tim. ii. 3. The 
reaping and sowing is for our advantage. The Lord Himself 
exhorts us to entreat Him. He prevents us, that He may 
teach us to prevent Him." (Cf. John xvi. 5.) And forthwith, 

' E. M. ix.-Ki-KviA.imi. — (I. B.) 

BODaJc (' vexati') Vulg. Hil. read s(7xi/7i|Ki»o;: rf, ' fatigati.' Rec. Text 
has ixKiKufiiuot, evidently a marginal gloss to get rid of the strange expres- 
sion, iaxvKfiitioi. ^xvKTm Th. vxt/Koa, torn off skin, as exuvice from ctuo. 
Here, worn out, as tired sheep, with the (pipria, of the Pharisees. — Ed. 

^ In this condition properly are those, who are destitute of the knowledge 
of Christ.— V. g. 

" After the lapse of a year.— B. H. E. p'. 288. 

* Those who are nearer to God praying in hehalf of those who are further 
removed from Him. — V. g. 

* Prevent is here used in the old Engl, sense of anticipate, be before another 
in doing a thing ; as in the Book of Common Prayer, " Prevent us, Lord, 
in all our .doings with thy most gracious favour." God would have us also, 
as it were, prevent Him, or be the first to ask those things, which He really 
knoweth and willeth to give us before we either desire or ask them, Isa, 
xli. 21, xliii. 26.— Ed. 

ST MATTHEW X. 1. 933 

whilst He is commanding us to pray, He implants the desire, 
to which it is He too that hearkens. See ch. x. 1. These 
same persons who are commanded to pray [for labourers], are 
presently appointed labourers themselves (ibid.) — KupUv, the 
Lord) see ch. x. 1, xiii. 37. Christ is the Lord of the harvest. — 
ov^i h^oKkri^ to send forth) sx^dxXuv" does not always imply 
force, as it does in ver. 33. 


1. Kal, and) This is clearly connected with the end of ch. ix., 
as the repeated mention of sheep indicates. He sends, before 
He is greatly entreated to do so. — -rpoaxaXisd/jLiviis, having called 
to Him) solemnly.' All did not hear and see all things toge- 
ther. — Tovg Sudexm fiix^nr&g, the twelve disciples)* In the following 
verse they are called the twelve apostles. Matthew the apostle 
calls them apostles once, sc. in the present passage, where they 

' E. M. sx/3«X)j (I. B.) 

^ See Author's Preface, Sect. xiv. and footnotes. — (I. B.) 

" This is that remarkable embassy or mission, to which the Lord appeals 
in Luke xxii. 36. He sent forth the Seventy also without purse, scrip, and 
shoes, Luke x. 4. But in Luke xxii. 35 He is speaking not of the Seventy, 
but of the Apostles. We have the return of the Apostles recorded in Mark 
vi. 30, Luke ix. 10. In the intervening period, the Lord is represented more 
than once as having had the disciples present with Him, Matt. xii. 1, 49, 
xiii. 10 ; Mark vi. 1. I feel well persuaded, that no considerable portion of 
that time elapsed, without the Saviour having had present with Him at least 
some of His Apostles, as witnesses of those most important things, which He 
during that time both spake and performed. Nor even was the whole body 
of the Apostles long away from Him ; comp. ver. 23. Meanwhile they re- 
turned one after the other : in which way it may have happened that some 
individuals out of the Twelve are named ol lahxa ; or even it may have been 
that, coming and going from time to time, they took their turns with the 
Lord, when making His journeys, imtil at length it was the privilege of them 
all to be with Him together again. It seems indeed to be tacitly intimated 
in Luke ix. 10, that their actual return took place somewhat earlier, their 
narration or report of their proceedings following subseq^uently more than 
once. — Harm., p. 292. 

* The election of whom as Apostles, the sacred writer takes for granted 
as having taken place before the sermon on the mountain. — Y. g. 

834 ST MATTHEtr X. 2. 

are first sent forth; St Mark does so once (vi. 30), and that 
when they just returned from that mission ; John, the apostle, 
never does so ; for in ch. xiii. 16 he uses the word in its gene- 
ral, not its particular meaning ; St Luke does so in his Gos- 
pel particularly, but only on occasions, and those the same as 
Matthew and Mark, or subsequently/, for other weighty reasons : 
see Luke vi. 13, ix. 10, xi. 49, xvii. 5, xxii. 14, xxiv. 10. For they 
were, during the whole of the period which the Gospels embrace, 
disciples, i.e. scholars, and are therefore so called. But, after 
the advent of the Paraclete, in the Acts and Epistles they are 
never called disciples, but apostles. In the Acts, those only are 
called disciples, who had either learnt with the apostles, or were 
then learning from the apostles, and were apostolic men, and 
the seed of all Christian posterity ; see Acts vi. 1, xxi. 16. After 
which last passage the word disciple does not occur again in the 
New Testament : but they are called brethren, Christians, be- 
lievers (fideles), saints, etc. — Uuxiv, x.r.x.. He gave, etc.) The 
apostles made gradual progress. Great is the authority of con- 
ferring authority} — alroTi, to them) The disciples, when in the 
Lord's presence, were employed in miracles only to a certain 
extent, as in ch. xiv. 19 and xvii. 27 ; but they did not them- 
selves perform miracles (see ch. xvii. 18), unless when sent forth 
by Christ (see Luke x. 17), or after the departure of Christ ; 
see John xiv. 12. — mu/idrm, of spirits) i.e. against spirits. — 
aKaShapTuv, unclean) A frequent epithet : sometimes they are 
called 'irnuit.ara ■jtovtipA,, evil spirits. — '^tfairt{tti\i, to heal) sc. in His 
name : see ch. ix. 35. 

2. Ta owiiaTo,, the names) Scripture, in enumerations of this 
kind, preserves an accurate order. See Gen. xlviii. 20 ; Num. 
xii. 1 ; and, " Noah, Daniel, and Job," in Ezek. xiv. 14, 20. 
Therefore the plan which is observed in the list of the apostles, 
princes of the kingdom of Christ, is of far graver import than 
any precedence of the kings of the world (as, for example, Peter 
is named first, not without an indication of rank) -^ nor is there 

' i.e. His great authority is evinced in tlie fact of His being able to give 
them authority to do all these miracles. — Ed. 

^ In the original, "non sine indicio ordinis." In the notes to his German 
Version he says, on the words " Der erste," " the first," In der That war 
Simon den andern iiberleffen : wiewcl dot der Stuhl zu EoM nichts angehet." 



anything foituitous in it. It is not said, " Bartholomew, Peter, 
Jude, John, Andrew, Matthew" etc. : and the four, as it were, 
locations of them, are deserving of observation : — 

(I.) Matthew x. 2. 

1. Simoa, 

2. And Andrew, 

3. James, 

4. And John, 

6. PhUip, 

6. And Bartholo- 


7. Thomas, 

8. And Matthew, 

9. James the son of 


10. And LebbaeuB, 

11. Simon the 


12. And Judaa Is- 


(II.) Mark iii. 16. 

1. Simopj 

2. And James, 

3. And John, 

4. And Andrew, 
(See also lb. xiii. 3.) 

6. And Philip, 

6. And Bartholo- 


7. And Matthew, 

8. And Thomas, , 

9. And James the 
son of Alphaeus, 

10. And Thaddaeus, 

11. And Simon the 


12. And Judas Is- 


(III.) Luke Tj. 14. 

1. Simon, 

2. And Andrew, 

3. James, 

4. And John, 

6. Philip, 

6. And Bartholo- 


7. Matthew, 

8. And Thomas, 

9. James the son of 


10. And Simon Ze- 


11. Judas the bro- 

ther of James, 

12. And Judas Is- 


(IV.) Acts i. 13, 26. 

1. Peter, 

2. And James, 

3. And John, 

4. And Andrew, 

5. Philip, 

6. And Thomas, 

7. Bartholomew, 

8. And Matthew, 

9. James the son of 


10. And Simon Ze- 


11. And Judas the 
brother of James : 

12. Matthias. 

The first and the third arrangements enumerate them by pairs, 
the second singly, the fourth mixedly. The first and third 
arrangements correspond generally to the time of their vocation, 
and the conjunction of the apostles in twos ; the second, to their 
dignity before our Lord's passion ; the fourth, to their dignity 
after His ascension. All the arrangements may be divided into 
three quaternions, none of which interchanges any name with 
either of the others.^ Again, Peter stands always first in the 
first quaternion, Philip in the second (cf. John i. 42, 44, xii. 22), 
James the son of Alphaeus in the third ; though, within their 
several quaternions, the other apostles exchange their relative 
position [in the different lists]. The traitor stands always last. 

•' Simon toas in reality superior to the other [apostles], though that [fact] does 
not in any way concern the See o/'Rome." — See Gnomon below on ^paro;. — 
(I. B.) 

^ i.e. No one of the three quaternions allows a name found in it to be 
exchanged for a name found in one of the other two quaternions ; though the 
names are varied as to their order in the same quaternion by the different 
writers. — Ed, 


The plan of the first and third quaternions is contained in what 
I have just said : in the second, Matthew places himself modestly 
after his^ Thomas, thus proving himself to be the writer of the 
book; for both Mark and Luke put Thomas after Matthew, 
although St Luke, after the confirmation of Thomas's faith 
(John XX. 27, 28), puts him, in the Acts, even above Bartho- 
lomew, and associates him with Philip. From the first quater- 
nion we have the writings of Peter and John ; firom the second, 
that of Matthew ; fi-om the third, those of James and Jude, or 
Thaddeus. St John has not enumerated the apostles in his 
Gospel, but he has done so by implication in the Apocalypse ; 
see Eev. xxi, 19, 20, and my German, Exposition of it. — 
•jrpuToe, first) On the primacy of Peter, see Luke viii. 45, ix. 
32 ; John i. 42 ; Matt. xvi. 16 ; John xxi. 15 ; Acts i. 15, ii. 
14, viii. 14, X. 5, xv. 7. He was, however, first among the 
apostles, not placed over the apostles : in the apostolate, not 
above it. "What is this to the Pope of Rome ? Not more than to 
any other bishop ; nay, even less. — 6 Xiy6/iivo; TLirpoi, who is 
called Peter) A surname which became afterwards better 

3. 'O Toij Zi^eSafou, the son of Zehedee) To distinguish him fi-om 
James the son of Alphaeus. — o tiKuvth, the publican) A humble 
confession of the Evangelist concerning himself. He does not 
call Peter, Andrew, etc., the fishermen : but he does call himself 
the publican. 

Ai^jSaTo;, Lebboeus) According to Hiller, Thaddaeus, derived 
fi^om the Chaldee in, bosom, and Lebbaeus, from the Hebrew 
DP) heart, are synonymous terms, and denote a man of much 
heart ;* see Onomata Sacra, p. 123. So Thomas means the 
same thing as Didymus. Those copies* which have in this pas- 
sage only AeB^KTog, are supported by the list of the apostles which 

' " Thomam suum," his Thomas, i.e. his associate in the lists ; Matthew 
and Thomas being placed together in all of them. — (I. B.) 

' i.e. better known than the name " Simon," which he had received at his 
circumcision. — (I. B.) 

* " Hominem pectorosum," lit. in classical Latin, a man of broad, large, 
or high breast. — (I. B.) 

* The reading of E. M. is " xecl Ae^/Saioj o' imx'kndiii Bailxio:." — 
(I. B.) 

So the margin of Bengel's larger Ed., though in the text there stood e»J. 


Cotelerius* has published with the apostolical constitutions, and 
by Hesychius in the article "lafa? As this reading is shorter and 
middle^ it appears to be the right one. Some persons having 
appended the disputed clause from the parallel passage of Mark 
as a gloss, others introduced it into the text from the same 
source. Their reading considers Thaddaeus as a surname, and 
Lebbaeus as the name of this apostle : His name, however, in 
reality was Judas the brother of James : but he was called Leb- 
baeus by name, as it were to distinguish him from Judas 

ictios- The first Ed. of the Gnomon gives the palm to the shorter reading, 
As/3/3«7of. So marg. of Ed. 2 and Vers. Germ., leaving it however to the 
decision of the reader, whether the words 6 ivixXyihi; ©aSS«7of are to be ac- 
cepted or rejected. Michaelis, in his Einleitung, T. ii., p. m. 1687, etc., 
shows, by many proofs, that Judas the brother of James is the same as Thad- 

deus and Lebbeus, and was called among the Syrians Adai or Adieus 

E. B. 

' Cotelerhts, alias Jean Baptiste Coteliee, bom at Nismes in 1627, 
was one of the most eminent critics of modem times. As a mere child, 
he was considered a prodigy of learning ; and he sustained this reputation at 
the Sorbonne, where he took the degree of Batch elor. In 1667 the great 
Minister Colbert selected him, together with the celebrated Du Cange, to 
examine and catalogue the Greek MSS. of the Royal Library. The able 
manner in which he performed this task procured him, in 1676, the Profes- 
sorship of Greek in the Royal College at Paris. His labours were many and 
valuable. He died in 1686.— (I. B.) 

' The passage referred to does not really occur under "!«;>«, but mider 
'I«x4)/3o?, which is by mistake placed out of its alphabetical order. The ar- 
ticle on "Ictpx consists of a single line, viz. "lapat alfca ^ i^alpa. 

Then follow immediately the words referred to by Bengel : "laxa/Soj 
' K'K^O'Iqv. 6 x-al @eth^ouo$ xal Aevl, Tretpd r^ "Mccpx^j 'jta.poi \i r^ Mflcrddc/^ 
Ai^fiaio;. iretpH $£ Aouxi^, ' Io!/S«; ' laxafiov. 

In the note onHesychius (Ed. Lugd. Bat. 1776), vol. xi. col. 10, are these 
words — 

NuUus dubito quin diversos hie confiiderit Glossae hujus insititiae auctor, 
ex male inteUecto Veteris cujusdam Scriptoris apostolicorum nominum 
laterculo, qualem ex MS. codice BibUothecse Regise protulit Cotelerius ad 
lib. ii. Constitut. Apostol. c. 63, p. 264, ed. Cleric— (I. B.) 

' " Media." See Author's Preface, viii. 14, and footnote in voc. — (I. B.) 

* Lachm. with Be Vulg. reads Kai Qaliich;. Tischend. with D and 
MSS. in August, reads K«J Ai/ifixio;. ab have Judas. Mill attributes the 
reading A!/3/3«(Of here to some one wishing to call attention to the fact, that 
Mark and Luke call Matthew Aewi', Levi. It seems hard to account for the 
introduction of such a reading, if not genuine : and yet the weight of autho- 

238 8T MATTHEW X. 4-7. 

4. 'laxapiuTT;;, Iscarioi) so called from the village of Iscariot 
in the tribe of Ephraim, as Jerome says on the beginning of 
Isaiah xxviii. Louis de Dieu, on Acts i, 16, says, "In the 
JEthiopic language, I find ps^K for a bag or pouch to carry 
money in: for thus the translator has rendered rh y'Kwseowii.m 
{the hag) in John xii. 6, and xiii. 29. — Hence may be derived, 
without any impropriety, KnV'iaK'S (Iscariota), 6 sx"^" y'^niseoTioi/^ov, 
he who hath the bag. — o y-al, who also) The word also implies that 
Judas was best known and most easily distinguished by the be- 
trayal. — 'xapadou(, betrayed) By the mention of his treason, it is 
silently intimated that Matthias, whom St Luke mentions by 
name in the Acts, was his successor in the apostolate. 

5. 6. 'o8hv — ir6Xiv — o'kov, way — city — Aowse) The apostles were 
sometimes obliged to tread the roads of the Samaritans in their 
journeys ;^ but there was the less need for them to enter their 
cities, and stay there, because the Lord had preached to them in 
His journey (see John iv.), and the apostles also were afterwards 
to come to them. The first of these injunctions regards this 
first legation ; most of the rest apply equally to the whole office 
of the apostolate, to which the twelve are introduced on the pre- 
sent occasion ; cf. ver. 18. Our Lord gave nearly the same com- 
mands to the seventy disciples; Luke x. 1—11. 

6. UpS^aTu, sheep) See ch. ix. 36. — a-iroXuXSra, lost) He uses 
this expression in preference to led astray : cf. ch. xviii. 12, 14. 
The apostles would find sufficient occupation in attending to 
these. — 'idpariX, Israel) from which the Samaritans had departed. 

7. Uopivo/itvoi, as ye go) Answering to vopiUdbt {go ye), in 
ver. 6. — xripUsiTi, preach ye) Here were the disciples going forth 
like students in theology, who practise the rudiments of the 
ministry and perform the ftmctions of curates, and afterwards 
return to receive ftirther instruction.^ — iiyyiziv, is at hand) This 

rities are for K«J QaXietio; here, which otherwise might well be a transcriber's 
or harmonist's correction from Mark iii. 18 ; Aijifialos, as the less open to 
suspicion of transcribers' corrections, being accounted as the genuine reading. 
Jerome calls him rpiui/vfio;, triple-named ; so that in his day Lebbeus must 
have been a recognised name either here or in Mark, as well as Thaddeua 
and Judas. — Ed. 

' Inasmuch as Samaria was situated between Judea and Galilee. — V. g. 

' They themselves, in fact, were as yet destitute of perfect knowledge of 
Jesus Christ, who not until afterwards instructed them more distinctly .con. 

ST MATTHEW X. 8-11. 8H9 

was to be the burden and sum of their discourses;^ cf. Mark 
vi. 12. 

8. 'AoSsvoDvT-as — 8ai/i6via, sick — devils) An ascending gradation: 
cf. ver. 1, where the highest grade is put first. — dupiScv, gratui- 
tously) This is not inconsistent with the conclusion of ver. 10. 
Hire is due for labour, but miracles and gifts of grace ought 
not to be sold. 

9. Mfi 7<.Tri<sri(fhi, x.r.'K., do not procure, etc.) Thus they were 
taught apostoHc contentedness.' They were permitted to use 
what they already possessed, but not to procure any thing new. 
— Xpughv — apyupov — ^aXxhv, gold — silver — brass) i.e., money, large 
or small. — tig r&g t,<i>a,{, into your girdles) which served also for 

10. nfipav, scrip) in which bread and other articles of food 
were kept ; see Mark vi. 8. — M'^ie ^dBSov, nor staff) In Mark 
vi. 8, we read " but one staff." He who had no stafi', was not to 
care about procuring one, for our Lord says " do not procure ;" 
he however who possessed a staff, might take it with him, for 
convenience, not defence. — a^io; y&p 6 epydrrje, x.r.x., for the 
labourer is worthy, etc.) On the other hand, the hire is worthy 
of the labourer. — rpofrig, food) This word includes aU the articles 
which are enumerated in ver. 9, 10. 

11. 'E^irdaaTi, search out) sc. by asking others, and by 
spiritual examination. The godly are easily discovered by the 
godly, and in like manner the ungodly by the ungodly. — 
a^ioi sgri, is worthy) sc. of being yovu* host. — x&xtT /ielvare, and 
there remain) sc. in the house of that man, until you leave the 

ceming His passion, death, and resurrection. In the meantime, their preach- 
ing, confirmed as it was by very many miracles, prepared the minds of men, 
so as that they subsequently, without difficulty, yielded themselves up to 
obey Him, on His advent among them, of whom the hope had been pre- 
sented to them by this preparatory announcement. Comp. ver. 23. — 
Harm., p. 293. 

■^ Which exhorted to repentance. — V. g. 

' " Sic didicere airipKiixii apostolicam." The word avrapxuce, implies not 
merely the patient endurance of penury or privation, but such a state of mind 
and habit of acting and judging as would actually render the individual suf- 
ficiently fed, clothed, etc., and fully satisfied with that which would not meet 
the exigencies of another. The sense of Independence, so frequent in the 
classical writers, is not wholly abandoned. — (I. B.) 

SiO ST MATTHEW X. 12-14. 

city.^ A change of houses might have the appearance of 

12. ' As'ird.aadhi, salute) i.e. say D1?B', peace, mentioned in ver, 
13, i.e. salvation. Our Lord adopted formulae and ceremonies 
already observed, but He elevated them to a higher use. 

13. 'Eav iiiv, x.r.X., if indeed, etc.) i.e. if they receive you. — 
eXSeru — emarpafriTa, let it come — let it return to) The imperative 
may here be taken in its strict sense. If you pray for it, let it 
come. If you are not unwilling, let it return. So bear yourselves, 
that [in the one case] it may come [upon the house], that [in 
the other] it may return [to you'}. Impart your salutation to 
them with ready good-will, or take it back to yourselves.' — 
rj tlp^vri u//,u]i, your peace) sc. that of which you are the mes- 
sengers. — B&v St, x.T.X., but if, etc.) contrary to your expecta- 
tion 'irpig u//,ag smffrpafitiri,!, let it return to you) By a testimony 

of duty performed, and an increase of tranquillity and spiritual 
power. That which has once gone forth from the wealth of 
God, has not gone forth in vain, but assuredly finds some one 
whom it may reach. A consolation for ministers who appear to 
themselves to produce no edification. The Lord says to them 
thus, " They have despised it ; have it yourselves."* 

14. "Os sav, whosoever) whatever householder or magistrate. 
— If£p%0/t4£i'(», when ye depart) The ignorance of men was not 
yet invincible. At present, in a greater multitude of labourers 
and hearers, it is not necessary to depart.^ — n, or) If you should 

' A distinguishing privilege was thereby granted to those who were their 
" first-fruits" in each city. — V. g. 

' In the original, " potuisset prsebere speciem hominum delicatorum," 
where it is difficult to find an exact equivalent to " delicatorum :" though 
one is naturally reminded of Luke vii. 26, q. v. — (I. B.) 

' This was, as it were, a prelude to the loosing and binding (c. xviii. 18). 
-V. g. 

* In his German Version he says, " you must not distress {kranhen) your- 
selves. That which others reject becomes thereby a greater blessing to you." 
-(I. B.) 

" Beug. seems to mean. There was not then, as yet, the invincible ignor- 
ance of men to contend with, that there is now : it was wilful unbelief; and 
in such a case it was their duty not to waste time, as the spiritual labourers 
were few, but to depart. In our day, on the other hand, where the numbers 
of both spiritual labourers and their hearers are many, it is not the duty of 
the former to depart, though many teilfulh/ harden themselves, for there are 

ST MATTHEW X. 15, 16. 2il 

not be admitted into any house of the city. — Mmprhv, dust) Be- 
cause punishment (ver. 15) M'ould overtake the very dust of the 
land trodden by the feet of the impious, from which the apostles 
would wish to be altogether free ; see Acts xiii. 51 ; cf. Matt. 
xviii. 6 ; Mark vi. 11. That seeing your determination, they 
may know it has been said to them as a testimony against them. 
The action combined with the word moves both spectators and 
auditors ; see Neh. v. 13. — rSiv voSZv, your feet) This depends 
upon ixTivd^an, shake off from. Guilt is supposed to adhere to 
the feet or shoes ; see 1 Kings ii. 5. Therefore the apostles 
ought to declare, by shaking the dust from their feet, that the 
fault of those who did not listen has been removed from them. 

15. ' AvixTOTipov, more tolerable) Therefore it is worse not to 
believe the Gospel, than to imitate the men of Sodom ; see ch. 
xi. 22, 24. There appears to be an hypallage, viz. : that city 
shall, on the day of judgment, undergo a heavier punishment 
than the land of Sodom and Gomorrha either endured of old, 
or shall receive at the judgment. If merely a brief ^ repulse shall 
be so heavily punished, what shall be their fate who resist more 

16. 'l3oi), behold) Behold is frequently used for pointing out a 
thing which is present. — iyii, I) your Lord. Do not hesitate. 
I give you a safe conduct. — vpolSara, sheep) unarmed. — iv /iseifj, 
in the midst) not into the midst, for you are already among 
wolves. — Xixav, of wolves) who wUl be unwilling that the lost 
sheep, mentioned in ver. 6, be brought back ; cf. ch. vii. 15, con- 
cerning false prophets, although here the appellation " wolves" 
has a wider signification. — yinsk, become ye) In exhortations 
this word is frequently used rather than ieri, be ye. Go forth 
as such, and show yourselves to be so. — iig o! 'icptig, as serpents) 
The godly often appear to the ungodly as serpents, and thus 

others who labour under ignorance, and it is the minister's duty to labour to 
overcome that ignorance, which, though invincible in itself, can be overcome 
by the Spirit of God.— Ed. 

' In the original, "Si perbrevis repulsa tam graviter punietur:" where 
'^ perbrevis," " very short," does not imply that the impenitence and unbelief 
of the persons indicated was of short continuance, but that their actual re- 
fusal to receive the Gospel occupied only the same time as the brief yisii of 
the Apostles whom they rejected. — (I. B.) 

VOL. I. Q 

242 ST MATTHEW X. 17-lV. 

vanquish the old serpent. — xa/, and) Thus David was at the 
same time prudent and simple towards Saul.^ — axipaioi, without 
horn) hoof, tooth, or sting; both actively and passively harm- 
less. Many words of this kind have at the same time 
both an active and a passive signification ; cf. Gnomon on Kom. 
xvi. 19. 

17. Upos'sx^Te 5i ami tZv avSpui'jrtav, but beware of men) The ex- 
pression used in the last verse, " Be ye wise," is now explained ; 
and the force of the injunction is extended,^ for the word men 
is of general signification ; cf. John ii. 24.^ — guv'edpia — euvayu- 
•yaTg, councils — synagogues) The councils, where the chief men 
assemble; the synagogues, where the people also resort. — h 
raTg euvoiyuyaTi, in the synagogues) They wiU consider the action 
so holy, that it may be performed even in the synagogue, which 
is put in opposition to the council ; see ch. xxiii. 34. — fiaeny- 
disoiisiv, they shall scourge) Hard things are foretold, yet they 
were actually endured by the apostles, and even by our Lord 

18. Ae, but) The particle is here used epitatically,* to denote a 

farther step in the subject announced a-)(Pr,<itisk, ye shall be 

brought) The apostles did not come ultroneously to the rulers, 
they were brought. — aiiroT;, against them) sc. the Jews, in con- 
tradistinction to the Gentiles mentioned immediately afterwards. 
— xai ToTg sheeiv, and the Gentiles) This chapter therefore already 
contemplates matters more remote, and refers to the apostolate 
after our Lord's ascension. 

19. M^ /ispi//,vfigrire, Be not careful) Your only care must be to 
be without care. We are not forbidden by this passage from all 
preparation ; see 1 Tim. iv. 1.5, cf. Luke xxi. 14 ; 1 Cor, xiv. 26. 

' It not seldom happens that one finds others, as it were, altogether the 
counterpart of one's self. But it is of use to remember, that many are worse 
than yourself, and some perhaps better. — V. g. 

" In the original, " Declaratur to prudentes : acceditque moniti extensio." 
_(I. B.) 

^ How strong are the reasons for being on our guard against men, is es- 
pecially then made manifest, when one has to be conversant (to have inter- 
course) with them at a time of their being under the constraint of no external 
consideration. — V. g. 

■• See Append, on Epitasis. An emphatic addition to an enunciation al- 
ready made. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW X. 20-23. 243 

But on a sudden emergency, even in these times, a faithful pro- 
fessor should not be anxious as to what he has to say. — i), or) 
Care is elegantly mentioned; where, however, the "what" (quid, 
Ti) is suppHed, there the " how"^ (quomodo, irug) is not wanting. 
The " liow or what" includes whatever can fall under the idea 
of care ; therefore, especially also the words, concernuig which 
many, who have the matter ready, are wont to be over anxious. 
The Spirit does not speak without words ; see ver. 20 : and in 
Luke xxi. 15, we read, " I will give you a mouth and wisdom." 
Analogous combinations, under other circumstances, occur in 
John viii. 28, xii. 49, 50 ; Eom. viii. 26 ; 1 Pet. i. 11. The 
doctrine of verbal inspiration is not inferred from the difference 
of the words how and what, but from the promise itself. — b kx.tivr) 
rf\ uipif, in that hour) even though not before. Many feel most 
strongly their spiritual power when the hour arrives of impart- 
ing it to others. — r/, ivhat) for 5, that which. — Cf. ch. xv. 32, and 
Luke xvii. 8. 

20. O; XaXovvTii, that speak) A similar use of the article occurs 
in John vi. 63. — h vfj^Tv, in you) As instruments. 

21. ' Ahi\<ph5, the brother) Those who are most near, are 
most easily divided. — SavarZisoum, shall cause to he put to 
death) By an atrocious death, even by the agency of the 

22. A/a rh ovo/j,d Mou, for My name^s sake) which the world 
hates. — ouros, x.r.X., this man, etc.) truly. This is one of the 
apothegms which our Lord uttered more than once. — See 
ch. xxiv. 13. 

23. T^K aWriv — xan Ix ralrrji; iiuxoiSiv v/j,&5 (pivyiTi ilg ir'ipav, the 
other^ — and if they persecute you from this city, flee ye into another) 
This is the most ancient Latin reading,^ and also that of Origen* 
contra Celsum (p. 51, Ed. Hoesch.^), where, instead of " (pivyire 
ti; rriv aXXn"" [as in E.M.], we find " (psdysTi el; t^v Iripar xav iv rr} 

' Referring to " how or v/uATye shall speak." — (I. B.) 

2 E. V. araother.— (I. B.) 

3 The words xxv — Mpa-i' are not found in E. M. — (I. B.) 

■• Obigen was born at Alexandria, in Egypt, about a.d. 185 ; and died at 
Tjre, about a.d. 254.— (I. B.) 

' DAvm HoESCHELius, born at Augsburgh 1556. He was a laborious 
and successful Editor. Among the authors he edited were Origen, Philo- 
Judffius, Basil, and Photius. He died 1617.— (I. B.) 

244 ST MATTHEW X. 23. 

kripcf, Slciixciigi, ird'kiv (piuyiTi iig rriv aXXrjv." Flee ye into the Other; 
and if they persecute you in that other, flee ye again into the 
other. '^ Francis Lucas' of Bruges quotes old Latin Codices in 
favour of that reading. Thence, too, the Anglo-Saxon version 
has — " and thonne hi on thcere eovv ehtath, fleoth on tha thryddan;" 
i.e. " and when they persecute you in that [city], flee to the third." 
Ambrose' also, in his treatise, De Fugd Seculi (ch. 4), says, 
" But if they shall persecute you in one, flee ye into another." 
And Juvencus' renders the passage thus : — 

" Profugite e tectis quae vos sectabitur urbis 
Inde aliam, mox inde aliam, conquirite sedem." 
" Flee from the roofs of the city which persecutes you ; thence 
seek another, and then again anothee abode." Thus Augus- 
tine ; thus the Armenian Version. The Codex Cantabrigiensis, 
the Codices Colbertini 2467 and 3947, Parisiensis 6, and the 
Codex Stephani ri (to which some add the Codex Gonvillianus), 
contain this passage in various forms of words. The variety of 
the Greek words'' suggests the suspicion that this verse has been 

^ T^!t hepav. — 'irspos signifies originally, other in opposition to one, though 
it has also the force of other in opposition to many. — (I. B.) 

^ T^» alXKYiii. — cixho; signifies originally, other in opposition to many, 
though it is used also to represent other in opposition to one. Here ti)> 
oiKKnu appears to have the force oi the former. — (I. B.) 

3 Francis Lucas was born at Bruges in the sixteenth century. He 
studied under Arius Montanus, and became a Doctor of Louvain, and Dean 
of the Church of St Omer. He was profoundly skilled in the Greek, He- 
brew, Syriae, and Chaldee languages, and is considered a judicious critic. 
He died in 1619.— (I. B.) 

* Born at Treves a.d. 340 ; consecrated, in 374, Bishop of Milan, where 
he died in 397. He was an eloquent preacher, and an able and voluminous 
writer. — (I. B.) 

' C. Aquilintjs Vettius (al. Vectius, or Vestius) Juvencus, a Spanish 
priest of good family, who flourished in the fourth century. He wrote, be- 
sides other works, a history of our Lord in good hexameter verse, considered 
both poetical and faithful, and published it about 330. — (I. B.) 

" Lachm. reads izipup, with 'Qd Orig. 1,295; 380; 3,473c ; 709; cod. 
4,398. But Tischend. olt.-Kn'', with Dale Vulg. Origen 3, 709, and Rec. 
Text. Lachm. adds in brackets, xHu h tJ5 Mpif ^laxaaiy CfiAg, (peiysrs ei; 
riiv AWni), with DL (sx ravrvt; iiilioi^miu — r. !«/»«») aJ Orig. 1,2956 ; 3S0a; 
Hil. 656. But Be Vulg. and Eec. Text omit these words. Probably they 
come from a transcriber who fancied that (ptvyin ug r'^uhipav, sc. "a, second 
city," was incomplete without a clause, " And when they persecute you in 

ST MATTHEW X. 25. 245 

rendered from Latin into Greek : on the other hand, the anti- 
quity and celebrity of the Latin text is proved by the very mul- 
titude and discrepancy of these Greek codices. The omission 
appears to have arisen from the carfelessness so frequently mani- 
fested by transcribers, where similar words recur : the facility 
with which the mistake may occur, appears from the fact that 
Gelenius, in his Latin version of Origen, omits this very clause 
[which undoubtedly exists in the original]. Athanasius more 
than once substitutes iTspav for aXXriv, as is at present the case 
with the Codex Colbertinus, and from which you may conjec- 
ture, that another omission^ might soon be made by other 

Ou /irj Ttkiarjri, ye shall not finish^) cf. np3,' in 2 Chron. xxxi. L 
— rae wokui, the cities) not to say, «i7?a^«s, of Israel. — Seever. 6. 
Our Lord tells them that there was no fear of their not having 
where to preach, and that they were not to remain long in one 
place, as they would have the opportunity of remaining longer 
in other places. — ews av 'ik'bri 6 T'lhg roD AvSptuffou, until the Son of 
Man be come) Concerning this coming, see ver. 7, and xi. 1.* 

2.5. "O SouXog, X.T.X., the servant, etc.) i.e. hex, o douXo; yhriTai ag 
xupiog auTou, apxsrhii aurf) larh, that the servant be as his lord, is 
sufficient for him. An instance of Zeugma. — ohoiig'roTnv, master 
of the household^) Jesus was indeed the Master of a household, 

that second city, flee into another, i.e. a third city." To avoid the need for 
this, I believe the reading oixxnu for Mpau arose. The shorter is generally 
preferable to the longer reading, as it was the tendency of transcribers to 
insert all added matter, lest their copy should be incomplete. — Ed. 

^ " hi&tvis" hiatus, gap. See Author's Preface viii. 14, and App. Crit. 
Part I. § xxii., obs. xxvii., etc. — (I. B.) 

' E. V. Ye shall not have gone over. — (I. B.) 

3 nS3_(i) To be completed, finished. — Gesenius. — (I. B.) 

* To wit, there is here meant that very advent, whereby, through His full 
presence, beneficence, and preaching, the preparatory announcement of H"is 
ambassadors in those days was, as it were, completed and fulfilled by Him, 
whom it behoved to come, to proclaim the Gospel, and to see that it was 
proclaimed by others. Matt. xi. 3, 5. In a similar manner, He commanded 
the Seventy disciples also to announce the approach of the divine kingdom, 
and followed up that announcement by His own very presence in those same 
places, Luke x. 1, 9. — Harm., p. 293. 

* In the original the word used is pater-familias, which is employed 
throughout the whole sentence. — (I. B.) 

24fi ST MATTHEW X. 26. 

and brought up a large family of disciples (see Luke xxii. 35), 
affording the most perfect example of a domestic, as well as a 
solitary life ; and He is also Master of the household of the 
whole Church. — BeiXt^i^ouX, Beelzehut) Beelzebub was a god of 
Ekron ; see 2 Kings i. 2. As the Greeks, however, seem to 
have been unable to pronounce the word Beelzebub, the Lxx. 
rendered it BaaX//,uTa,v (Baalmwian) : and the Evangelists also 
wrote it in Greek with a X (I), instead of a ^ (b), as the final 
letter, on account, apparently, not of the derivation, but the 
pronunciation ; just as the LXX. wrote M£X;)/JX (Melchol) for 
Michal. As this reason, however, did not hold good in other 
languages, translators have restored the original sound of the 
Hebrew word. The Jews, however, frequently employ the 
term 73T,^ in contempt of idols ; but the compound, ?3r?JJ3, is 
not found in Hebrew, although it is credible that the Hebrews 
who spoke Greek may have said BseX^e/SouX for Be£X^£/3ou/3 the 
more willingly, on account of its resemblance to ?ur.^ Ter- 
tullian, when quoting Luke xi., in his work against Marcioii, 
book iv., ch. 26, writes it, Beelzebul. — ixdXsgav, x.t.X., have 
called, etc.) See ch. ix. 34 and Mark iii. 22. They called Him 
Beelzebub, that is, the ally of Beelzebub. — vogui iJuaXkov, how 
much more) The world hated Christ most and first ; and it was 
the duty of His disciples to feel that they ought much more to 
endure that hatred, much less to refuse it.' — roig omaKoos abrou, his 
domestics) i.e. they shall call them the domestics of Beelzebub. 

26. Oh, therefore) although you will be hated. — ouSb, nothing) 
Cf Mark iv. 22 ; Luke xii. 2.— yap, x.r.K, for, etc.) The world 
will not so quickly destroy you, by whom truth will be propa- 
gated far and wide. — xexaXv/i/ihov, covered) i.e. removed firom 
sight. — a'ToxaXu<p^fi(!irai, shall be uncovered) especially in the 
time of the Messiah. — xpwTTTbv, hidden) i.e. removed from hear- 
ing : cf. ver. 27. 

' 'rj — (1) properly in my opinion, i.q. Va^ to be round, to make round, 
whence the Talmudic ^21, "sai, round or globular dung, such as that of goats 
or camels. — Gesenius. — (I. B.) 

2 !53T with the Kibbuts = Viat with the Shureq.— (I. B.) 

3 Those of Christ's household have less of the power which characterized 
their Master ; and besides, they are not, as He was, without blemishes, and 
these last the world knows well how to upbraid them with. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW X. 27-29. 247 

27. ols, ear) sc. one, secretly. — i-jrl tSdi dca/iarov, on the house- 
tops) A flat place, where men might converse, or even assemble 
as an audience : cf. 2 Sam. xvi. 22.^ 

28. Kal /iii po/3»jS^7-£, X.T.X., and be not afraid of, etc.) The 
connection is as follows : He who publicly preaches hidden 
truth, him the world afflicts : he who fears God, ought to fear 
nothing except Him : he who does not fear God, fears every- 
thing except Him : see 1 Pet. iii. 14, 15.^ — avh, of) This pre- 
position is not repeated. I fear Him, is a stronger phrase than 
/ am afraid of Him,? — a.'jrmnmvTm,^ who hill) From the root 
■/.Tsdi are derived Krhu, Kreha, Krhvia. See Eustathius. — rhv Swd- 
/ifi/ov, Him who is able^) and that too with the highest ability 
and authority (see Luke xii. 5), that is, GoD ; see James iv. 12. 
— xal •v)/u;^)iv Kai ga/jbo,, both soul and body) the two essential parts 
of man. — avoXigai, to destroy, to ruin) It is not said to kill : the 
soul is immortal. — h Tisnri, in hell) It is not easy to preach the 
truth ; and to none are severer precepts given than to the 
ministers of the Word, as is evident from the epistles to Timothy 
and Titus. The most efficacious stimulus is on this account 
employed. Many witnesses to the truth have been first ex 
cited, and afterwards led on, by the most fearful terrors from 

29. Auo arpoi&la aagaplov, two sparrows for a farthingY In 
Luke xii. 6, we read, five sparrows for two farthings. A rea- 
son why men are not to be feared. — 'h, one) sc. one in preference 

' He desires them to banish all fear from their minds. — ^V. g. 

2 The world admires the magnanimous spirit of those who fear nothing, 
and regards such a spirit worthy of heroes and great men. And yet the fear 
of God ia the only heroism truly worthy of the name ; and in the absence of 
it, all presence of mind, as it is called, is false, and only indicates reckless 
rashness. — V. g. 

^ i.e. Bengel would render the passage thus — "Be not afraid q/them 
(n^ (pojiri^yfTi ecTTo ran) which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul : 
but rather /ear Him ((po/S^tfurs roii) which is able," etc. — (I. B.) 

* E. M. avoxTimoiiTaD. — (I. B.) 

" In the original there is a play on the words potest and potesias, which 
cannot be preserved in the translation. The passage runs thus — " Eum qui 
potest, et quidem cum summa e^ovai'if, potestate." — (I. B.) 

* The amapiou, called 'hivroii in Mark xii. 42, and rendered mite in 
that place and elsewhere by the E. V., was about 5^ of a farthing. 

-a- 1!.) 

248 ST MATTHEW X. 30-33. 

to another.'— ou mieurai, shall not fall) To fall on the ground is 
to die. The use of the future tense implies a condition : if it 
falls, it does not fall without your Father's permission. — aviv roij 
%Xri/ji,ccrog rou Tlarpig i//iZv, without the will of your Father) This 
is the reading of Irenseus, Tertullian, Novatian, Cyprian, Hilary, 
Augustine, Cassiodorius ; also of the Italic, Coptic, Arabic, 
Gothic, and Persic versions. It is therefore an ancient reading, 
and one too widely received to be accounted for on the hypo- 
thesis of its being a paraphrase, especially since the sense would 
be complete without the contested words " rou ^iXfi//,aTOi" (the 
will of), as the Lxx. in Isa. xxxvi. 10^ write oS«u Kvplou, without 
the Lord, and the Hebrews say, N''DB' ''lypyo, without heaven. 
The later Greeks omitted these words, rou SsX^/iaros, from the 
recurrence of the article roD. The numbered hairs of the faithftil, 
mentioned in the parallel passage of Luke xii. 7, correspond to 
this " will." ^ — iuaiv, your) not their Father. 

30. 'T/iZv, your) used antithetically. — «/ rpl^ig, the hairs) 
which you yourselves care little about. Who cares about the 
hairs once pulled out by the comb ? A proverbial saying con- 
cerning a very small matter. 

31. UoXKuv, many) opposed to one in ver. 29. — i/if/s, you) even 
each of you individually. 

32. 'Ek, in, on) i.e., when the question is raised concerning 
Me. This " h 'Ef^oi," " on Me," differs from " Mi," " Me," and 
" alrh," " him," in the next verse ; cf. Luke xii. 8, 9. — av^pw^wv, 
men) Our Lord is speaking especially of persecutors. 

33. ' Apvrjdofjjat %a;yii a\irh,^ I also will deny him) This order of 
the words, sc. " I-will-deny even-I-also him," which expresses 
more exactly the law of retribution, jus talionis (as in ver. 32), 
is supported by the Latin and Gothic versions," by the Codex 

' Bengel means, that this is a proof of God's individual providence even 
in matters relating to the brute creation. — (I. B.) 

^ In the Hebrew also, " without Jehovah." — (I. B.) 

^ BD Orig. (omitting vftm) "Vulg. and Rec. Text, have dutv tou wccrpo; 
Cfiuii. But " sine voluntate" is added by abc Hil. 657, 831 Iren. Cypr. 82, 
121 (omitting 'vestri' before 'patris'). — Ed. 
E. M. apuiaojictt auj-ov xtiyu. — (I. B.) 

° The Gothic version of the Bible was made from the Greek, both in the 
Old and in the New Testament, by Ulphilas, a celebrated bishop of the 
Mseso-Goths, who assisted at the Council of Constantinople in 359, and was 

ST MATTHEW X. 34-38. 249 

Byzantinus, and perhaps by other MSS. Such matters have 
been generally neglected by the collators of Codices. Others 
read apvf)isoiiai aurh x^yii} 

34. E/>^v))w, peace) sc. of the righteous with the wicked. — 
fia-^aipav, a sword) i.e., violent division (called diafiepig/ihn in 
Luke xii. 51, xxii. 36), proceeding from the discord of families, 
mentioned in ver. 35, to wars and murders. 

35. Aiji^ctffa/, to separate) A necessary consequence of what 
precedes. — utQpwTrov, a man) sc. a son who loves Me ; see ver. 
37. — Tcardi, against) In this passage those are put in opposition, 
who are otherwise naturally most attached, to each other. 

36. 'Ex^pol, enemies) A man shall have them of his household — 
his relations, servants, and acquaintances — for enemies, if he be- 
lieves in Me ; see Micah vii. 6. 

37. 'O fiiXuv, K.T.X., he that loveth, etc.) from aversion to the 
sword just mentioned. An ascending climax : to prefer Christ 
to parents, children, and, in the next verse, himself. 

38. Thv gTavpov, his cross) The cross, which was unused by the 
Jews as a punishment, was not employed proverbially to denote 

sent on an embassy to the Emperor Valens, about the year 378. He is said 
to have embraced Arianisra, and to have propagated Arian tenets among his 
countrymen. Besides translating the entire Bible into the Gothic language, 
Ulphilas is said to have conferred on the Mseso-Goths the invention of the 
Gothic characters. The character, however, in which this version of the 
New Testament is written, is, in fact, the Latin character of that age j and 
the degree of perfection which the Gothic language had obtained during the 
time of Ulphilas, is a proof that it had then been written for some time. 
The translation of Ulphilas (who. had been educated among the Greeks) was 
executed from the Greek ; but, from its coincidence in many instances with 
the Latin, there is reason to suspect that it has been interpolated, though 
at a remote period, from the Vulgate. Its unquestionable antiquity, how- 
ever, and its general fidelity, have concurred to give this version a high place 
in the estimation of biblical critics ; but, unfortunately, it has not come down 
to us entire. The only parts extant in print are, a fragment of the book of 
Nehemiah, a considerable portion of the four Gospels, and some portions of 
the apostolic epistles. The most distinguished manuscript of the Gothic 
version of Ulphilas is the justly celebrated Codex Abgenteus, now pre- 
served in the Library of the University of Upsal, in Sweden." — Hartwell 
Home, vol. ii. p. 240. — (I. B.) 

' The order ndya xiiroi/ is supported by BDA Vulg. abe Orig. I, 298rf, 
3,543&, Hil. 985, Cypr. But Rec. Text ainov xdyu, with Orig. 1,2966. Orig. 
3,543i puts the tt,f>yriso[iii.i after ainou. — Ed. 

250 ST MATTHE-W X._ 39-42. 

extreme adversity : our Lord therefore, in this passage, alludes 
to His own Cross, which He was already bearing in secret. — 
Xa/i/3ai/E(, taketh) sc. wiUingly. 

39. 'Vvyfih soul) i.e., man with respect to his natural life, 
himself; cf. Luke ix. 24, 25. — 'iviKiv 'E/aoD, for My sake) Many 
lose their soul for the sake of the world. 

40. 'X/ias, you) A descending gradation : sc. you (apostles), 
a prophet, a righteous man, a little one. — 'e^e, Me) It is not 
only of the same avail as if he received Me, but he actually does 
receive Me. 

41. E/'s ora/ia, x.r.x, in the name, etc.) i.e., on this ground, and 
on no other.^ — vpo(priTriv — dham, a prophet — a righteous man) A 
prophet is one who speaks, a righteous man one who acts, in the 
name of God, and is distinguished for his remarkable righteous- 
ness ; see ch. xiii. 17, xxiii. 29; Heb. xi. 33. — fm^hv, hire, 
reward) for he shows himself as obedient to God as if he were 
a prophet himself. It may be asked how he who is not righteous 
himself can receive a righteous man as a righteous man ? The 
reply is easy : Such a man, by the very act, abandons his evil 
way, and ceases to be the enemy of righteousness. 

42. MixpZv, little ones) (see ch. xi. 11, and Zech. xiii. 7). A 
sweet epithet for disciples (cf. ver. 41, for the double mention , 
of prophet, etc.) The world cares not for such as these. 
From these little ones are made prophets and righteous men. — 
■^u^potj, of cold water) This is without expense, and may be 
done even on the road. A proverbial expression, and con- 
trasted with he that receiveth.^ — /iij amXeen, shall not lose) A con- 
solation which, arising from former good deeds, cheers the 
disciple even in the midst of subsequent dangers.' — aurcu, his) 
i.e., of the little one, or rather his own. It is more to receive 
any one than to give him to drink, and therefore it has a greater 

' So the French Version, published in Geneva in J1744 a.d., "En qualite 
ae Prophete." The Latin expression, Prophetce nomine, is si/nilar E. B. 

^ i.e. to receive any one into the house as a guest — this is an act oi hos- 
pitality, whereas to give a cup of cold water to a wayfarer is merely an act 
oi kindness. — (I. B.) 

' O the boundless riches of God, who both has it in His power and delights 
to pay in full such great rewards. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XI. 1-5, 251 


1. 'ETsXiaiv, concluded) Our Lord did nothing abruptly. See 
Gnomon on ch. xxvi. 1 ; and Luke vii. 1. — -/.ripdeeuv, to preach) sc. 
everywhere. Cf. John iii. 2, etc' — a'oruv, of them) the Israelites 
[the people, namely, who were deserving of His " compassion,' 
ch. ix. 36.— V. g.] 

2. ToD XpiSTou, of Christ) Those works which it was the part 
of the Messiah to perform.^ — /xaSrjTuv alroZ, of His disciples) whom 
He wished to confirm and resign to Christ.' 

3. ' O ipyiij^iwi, he that should come) cf. Ps. xl. 7 ; Heb. x. 37. — 
n, x.T.X., or, etc.) There was not at that time any other, for 
John excludes himself by this disjunctive particle. — eTipov, 
another) They recognise as a certain fact that there is some one 
who should come. — 'Trposdox.Sj/isv, must we await) sc. with longer 

4. "a axolieri xal ^Xs'titi, those things which ye do hear and 
see) The testimonies of facts of seven kinds, enumerated in ver. 
5, 6. The miracles which our Lord performed had been fore- 
told ; they were beneficent, many, and various.^ 

5.° Euay/sX/^ovra;, are evangelized) The word is passive ; cf. 
Luke xvi. 16. For the works of our Lord Himself, which the 

1 The verb liidinceiii implies private instruction, as xn^iairtiii implies public 
instruction. — V. g. 

2 Jesus had done similar works before John was imprisoned ; but now He 
did such works in much greater numbers. — V. g. 

^ He does not seem to have entertained any doubt himself as to Christ. 
-V. g. 

* The time of waiting in expectation was now by this time coming to 
an end ; for the Seventieth week of Daniel was close at hand. — V. g. 

^ Sight in other cases is wont to precede hearing ; but the word of Christ 
\lieard by them] answered more closely, as it were, to the desires of faith 
than the works of Christ [seen by them], John xiv. 11. Even in this place, 
Jesus speaks humbly, as in ch. xii. 17, 41, 42. He does not say, Those 
things which I speak and do. — V. g. 

' TwipXo) «»«/3?il7rouff() At that very moment (period of time) such miracles 
were being performed (Luke vii. 21), which were the very miracles reserved 
for the Christ. In ancient times, sinners used to be punished with blindness, 
leprosy, and death. — mxpol lyelpoiirxi) A miracle which had been very re- 
cently performed in the case of the young man of Nain, Luke vii. 14. — V. g. 

252 ST MATTHEW XI. 6, 7. 

disciples of John then saw and heard, are meant ; cf. Luke iv. 
18, concerning the prediction of this work.^ Nor did all poor 
men as yet preach the Gospel, but only the apostles. See 
Matt. X. 7. 

6. Maxapiog, blessed) A rare felicity. That very circumstance, 
that many should be offended in Him, was foretold as a sign of 
the Messiah.^ He loaded others with benefits ; He Himself was 
weak, poor, despised. — o; s&v, whosoever) especially of the dis- 
ciples of John, who saw the difference between his mode of 
living and that of our Lord. See ver. 18, 19. 

7. Uopivo/ievan, as they departed) Otherwise they might have 
become puffed up. The world praises to the face, reviles be- 
hind the back. Divine truth does the opposite. — np^ccTo, hegan) 
The multitude would not have begun, had He not done so first. 
• — 'xepi 'jciidmou, concerning John) The state of John is described 
in ver. 7, 8, 9, with reference to men, to himself, to God. — 
haaaeSai, to see as a spectacle) idly. See John v. 35. — xdXa/j,ov, 
a reed) The ford of Jordan abounded with them. They would 
have wished John to be such in conduct as they liked to be 
themselves, and as they are described in this verse and the fol- 
lowing. They sought a man of easy disposition, and one ready 
to second their desires, whom they would not themselves style 
a reed ; but Jesus calls a reed, a reed. For often does truth 
attribute to man a speech, not such as he frames himself, but 
such as expresses the reality. See Jer. xviii. 12. The people 
themselves did not sufficiently know why they had gone forth. 
On the other hand, the character of John is described (cf. ver. 
18), and at the same time the stumbling-block is taken away, 
which might have arisen fi:om the imprisonment of our Lord's 
precursor — avi/ji^ov, hy the wind) of favour (by his having been 
supposed to be the Messiah) or persecution. — tfaXsuo/isi/ov, agitated) 
The word is here in the middle voice, and signifies permitting 
himself to be agitated. This opinion is not refuted like those 
which follow, because it refutes itself. 

' Which was peculiarly a work of the Christ, who was anointed for that 
very purpose, Isa. Ixi. 1 V. g. Comp. Luke iv. 1. — Ed. 

^ Isa. lii. 14. That very fact was an argument likely to be easily ap- 
preciated, especially by the disciples of John. See ver. 18, with which comp. 
ver. 19. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XI. 8-10. 263 

8. 'AXXa, but) The conjunction is employed to show that the 
preceding hypothesis has been dismissed. — h fiaXaxoi's i/ia.Tloi; 
fifji^fiea/imv, clothed in soft raiment) They would have wished the 
forerunner, andthe Messiah Himself, to have been such. — r^, the) 
The article refers to the preceding f^aXaxoTg} — (popoumi, who wear) 
John, if he had wished it, might have been a courtier. — o'Uoii, 
houses) Not in the desert or the prison. — rZv ^amXiimv^ of palaces) 
See Esth. iv. 2. The Lxx. have rd l3agiXila in Esth. i. 9, ii. 13. 
— oTxoi rS)v ^aeiXiicav zz the halls of the palace, 

9. npop^rjjv, a prophet) For a long time they had had no pro- 
phets.' — mi, yea) A prophet, I say unto you, and something 
greater than a prophet. — mpitgonpov, more) Neuter, as in W, 
what: sc. when ye went out ye saw something more, etc., although 
ye did not know it. — 'jrpoipriTov, than a prophet) For a prophet 
announces only distant events. 

10. OuTos yap sin, x.r.X., for this is he, etc.) This makes John 
much greater than that what is spoken of* in ver. 7, 8, could. — 
Idoii lyii avoSTiXXu rh ayysX6v Mou wph ntpotsiiitm Sou, 05 xaraffxsuaffs; 
ri\i 'Ml 'Sou 'i/^-rrpogSsv Sou, behold I send my messenger before Thy 
face, which shall prepare Thy way before Thee) In the S. V. of 
Mai. iii. 1, we read, /Sou s^avoSTiXSi rhv &yysX6ii Mou, xoi,! £«/3Xl-^s- 
rai i&hv <!rpo Tpogiivou Mou, xal s^alpvrig fi^ii, tc.t.X-, behold I will send 
forth My messenger, and he shall survey the road before My face, 
and suddenly shall arrive, etc. — 'Eyu, 1) The Father addressing 
the Son. — rbv ayyeXov Mou, My messenger) John was sent by 
God as a messenger, after whom came the Messenger of the 
Covenant Himself. — vph irpogwvou Sou, before Thy face) Immedi- 

1 Thus identifying fiah.a.x.di. with /x,a,Xa.xois ifiurlois, and showing that the 
fiaT^anx, "soft things," now spoken of are, as in E. V., "soft clothing." — 
(I. B.) 

2 E. M. has " TOiff oi'xois rm (iaai'Kkm" which E. V. renders " Kings' 
Palaces."— (I. B.) 

The reading ran'Kilav is regarded as equal to the other in the margin 
of the larger Ed. : but the margin of Ed. 2, as well as the Germ. Vers., pre- 
fer ^auithkaa. — E. B. All the primary authorities read ^ttaiKiao. But 
Griesb. and Scholz, with some inferior Uncial MSS., read ^amCKiim or 
/iairi'AiieJii. — Ed. 

3 He cannot be accounted as such, unless he were one far removed from 
(reed-like) fickleness and (courtier-like) effeminacy. — V. g. 

* viz. His being " a reed shaken by the wind," or " a man clothed in soft 
raiment." — See Gnomon in loc. — (I. B.) 


ately before Thee. The Lxx. have l^aiprjg {immediately) in the 
passage just quoted. John was not a prophet of distant events. — 
See Luke i. 76. The advent of the Father and of the Son are the 
same, and so is the language which appHes to them. It is one 
of the strongest arguments for the divinity of Christ, that those 
things which are said of Christ in the New Testament are quoted 
from the Old Testament, where they are predicated as exclu- 
sively belonging to God. — See Gnomon on John xii. 41 ; Acts 
ii. 33; Rom. ix. 33, xiv. 11 ; 1 Cor. i. 31, x. 9; Eph. iv. 8 ; 
Heb. i. 6, 8, 10, 11 ; Eev. i. 8, 17. 

11. Oux eyrjyiprai, there has not arisen) or there hath not been 
raised up as yet. The verb iysipieSai, denotes an office conferred. 
— iv yivvriToTg yvvar/iuv, among them that are bom of women) An 
expression of universal extent. Thus, h ywai^iv, among women, 
of the blessedness of Mary, Luke i. 28. — /j^iI^ojv, a greater, sc. 
prophet) See Luke vii. 28, and i. 15, even if he be compared 
with Enoch, Moses, and Elias. — rou ^o.-stiotoZ, the Baptist) He 
was already then distinguished by this surname, on account of 
the novelty and magnitude of the matter, not merely afterwards 
to distinguish him from John the apostle. — o & //,ixp6Tspog, but the 
least) The comparative with the article has the force of a super- 
lative. As far as John excels every one, even the greatest of 
the ancient prophets, so far is John himself excelled by every 
one, even the least, in the kingdom of heaven, whether he be 
a preacher of Christ, or merely a citizen thereof. John himself 
was not yet in the kingdom of heaven, but he preceded it [as a 
herald]."^ Jesus is not the least in the kingdom of heaven, but 
is the King Himself; and He Himself is implied by the kingdom 
of heaven, which John announced. — See ver. 10 and 3, and 
ch. iii. 11. And the less and the greater are here spoken of as 
they are, not in the opinion of men, but in reality, in the know- 
ledge of the revealed Christ. — See 1 Pet. i. 12. The idea of 
external appearance, in ver. 6, does not come in here. Jesus 
was despised and unknown amongst men, but He was not the 
least, as far as the kingdom of heaven was concerned ; all the 
citizens of the kingdom of heaven already acknowledged Him 

' Even at that time the Apostles themselves already were superior to John 
in their baptizing and teaching, John iv. 2 ; Matth. x. 7, etc. — Harm., p. 
209, at the end. 

ST MATTHEW XI. 12. 2r.5 

as their King. — Cf. the phrase in ch. v. 19. He is never called 
less than John, nor least in the kingdom of heaven. The least 
in the kingdom of heaven, is the least of the citizens of the king- 
dom. In that THIRD point ^ in which John is greater than others, 
the least in the kingdom of heaven is less than the other citizens 
of the kingdom of heaven. John did not yet know all, which at 
present even catechumens know from the Apostles' Creed. A 
noble climax — prophet, John, apostle or Christian. It is greater, 
in this kind of comparison of the Old and New Testament, to 
know things present than things future, however brief be the in- 
terval which separates them from the present;^ but in another 
point of view, the knowledge of futurity is an especial distinction 
conferred by God. 

12. Ae, hut) Used antithetically in this sense — viz., although 
John is less than the least in the kingdom of heaven, yet even 
from the beginning of the days of John the Baptist, the king- 
dom of heaven exercises force. The kingdom of heaven came 
not in John, but immediately after John. — ^ioZitm, pushes itself 
forward as it were hy violence) Consider attentively ch. xiii. 
32, 33, and Luke xiv. 23. The lxx. frequently use /3;a^o/Aa/ 
to signify, to employ force. John calls in a mournftd, Jesus in 
a joyful strain.'' And there is a metonymy of kingdom for 
King, i.e. the Messiah. See Ghiomon on ch. iv. 17. — ^laeral, 
they who employ force) See Luke xiii. 24. There is no com- 
plaint here of hostile force, for the complaint begins at ver. 16. 
Bidt,eTai and ^lasrai are correlative.'' — a^jtaZouaiv, seize) in order 
that by seizing it with swift force, all obstacles having been 

1 Beng. seems to me to use Tertium here in the logical sense of the inter- 
mediate term, affording a point of comparison between the other two : as 
here John stands midway between the Old Test, covenant and its prophets, 
on the one hand, and the N. Test, kingdom, and its preachers and members, 
on the other. — Ed. 

* In the original, "scire prsesentia quam futura, quamvis proxime futura ;" 
lit. " to know present than future [things], although most closely future," i.e. 
" to know the things that are, than those that are to be hereafter, however 
close that hereafter may be to the present." — (I. B.) 

* In the original, "Johannes lamentatur; Jesus canit," — lit. "John 
laments ; Jesus sings." — (I. B.) 

* It is in this way that the work goes on briskly, and advances as success- 
fully as one could wish. — V. g. 

258 ST MATTHEW XI. 13-15. 

broken through, they may obtain the blessing which is offered 
them.^ See Luke vii. 29. 

13. V&p,for) Now is fulfilled that which had been predicted 
up to the time of John. — 'jpo(p^Tai — v6//^og — 'ludnov, prophets — law 
— John) Cf. Mai. i. 1, iii. 22, 23; and see Gnomon on Matt. iii. 12. 
There were prophets also before Moses ; and the law being put 
in the second place, makes a regular gradation ; for Moses was 
the greatest of the prophets of the Old Testament. The law 
also is mentioned in this passage on account of its prophetic ofSce. 
Where the Old Testament concludes at the end of Malachi, 
there the New Testament commences at the beginning of Mark. 
This phrase, therefore, even until John, holds good of Scripture. 
Its application extends also beyond Malachi, even to the 
father of John. See Luke i. 67. Uven until, without change. 
Here was the boundary of prophecy and of the Old Testament 
dispensation ; thenceforward is the fulfilling. — •jrpotprinvsuv, pro- 
phesied) This was the whole of their oiEce, to bear witness to 
future things. John was something more. See ver. 9. 

14. E/ UXire, if ye will) It is your interest that is at stake. 
The expression, ^lasral (used in the last verse), is explained : it 
is the willing only who are compelled. All is prepared : it only 
remains that you should be wilhng.-^'HX/a?, Elias) The 
absence of the article shows that the word is used antonomati- 
cally} John makes /S/atrra/ of both fathers and children. Cf. 
&i, but, in V. 16.' The prophecy of the Old Testament con- 
cludes with this Elijah at the end of Malachi. John is called 
Ehas on account of the office of forerunner, which he had in 
common with the Tishbite. — o iJ^iXkuv 'ipyisdai, who is about to 
come) The language is, as it were, that of one looking forward 
from the Old Testament into the New.* 

15. ''ara, a%oki\i, ears to hear) Thus the LXX. in Deut. xxix. 

' Just as happens in the case of wares exposed for sale in public. 


■ See Append. Antonomasia here applies the name Elias to John, not 
literally, but analogously ; as Elias was in the O. Test., so John in prepar- 
ing for the coming N. Test, kingdom. — Ed. 

' i.e. John I have likened to Elijah ; hut to whom shall I liken this gene- 
ration ? — Ed. 

' Moreover John is not called absolutely 6 fi.i'Khm Uxtaixi, hut "llXia; 6 
fdM.iiii if>y(,i(i6ai. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XI. 16-19. 257 

4; cf. Rom xi. 8. "He, that hath ears to hear, let him hear" 
was a form of commanding attention peculiar to our Lord, and 
indicates, that the other things which might be said more ex- 
pressly, are contained in those which have just been uttered. 

16. T)jv yivi&v Tairriv, this generation) the evil men of this 
best^ time. — ira.i&a.ploii,' children) Jesus compared not only the 
Jews, but also Himself and John, in different ways, to children, 
with a condescension, in His own case, most wonderful. — 
uyopaTe, market-places) A large city has often many market- 
places. The preaching of John and Jesus was public. 

17. HhXndaijjiv, we have piped) i.e., played on the pipe. See 
ver. 19. — iSprivfita/iiv, we have mourned) See ver. 18. An 
instance of Chiasmus,' 

18. *HXh, came) A striking instance o( Anaphora ;* cf. ver. 19. 
— /ji,riTs eni'im, neither eating) John did not eat with others, nor 
even in the presence of others. His mode of life agreed with 
the character of his teaching, and so did that of Christ [with 
the character of His teaching.] Therefore the one is, as it 
were, implied by the other. — /i^rs itUm, nor drinking) See Luke 
i. 15. — Xiyovei, they say) The world disparages virtue, repre- 
senting it as the extreme ; it advocates the cause of vice, 
representing it as the mean. — da,i//,6viov, a devil) in common par- 
lance, a familiar spirit. — ixn, He has) A reproach common to 
the Jews, by which they denoted one who was mad, or silly, or 
proud. They who abstain from the society of men, easily incur 
this suspicion. 

19. " Av6pciiiros fayoi, x.r.X., a gluttonous man, etc.) They dis- 
tinguish Him, as one out of many, by a distinction opposed to 
that mentioned in the preceding verse.— tuv Tsxvmti, children) 
We have shown, in the Apparatus,' that run 'ipyuv — works — 

' " Hujus optimi temporis" — so called because it was that of our Lord's 
Ministry.— (I. B.) 

2 The margin of both Editions, as also the Germ. Vers., seem to prefer 

■jraillois E. B. So BCDZ. The itaiHctptais of Dec. Text is not supported 

by the primary authorities. — Ed. 

' See Explanation of Technical Terms in Appendix.— (I. B.) 

* See Append. The same word repeated in the beginnings of sentences 
or sections, in order to mark them. — Ed. 

• In the Apparatus, p. 1 17, he says — 

" 19) riKiiuu) operibiis notat Hieronymus in Evangeliis quibusdam legi, 
VOL. 1. K 

268 ST MATTHEW XI. 19. 

was anciently a widely received reading. Ambrose, on Luke 
vii. 35, says : — " Therefore wisdom is justified of all her chil- 
dren.' It is well said '■of all^ because justice is observed 
towards all \i.e. in God's dealings with all], so that the faithful 
may be accepted, the unfaithful rejected. Very many of the 
Greeks adopt the reading, ' Wisdom is justified of all her works,' 
because it is the work of justice to observe the due measure 
towards the merit of every single individual." He, however, 
appears to mean the codices of St Matthew, not those of St 
Luke, for he is in the habit of recurring to them from time to 
time, although he is commenting on St Luke.* — aurtje^) 
Valla* thinks that this refers to ysvEffis ; but see Luke vii. 35, 
where there are more remarks on the present passage. Cf. ver. 
31. [No doubt Christ is the Wisdom meant. The children of 
Wisdom are those who suffer themselves to be gathered by 
her into her company. It is for this reason that Wisdom is 
blamed on the ground of too simple and ready indulgence 

in Comm. ad h. 1. sic vero etiam JEth. Copt. Pers. Syr. Videtur Grsecus lib- 
rarius antiquissimus pro tZd rix-vau is maxima literarum similitudine, legisse 
Tuu 'ipyuii. Quaj strictura docere nos possit, ex Greco Matthsei Evangelic 
deductum esse Evangelium Nazarenorum [an apocryphal gospel so called], 
quippe quod hoc loco sine dubio respexit Hieronymus. Eundem varietatem, 
ex Hieronymo, ut apparet, notavit Hafenrefferus in edit, su^ N. T." — (I. B.) 
' The first sentence is not quoted by Bengel, but, on referring to the 
original, I considered the meaning so much plainer with it than without it, 
thatltookthe liberty of inserting it. The passage in Ambrose stands thus : — 

" Juslificata est ergo Sapientia ab omnibus Jiliis suis. Bene ab omnibus, 
quia circa omnes justitia servatur ; ut susceptio fiat fidelium rejectio per- 
fidorum. Unde plerique Grteci sic habent : Justificata est Sapientia ab omnibtts 
operibus suis ; quod opus justitise sit, circa unius cujuscunque meritum ser- 
vare mensuram." — (I. B.) 

" Luke, vii. 35, adds "irimav. B corrected later, reads, as the MSS. 
alluded to by Ambrose, rav cpyau : so MSS. in Jerome, both Syriac and 
Memph. Versions. But Dae Vulg., Orig., Hil. and Rec. Text, read Tixnuv. 

' Gen. fem. sing, of »Mi. E. V. renders it her, sc. Wkdom's. Valla 
would render it of it, sc. of this generation. — (I. B.) 

* Laubentids Vali-a, one of the most distinguished Latin scholars of the 
fifteenth century. Born in Rome about 1406 ; became Professor of 
Eloquence, first at Pavia, and afterwards at Milan ; went to Rome in 1443, 
and became canon of St John the Lateran. Died 1457. He published, 
besides many other works, annotations on the N. T. — (\. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XI. 20-23. 289 

towards such persons, and she is therefore thus compelled at 
last to justify herself. Luke xv. 1, 2, etc. — ^V. g.] 

20. Ton tip^aro, then He began) He had not previously up- 
braided them. This upbraiding is the prelude to the Last 
Judgment. Every hearer of the New Testament is either much 
more blessed (v. 11) or much more miserable than them of old 
time. — Suva/ie/s, mighty works) See ver. 5. [Repentance and the 
knowledge of Jesus Christ are always conjoined. — V. g.] 

21. Oua;", woe) This interjection is not imprecatory, but 
enunciatory. See ch. sxiv. 17. Its opposite is blessed. This 
should be observed everywhere. 

21. 23. 'T/jbii — (To/, you — thee) Two cities in the neighbourhood 
are compared with two mentioned in the Old Testament history, 
and one more miserable than the former is compared to one 
more miserable than the latter. — -rakai, long ago) In that ancient 
time, in which it was more difficult to repent. See Acts xvii. 
30. We must not say, « What doest thou ?" Cf. Ezek. iii. 6. 
— h edxxtf), in sackcloth) understand sitting, or some such word. 

22. ' AvixroTspov, more tolerable) Because they were less im- 
penitent, and would have repented, and have already been 
punished. — xpiasug, judgment) The Judge will be the very same 
in whom they were then offended. 

23. Kampmoiifi,, Capernaum) This city had been more highly 
blessed than Chorazin and Bethsaida, but from its sin became 
more miserable. It is therefore compared with Sodom, not 
with Tyre and Sidon. — ems rou oupavoij, even unto heaven) For the 
Lord fi-om heaven had come to dwell there, and in bringing 
Himself, had brought heaven thither.' — l-^iahTifa,, exalted) In 
the sight of God, of Christ, and of the angels. — qtdov, hell) 
Which is lowest in the nature of things. — 'ifiuva,}/ av, they would 
have remained) Instead of having been destroyed. Great is the 
effect of the conditional form.' The same verb occurs in John 
•xxi. 22. 

'* For specimens of this exaltation, see John ii. 12, iv. 47 ; Matt. iv. 13- 
xiii. 53 ; John vi. 24 ; Matt. xyii. 24 Harm., p. 301. 

* For they, in that case, either would not have perpetrated the enormities 
which they did, or else would hare repented of having committed them : in 
which case they would not have been destroyed, either then or subsequently. 


!60 ST MATTHEW XI. 23, 26. 

25. 'Amxpihk, answering) Sc. to those things which He was 
considering concerning His Father's design, His own thoughts, 
and the character of His disciples.^ — Igo/ioXoyoD/ia/, / praise) 
Nothing can be predicated with praise of God, which is not so 
in fact : min, praise,^ is predication.* Jesus returned thanks to 
His Father afterwards in the same words, when the seventy- 
disciples had well performed the work which He had appointed 
them. — Xldrep, Kvpii tou oufaw\J xal rni yni, Father, Lord of 
heaven and earth) He is frequently called the Father of Jesus 
Christ, sometimes also His God ; never His Lord, but the Lord 
of heaven and earth. Let us learn, from the example of Jesus 
Christ, to apply to God those titles which are suitable to the 
subject of our prayers. The Jews also forbid to cumulate 
divine titles in prayers. The address in this passage is indeed 
most magnificent. — or; A'xiKpv-^a; — xal avtxdXu-^ag, x.r.X., be- 
cause Thou hast hid — and revealed, etc.) A double ground of 

' He uttered the words which follow with an exulting spirit. — V. g. 

^ The word used by Bengel is " ConJUeor" which occurs in the Vulgate, 
both here and in 1 Chron. xvi. 35 with the same sense. That such is his 
meaning, is clear from his employing in his German Version the phrase, 
Ich preise Dkh, which, when applied to God, signifies " / praise or mag- 
ViFY Thee." Bengel employs the word " Confiteor " in preference to any 
other, because, like the Greek i^oftoT^oyouftai, it signifies both generically, 
with an accusative, to confess, acknowledge, proclaim, etc., and specifically, with 
a dative, to laud, praise, or magnify [God]. — See Riddle and Schleusner in 
voce. — E. V. renders k^o/io'ho'yovfiai, I thanh. — (I. B.) 

' The word used by Bengel is " Confessio," which he employs with direct 
reference to his previous " Confiteor," on which see preceding footnote. 

On the meaning of '^^''P, Gesenius says: — (1.) Confession, Josh. vii. 19; 
Ezr. X. 11. (2.) Thanksgiving, Vs. xxvi. 7, xlii. 5. vri'iwhat to offer praise 
to God (for a sacrifice), Ps. 1. 14, 23, cvii. 22, cxvi. 17 (where the phrase is 
not to be taken as though proper sacrifices were spoken of). fri'iB hni, Lev. 
xxii. 29 ; o'^vhpn ni'w nar, Lev. vii. 13, 15, comp. 12, and eUipt. m'lp, a 
sacrifice of thanksgiving, Ps. Ivi. 13. (3.) A choir of givers of thanks, prais- 
ing God, Neh. xii. 31, 38, 40.— (L B.) 

* And conversely, therefore, Predication is Praise. They are the two 
sides of an eternal and immutable equation. Much to the same effect, 
Bengel says elsewhere (ch. vi. 9), "Deus est sanctus, i.e., Deus sanctifi- 
catur ergo, quando ita, ut est, agnoscitur et colitur et celebratur." Conse- 
quently, in confessing, acknowledging, and proclaiming, or in any other mode 
PBEDICATIN& the truth concerning God (and not otherwise), we praise Him. 
-(I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XI. 26, 27. 261 

praise. For u'Trixpv'^a.g, Thou hast kept concealed, cf. ver. 27 ; 
for direxaXu-4/as, Thou hast revealed, cf. again ver. 27, at the 
end. — TaiJra, these things) Concerning the Father and the Son, 
concerning the kingdom of heaven. — so(puv, the wise) i.e. those 
who arrogate to themselves the character of wisdom.' — hvhtuv, 
prudent) i.e. those who arrogate to themselves the character of 
prudence.* Cf. 1 Cor. i. 19. — AirixaXv-^/ag, Thou hast revealed) 
See ch. xvi. 17. — vn-Trkii, to infants) Such as the twelve apostles 
and seventy disciples were : See Luke x. 21 ; they were very 
young, for they bore witness for a long time afterwards. They 
were infants, as being read^ to believe and simple-minded ; see 
Matt, xviii. 3. 

26. Na/, yea) Even so. Jesus assents to the good pleasure of 
the Father. " Even so, oh Father !" is an epitome of filial con- 
fession. — -jrarfip is in this passage more significant than <!ra,Tip 
would have been." — ivdoxla ([jtirfosiU lov, welhpleasing in Thy 
sight?) The will and the intellect of God put forth His decrees. 
His good pleasure is the highest limit, beyond which we are not 
permitted to go, in examining the causes of the Divine decrees. 
Thus presently, concerning the Son, we find the expression, 
/SouXjjra;, may will, Lat. vohierit. 

27. Jlavra, all things) Here our Lord changes the direction 
of His words, and accosts His human auditors. After His re- 
surrection. He more expressly said that all things in heaven and 
in earth were delivered to Him; see ch. xxviii. 18; but in 
the present passage the same truth is implied; cf. ver. 25. 
All things are delivered unto Him ; also the authority to reveal 
them. All things are delivered unto Him ; and therefore all 
men. See John xiii. 3, xvii. 2 ; 1 Cor. xv. 25, 27. — irapidSh, 

1 Beng. attributes to the <ro?io) the " habitus noeticus;" to the vvntrol, the 
" habitus dianoeticus ;" the same difference as between iiovg and iiai/oiu, 
mind and discriminative intelligence or discernment. — Ed. 

2 The latter, a simple vocative ; the former, in form, a nominative with the 
article prefixed, in effect, an emphatic vocative of a peculiar character, similar 
to the analogous 6 0£oV. — (I. B.) 

" Thou, who art the Father" (par excellence). — Ed. 

' In the original, " Beneplacitum coram Te." It is difficult to render 
Beneplacitum in this place so as to show its intimate connection, or rather 
identity, with " Beneplacitum " a few lines below, where I have rendered it, 
as elsewhere, ffood pleasure. — (I. B.) 

2«2 ST MATTHEW XI. 28, 29. 

have been delivered) The Father reserved nothing for Himself 
which He did not give to the Son. Cf. John xiii. 3 ; Matt. 
xxviii. 18. The intimate relation of the Father and the Son 
is implied in ver. 25-27, John vi. 39, 40, and so throughout 
the Apocalypse. See my exposition of the Apocalypse, p. 65. — 
thSii; — ol&i, no one — neither) On the order of the words, cf. John 
viii. 19. — E/>^ -^rarrif, except the Father) He does not add, " and 
he to whomsoever the Father chooses to reveal Him," because He 
has said that in ver. 25, and here He is teaching us what the 
Father has delivered to Him. The Holy Spirit is not ex- 
cluded ; He is not, however, mentioned here, because His office 
was not as yet so well known to men. — ^ouXrirai, may will) shall 
choose. To whom, however, He wishes to do so, is clear from 
the following verse. 

28. AsOre, come ye) sc. immediately. — See Gnomon on ch. iv. 19. 
— tpos Me, unto Me) Since the Pharisees, and even John himself, 
cannot satisfy you. — wavTeg, all) Let not the limitation in ver. 
27 deter you. — o! xomSmne, that labour) Refer to this ^uyJv and 
Z,uyig, yoke, in ver. 29, 30. — tacpofTisiJiim, heavy laden) To this 
should be referred /idSats, learn, in ver. 29, and ipofrlov, burden, 
in ver. 30. The Hebrew K^^TO signifies a burden, i.e., doctrine, 
discipline. — x<fyii, and I) Though you have sought elsewhere in 
vain, you will find it with Me, ver. 29. — amiraugu, I will make 
you rest) This is explained in the next verse. — oti, x.t.X., because, 
etc.) " r will make you rest," and " ye shall find rest" are cor- 

29. "ApaTi, take ye) To take the yoke of Christ upon us, is to 
give oneself up wholly to His discipline. — or;, x.r.\., because, etc.) 
Hence it appears why we should willingly learn from Jesus. 
Our meekness and lowliness are consequent upon our so doing. 
— 'jrpaog I'l/ii xal Taviivhg, x.r.X., / am meek and lowly, etc.) 
Although His language is fearful in ver. 20, 24. Meekness 
produces easiness of yoke ; lowliness of heart, lightness of bur- 
den. The Pharisees were austere and proud. Condescension 
(Demissio) is a much to be admired virtue of God, which is 
described as fully as possible, although it is not named in Scrip- 
ture, by one word; whose likeness, humility, is found in the 
saints ; whose opposite, pride, in Satan and the wicked. For it 
is condescension, that that highest Majesty should have deigned 

ST MATTHEW XI. 30.-XII. 1, 2. 268 

at all to make creatures, and especially men, however contemp- 
tible, however mean, and to look on them without disdain, and 
to unite them to Itself. And the Son of God in a most con- 
spicuous manner manifested His humility in our flesh. — See 
Ps. xxxiv. 7, cxiii. 6; Lukei. 48, 52, 53, xii. 37, xxii. 27; John 
xii. 26, xiii. 14; Phil. ii. 8; Heb. xi. 16. — tJi xapdlcf, in heart) 
Lowly does not by itself express a quality of the heart, which 
meek does ; therefore in heart refers rather to lowly than to meek. 
The word xaphicj, completes the expression : see Eom. ii. 5. — 
xa/, and) xal is introduced as in x&yi), and I, in ver. 28. Thus 
the LXX. in Jer. vi. 16, xa/ ebp^gere ayneiJih raTg -^v^aig l/iSiv, and 
ye shall Jind purification^ for your souls. Rest flows from the 
heart of Christ into our souls; see ver. 29. — euf^airi avdiraveiv, ye 
shall find rest) as yet unknown to you, but sought for and 

30. Zuyo's Mou, My yoke) In one point of view. Scripture speaks 
of the cross, in another of the yoke of the godly, see ch. x. 38. — 
^jiotJj, easy) for I am meek. — eXaipphv, light) for I am lowly. 


1. 'Ev ixeltiji T^ KaipSi, at that time) The Pharisees interrupted 
Him even at that most unseasonable^ time. — ijp^avro riWuv, be- 
gan to pluck) The Pharisees interrupted Him immediately. It 
required some labour to shake out a sufiicient number of grains 
from the ears to appease their hunger. 

2. 'iboii, x.r.X., behold, etc.) They mean to say, " The Master 
ought to be accountable for what the disciples do in His very 
presence." Behold! They wish Him to issue an immediate 
prohibition. — o oJx t^tSTi, that which is not lawful) They do not 
put the matter doubtfully, and they are therefore rebuked 
severely in ver. 3, 5, 7. The proposition [may be put either 

* In E. V. it is, " And ye shall find rest unto your souls." — (I. B.) 

* " Alienissimo," i.e. most foreign to the subject. — (I. B.) 

284 ST MATTHEW XII. 3-5. 

affirmatively or negatively], " It is lawful," or " It w not lawful." 
A false reproof was more common at that time, than a true one 
is now. — iroieiv, to do) referring not to the eating, but the pluck- 
ing, — i, ectlS^drifj, on a Sabhath) The subject of the Sabbath 
occupies great part of the Evangelic history. 

3. Oiix aisymn, have ye not read) They had read the letter, 
without perceiving the spirit. Our Lord convicts them of error 
by the authority of the Old Testament. — Aavid, David) whose 
conduct, in this instance, you do not find fault with. — ore lini- 
mmv, when he was hungry) This is left, in 1 Sam. xxi. 3, to be 
understood by the reader. — /ier auroD, with him) See ibid. ver. 4. 

4. Tov oTxoii Tou 0£oD, the house of God) That which might have 
been considered as a ground of hesitation is exhibited in full 
force by this expression ; the tabernacle is meant, as the temple 
was buUt somewhat later. — rtug &prt>us, the loaves) There is much 
of a ceremonial character in the Sabbath : otherwise no argu- 
ment could have been derived firom the shew-bread. — rra 'rpo^'i- 
ffEws, of the laying before,^ Lat. propositionis) ^ Hebrew D^3B.* — 
f/ /iii, except) i.e., for any except. 

5. "h, or? Lat. anf) — h rSi vo/iu),^ in the Law) He proceeds step 
by step to a more stringent argument, from the example of the 
Prince, which the priest had approved, to the Law itself ; from 
the prophets, even the earlier, parts of whom were read, to the 
Law, all of which was read ; and from the sacred food to the 
sacred day, concerning which the dispute arose. — o/' hpiTs, the 
priests) who ought especially to maintain the law, yet in this 
matter are especially excepted. Thus also, the priests of Christ 
are less bound to the Sabbath than the remaining multitude. 
— Iv rs hpa, in the temple) Whilst they are employed in sacred 
rites. — Bi^riXouei, profane) (verb) ; the adjective j3£/3»iXov, profarie, 

* This is expressed in English by the descriptive syllable Shew : so that, 
instead of saying with the Greeks and Latins — Thehread of-the-lat/ing-hefore, 
we say the Skew-Bread. Both idioms represent the same idea, viz., the 
bread that was laid before, or exhibited to, God (I. B.) 

' B'jB nhV, shew-bread, lit. bread of faces. Patrick on Exod. xxy. 30, in 
voc. shew-bread, says, "In the Hebrew, bread of the face or presence, because 
it was set before the Ark of the Covenant, where God was present. — (I. B.) 

' At that very time of year Leviticus was being read on the Sabbaths, 
the book in which there occur so many precepts as to sacrifices, which were 
required to be performed eyen on the Sabbath ^V. g. 

ST MATTHEW Xll. 6-10, 265 

18 opposed to Syiov, sacrel, nor does it always imply impurity or 
guilt. — See Lev. x. 10, and 1 Sam.xxi. 4. 

6. Asyw, I say) This form of speech expresses great autho- 
rity. — To\j ifpov, the temple) In which the priests minister. The 
Temple gives way to Christ, the Sabbath (ver. 5) to the 
Temple ; therefore the Sabbath (ver. 8) to Christ. — sW/v SiSi, 
there is here) He does not say, " I am greater." Jesus was lowly 
in heart. See ver. 41, 42, ch. xi. 4, 5. Thus too in Luke iv. 
21, He says, This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears ; 
and again, ch. xix. 9, This day is salvation come to this house. 
See also Matt. xiii. 17 ; John iv. 10, ix. 37. 

7. 'EyvdxiiTi, ye would have known) The pluperfect tense. — 
i\tov, mercy) See ch. ix. 13. The disciples accorded mercy to 
themselves,' and the Pharisees had violated it by their rash 
judgment. — dvalav, sacrifice) More sacred than the Sabbath. See 
ver. 5. — oJx av xaTi&ixdgare, ye would not have condemned) Rashly, 
quickly, cruelly.' By this argument an answer would have 
been given, if any one had doubted whether it were lawful to 
pluck the ears before the Passover. 

8. Kipios, Lord) The innocence and liberty of the disciples 
is guaranteed by the majesty of Christ, and the authority' of 
the Son of Man manifests itself in mercy. — ea^^nu, of the 
Sabbath) The Lord of the Temple, and of all things else, is 
undoubtedly the Lord of the Sabbath ; nor has He merely that 
right which David had.* 

10. "AvSpum; nv, x.t.X., there was a man, etc.) He had either 
come thither of his own accord, that he might be healed, or else 
he had been brought by others with an insidious design. — iva, 
xarriyop^gciisiv avrov, that they might accuse Him) As if He had 

' Imitating David in this respect. — V. g. 

' By indulgence in condemning thoughts, one often falls into sin himself 
unawares, whilst he is arraigning another as guilty of sin. — ^V. g. 

• "Dominatio" — domination, lordship. There is a play on the words 
dominus (lord) and dominatio, which cannot be preserved in English. It 
might be expressed by sovereign and sovereignty. — (I. B.) 

* Ver. 9. K«i) This was eight days after those things which have been just 
mentioned (V. g.), and eight days before the Passover. In this brief interval 
very many events happened of the greatest moment. The people were now 
getting ready for the feast. Hence a large (abundant) opportunity of doing 
good presented itself to the Saviour. — Harm., p. 309. 

266 ST MATTHEW XII, 11-18. 

broken the Sabbath, which was then greatly respected even by 
courts of law. See ver. 14. 

11. TlpoBaTov h, one sheep) The loss of which was not great. — 
cuxi xpciTfissi, will he not take hold of) A verb also suited to the 
healing of the hand. In our Saviour's time this was permitted, 
since then it has been forbidden by the Jews. 

12. To/s gd^^asi, on the Sabbaths) For a good deed is not to be 
procrastinated. — xaXSs to/e/v, to do well) sc. to either a man or a 
sheep, nay, to a man much more than to a sheep.' We must 
not on the Sabbath-day perform daily wonted tasks for hire, 
although we may do those things which time and place suggest 
to us for the good of our neighbom: and all other living creatures, 
and especially for the honour of God." 

15. ' Anxupnaiv, He departed')- This is especially referred to in 
ver. 19. Our Lord avoided noise. 

16. "Ira firi, that they should not) Such was the authority of 
Jesus, even commanding silence to the multitude.' 

18. 'iSou IlaTg Mou, ov f]psTiea- i ayairriro? Mou, ti{ 'iv tudoxrigev ri 
•^iiX'l Mow ifidta tI meZ/id Mou s-r Aurov, xal xplsiv roTg shidiv uiruy- 
yeXtr ovx hpieii ohSt xpavydeei, oiSs axoieii rig sv raTg •jrXaTiiaig rrn 
<p<iiv^v AiiTou' xdXa/iov evvTeTpiiii/,ivov ou xarid^ii, xai 'Khov Tuf6/j,ivov «u 
e^sgir i'ug &v ex/3aXj] f/'s vTxog njv xptsiv. xal h rjS ov6/ia,ri Aurou Uvr. 
iXmouei, — Behold My Servant, whom I have chosen ; My Beloved, in 
whom My soul is well pleased ; I will put My Spirit upon Him, 

1 Some one may think that there was danger in delay as regards the 
sheep, but that a man affected with a bodily infirmity for such a length of 
time, might easily be put off for once from one day to another day. But the 
answer is, it was the fitting time that the relief should be given, when the 
patient met the physician. A larger crowd of men was assembled together 
on the Sabbath, who were thus enabled to be spectators of the miracle, and 
to be profited (won over) by it. — V. g. 

^ Ver. 14. oi 'hi (totpiseiioi) It was not with the same laborious exertion as 
is needed in order to pluck ears of corn, and to draw out a sheep from a pit, 
that Jesus had effected the cure, but by mere words spoken. It was a pure 
undiluted benefit conferred without difficulty (pains) : and yet blind men, 
notwithstanding, were regarding His act as if the Sabbath were profaned by 
it.— V. g. 

* Ver. 17. JVaj ir'Kiipairi) The calm (placid) and most salutary mode of 
action, which Jesus employed, is intimated by these words. — Vers. Oerm. 
How widely does this in truth differ from the ways and modes of action of 
His adversaries ! — Harm., p. 310. 


and He thall announce judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not 
strive nor cry; neither shall any man hear His voice in the streets. 
A bruised reed shall He not break, and smoking flax shall He not 
quench, till He send forth judgment unto victory. And in His 
name shall the Gentiles trust. The LXX. thus render Is. xlii. 
1—4, — 'laxii^ 'jrajs Mou, avriX^-^onai aZrou' 'itpafiX o exXiXTot Mou, 
■rptgids^aTo aurji/ rj -^u^^^v Mou, iduxa rh meu/idi Mou Ir aurh, xplan toTq 
thseiv e^olair ou xpd^iTai, oiS'e aviiau, ouS^ axoued^iirai 'i^u ii fcavrj 
aiiroD* xdXa/jjOv duvnSXae/Jiiiiov ou euvrpi-^v, xa,l Xlvov xa'vvi^o/jiivov ou 
dS'sssi, aXkoi elf akfikiav eloign xplem, x.t.X} Jacob is My servant ; 
I will defend him. Israel is my chosen ; My soul has accepted 
him : I have given my Spirit upon him ; he shall bear forth judg- 
ment to the Gentiles. He shall wi< cry, nor lift up [his voice] ; 
nor shall his voice be heard without. A bruised reed shall he not 
crush, and smoking flax shall he not quench ; but he shall bear 
forth judgment unto truth. — o ■ra.ig fiou, my servants the Hebrew 
'13Vj^ in Is. xlii. 1. And the LXX. frequently express that He- 
brew word' by ^ra?";,* e.g. where Moses, or even the Messiah, is 
spoken of. Cf. Acts iii, 13, 26, iv. 27, 30. For it is not again 
repeated in the New Testament concerning the Messiah, either 
because neither the Greek -rraTs, or any other word, corresponds 
sufficiently to that Hebrew word, which the apostles also used 
in the beginning, or else because neither of them is suitable to 
our Lord's state of glorification. The words, servant and beloved, 

' In E. V. it stands thus — " Behold my servant, whom I uphold ; mine 
elect, in whom my soul delighteth : I have put my Spirit upon him ; he shall 
bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor 
cause his voice to be heard in the street. A bruised reed shall he not break, 
and the smoking flax shall he not quench : he shall bring forth judgment 
unto truth."~(I. B.) 

2 Sc. i3» servant, with the pronominal suffix \ my. — (I. B.) 

' 1??, i.e. a servant : the minister or ambassador sent by God for accom- 
plishing some service : also a familiar servant chosen and beloved of God on 
account of his piety and approved fidelity ; also a term especially applied to 
the Messiah. See Gesenius, etc. — (I. B.) 

* 5r«/f. According to Schleusner, (1) a child in age ; (2) a child iu relation 
to its parents ; (3) one pre-eminently beloved ; (4) a servant ; (5) the 
minister of a king, etc. According to Liddel and Scott, (1) a child in rela- 
tion to its parents ; (2) a child in age ; (3) a servant. The passages, how- 
ever, in these writers are too long for insertion, and cannot be adequately 
abridged.— fl. B.) 

268 ST MATTHE-Vf XII. 19, 20. 

are parallel ; and also, / Jiave chosen, and / am well pleased. — 
fifiriBa, I have chosen — aipirlZfiM = cc'ipirhv opl^iiv, to set apart as 
chosen. — ils ov, towards whom) The preposition ils denotes the 
perpetual tendency of the Father's mind towards His Beloved 
[Son]. See 2 Pet. i. 17. — xplan, judgment) salutary to men. 
See ver. 20, and John xvi. 11. — xpigis, judgment, is the separa^ 
tion of sin and righteousness. — roTs 'ihisiv, to the Gentiles) when 
He shall have departed from the Jews. — a-nayyiKii, He shall 
announce) He both performed and announced it. The future 
tense is employed here ; but the past afterwards by St Paul, 
Eph. ii. 17 [with reference to the same matter]. 

19. a>wv)5v auroS, His voice) sc. from the house. This example 
of the lowHness and meekness of Jesus aptly precedes the mani- 
festation of His severity in ver. 34 ; thus also He wept when 
about to enter Jerusalem, and then expelled them that bought 
and sold from the temple. 

20. KaXa/iov, a reed) In Hebrew rup.* Jerome ad. Alga 
siam,* qusest. 2, interprets the bruised reed of Israel ; and the 
smoking flax, of the people congregated from the Gentiles, who, 
the fire of the natural law being extinguished, were enveloped in 
the errors of a most bitter smoke, which is hurtful to the eyes, and 
of a thick darkness. Whom He not only forbore to extinguish 
and reduce to ashes, but also, on the contrary, from the spark, 
which was small and all but dying, aroused great flames, so that 
the whole world should bum with that fire of our Lord and Sa- 
viour which He came to send upon earth, and desires to kindle 
in the hearts of all. — ov xand^ei, ov ejSiasi, shall He not break, 
shall He not quench) An instance of Litotes for " He shall 
especially cherish." Cf. ver. 7, ch. xi. 28 ; Isa. xlii. 3, Ixi. 1-3. 
— tx^akji, send forth, extend) In the Hebrew K^W and d''K". 

' ™p, a reed — evidently the original of the word cane, which has found its 
way, 1 believe, into every European language. Gr. xavva, tcann or x, 
Lat. Canna; Fr. Cane; Span. Cana ; Port. Cana or Canna. Cf. also the 
German Kaneie. — (I. B.) 

^ An epistle written by St Jerome to an Eastern lady of the name of 
Algasia, who had propounded twelve questions to him. He begins by a 
quaint and courteous proemium, in which he fancifully compares her to the 
Queen of Sheba, and then proceeds to answer her questions in order 
-{I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XII. 20. 2(59 

111 the S. V. both verbs^ are commonly rendered by Ix^dxXsiv, 
to extend, — tl; viicoi, unto victory) The LXX. frequently render 
nvj? (for ever) by s/'s vTnos, which is the force of the phrase in 
this passage ; i.e. so that nothing may resist them for ever. 

20, 21. Kplsir xat Tifi, x.T.X.) After xplgiv the Lxx. have avo- 
Xd/jL-^si xal ouipauaS^iirai 'iug av in i-xi r^s yni xpigiv, xat hirl rtS hvo/iaTi 
aiiTou ihri sXmoudiv, He shall shine forth, and He shall not he 
broken, until He establish judgment on the earth : and in His name 
shall the Gentiles trust. And on this verse of Isaiah (viz. xlii. 4) 
Jerome thus comments: "But that which follows, 'He shall 
shine, and shall not be consumed, until He establish judgment on 
the earth,' Matthew the evangelist has not inserted. Or else 
the words between 'judgment and 'judgment' have been lost by 
the error of a transcriber, for which we have given this interpre- 
tation, ' He shall not be sad nor turbulent, but shall always pre- 
serve an eqvubility of aspect' Aquila and Theodotion have in- 
terpreted it, He shall not darken, and He shall not flee, until He 
establish judgment on the earth. And the meaning is. He shall 
repel none by the sadness of His aspect, nor be hasty to punish, 
since He has reserved the reality of judgment (veritatem judicii) 
/or the last time." The intervening passage in the Hebrew runs 
thus : DDtJiD pX3 W^ IV pT" sh nnai vh, rendered in the E.V. 
He shall not fail nor be discouraged (margin, &e broken). Jan- 
sen" rejects the suspicion of Jerome of the chasm admitted by 
the transcriber, but Drusius^ adopts it, not undeservedly. More- 

1 Sc. sfs'n the Hiphil of ss^, and Bib. Bengel does not mean to say that 
the Lxi. render them so in this passage (which is not the case with either of 
them), but that they do so elsewhere ; and, consequently, that St Matthew is 
justified in doing so here. — (I. B.) 

2 Cornelius Jaksenius (major), Bishop of Ghent, must not be con- 
founded with Ms celebrated namesake, the Bishop of Ypres. He was born 
at Hulst, and became Professor of Divinity at Louvain. He attended the 
Council of Trent; became Bishop of Ghent in 1568; and died 1576. He 
published, besides other works " Commentarii in swam concordiam ac totam 
historiam miangelkam." Folio, Louvain, 1672. — (I. B.) 

' John Van den Driesschb, commonly known as Johannes Drusius, was 
born at Oudenard, in Flanders, in 1550. He was educated at Ghent and Lou- 
vain, after which he studied Hebrew at Oxford, where he became Professor 
of Oriental Languages in 1572. In 1676 he returned to Louvain, and studied 
Law. He became Professor of Oriental Languages at Leyden in 1577, and 
of Hebrew at Praneker in 1685, where he died in 1616. His critical labours 

270 ST MATTHEW XII. 21-24. 

over, since the Evangelist, in the whole of this passage, differs 
widely from the words of the Lxx., you will not easily discover 
by what Greek words the Hebrew hemistich of Isaiah has been 
expressed in St Matthew. The sentence itself, indeed, most 
becomingly expresses the placid and moderate action of the 
Messiah. See Apparatus, p. 474^ [2d Edition, p. 118]. 

21. Ka;, x.r.X., and, etc.) Jerome ad. Algasium, in the passage 
cited above, refers to tliese words those of Isaiah. He shall 
shine, and shall not be broken, until He establish judgment on the 
earth : so that, says he, the light of His preaching shall at length 
shine forth in the world, and [He] be consumed and overcome by 
the devices of no one, until He establish judgment on the earth, 
and that be fulfilled which was written, Thy will be done, as in 
heaven so on earth. — hil>it,a,Ti, name) In the Hebrew the word is 
min, law. The whole Gospel is a discourse on the name of 

22. AaifiLovi^fi/iivo;, one possessed with a devil) extremely miser- 
able. — za/ 'koKitv xal ^'kivtiv, both spake and saw) The order of 
the miracle appears to be thus expressed, 

24. ' AxovsavTis, when they heard) sc. what the people said.-^ 
tlrog, this) man. A contemptuous mode of expression.^ [E.V. 

are highly esteemed, and he was honoured by the approval of the great 
Scaliger.— (I. B.) 

The margin of the larger Ed. holds the proposed insertion of the words 
(Jerome's) doubtful. The margin of the 2d Ed. and the Germ. Vers, alto- 
gether omit them. — E. B. 

' In the Apparatus he says, " Ob recurrens judicii verbum [i.e. x,piaiv], 
colon Jesajse hoc loco per errorem excidisse putat Hieronymua, dissentiente 
Jansenio, assentiente Drusio ; et in Evang. Hebr. [the Gospel according to 
the Hebrews : an Apocryphal production so called] plena prophetse periocha 
reponitur : quanquam hoc colo Eusebius caret. Certe hsec sententia magno- 
pere congruit cum sensu Matthcei, sive ipse earn repetiit, sive ex Jesaja re- 
petendam innuit : nee vero sine ea videtur repetiturus fuisse ulterius illud. 
Et in ejus nomine gentes sperabunt." Bengel has, however, omitted the 
clause in his own German Version. — (I. B.) 

Grotius rightly opposes the insertion of the words. What Isaiah, xlii. 3, 
repeated twice, viz. " bring forth judgment unto truth," ver. 4, " set judg- 
ment on the earth ;" Matthew omitting the poetic pleonasm, condenses into 
one, and takes the ' until' from ver. 4, and " bring forth judgment to victory" 
from ver. 3. He also expresses the sense of the last clause of verse 3 (" bring 
forth judgment unto truth") more fully. — ^Ed. 

' Of what great moment a very few words may be V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XII. 26-27. 271 

This fellow], — £/' ii>n, except) A vehement affirmation. — h ra 
BiiX^ifiovX apyovTi ruv 'dai/iovim,'by Beelzebub the prince of the 
devils) They call Satan thus. In the Old Testament this was 
the name of an idol. Of. 1 Cor. x. 20. 

25. 'EvSvfirieii;, thoughts) most bitter ones; cf. ver. 34, 35. — 
— ^aeiXila, hingdom) First the kingdom of Satan is treated of, 
then his house, and, in ver 26, Satan himself; whose kingdom 
contains wicked men,whose-house, devils. — oD eraSriteTai, shall not 
be established, shall not be made to stand) sc. by its master or 
lord. Ammonius' says : eraOrivai /iU len rh 6p' iripou' eTijvai ds, rh 
xar iliav pu/i>iv, xal Tpoaipseii/, i.e. dradijiiai is to Stand by means of 
another, but oT^va/ is to stand by its own strength and will. 

26. E/ 6 Saravas rhv Saravav Jx/SaXXt;, if Satan cast out Satan) 
Satan or the devil is one. I, says our Lord, cast out Satan. 
In the kingdom of darkness there is none greater than Satan. 
If therefore your words are true, it must be Satan who casts out 
Satan. But this is clearly absurd : one kingdom, one city, one 
house, is not divided against itself ; neither is one spirit divided 
against himself. The noun is used for the reciprocal pronoun 
(InuTov) as in Exod. xvi. 7 ; Lev. xiv. 15, 26 ; 1 Kings viii. 1, x. 
13, xii. 21 ; 2 Kings xvii. 31. This does not however prevent 
'the supposition, that the accusative rJn ^aravav, Satan, is put by 
synecdoche for his comrades. Thus, for example, you might 
say, " The Gaul destroyed himself," if at any time one Gallic 
cohort should put another to the sword. Thus Satan would 
cast himself out, i.e., Satan, the prince, who is one, would cast 
out those whom he knew to be his own, his comrades. — ^asiXelct, 
kingdom) which is however very stable. Satan is said to have 
a kingdom, and yet he is never called a king, for he is an usurper. 

27. 28. e; — £/' Se, if— but if) A dilemma. 

27. O/ v'wl l/iuv, your sons) whom you cannot but accuse, says 
Jesus, if you calumniate Me. See also Mark ix. 38, and cf. 
Acts xix. 13. — v/iuv, your) whom you do not harass in this 

' Not the author of the Ammonian Sections, but Ammonius, the son of 
Hermias, a Peripatetic philosopher, disciple of Proclus, who flourished in the 
sixth century. His work, De differentia dictionum, is to be found in a Greek 
dictionary, published in folio at Venice in 1497 ; and it is also printed in a 
collection of ancient Grammarians which appeared in quarto at Leyden in 
1789.— (I. B.) 

873 ST MATTHEW XII. 28-31. 

manner, since they are of your own race and discipline. — ex^a\- 
Xovai, cast out^) See ch. vii. 22, and Mark ix. 38. — avrol, they) 

28. E/, x.r.x. if, etc.) The first portion of the dilemma having 
been dismissed, this particle has the force of since. — ix^aKXca, I 
cast out) Jesus in every way destroyed the kingdom of Satan. — 
apa, therefore) The expulsion of Satan, together with his belong- 
ings, is the mark and token of the kingdom of God ; for this 
was reserved for the Messiah. — s^Saeiv, has prevented)^ This 
word is used here in its strict and proper sense, and intimates 
something important ; cf. irpSinv, first, ver. 29. — ^ ^affiXila 
rou Qsov, the kingdom of God) in contradistinction to that of 
Satan, mentioned in ver. 26. 

29. ^, or else?) =Jjaim, an? A disjunctive interrogation. — 
clxlav, house) The world was the house of Satan. — nu Ig^upou, 
of the strong) sc. of any one who is strong ; cf. Heb. ii. 14. — 
■rrpSiTov, first) Jesus bound Satan : then took his spoils. — Sijffjj, 
shall have bound) by superior strength. — hapwiMin, shall spoil) 
See Gnomon on Mark iii. 27. 

30. 'O ij>n &v, X.T.X., he that is not, etc.) The latter part of the 
dilemma contained in ver. 27, 28, is confirmed by ver. 29 ; the 
former by ver. 30, with this meaning, your sons are not against 
Me, nor do they scatter abroad ; therefore they are with Me, and 
gather with Me. There is no neutrahty in the kingdom of 
God ; that activity which is natural to man is exercised either 
in good or in evil, especially in the case of those who hear the 
word of God. The work and cause of Christ is, however, 
simple and pure ; and though it has so many enemies and ad- 
versaries, it overpowers them all, nor does it enter into collusion 
with them : see Luke xii. 51. This verse forms a Divine 
axiom. — awayoDi, that gathereth) The work of Christ and of 
Christians is to gather ; see ch. xxiii. 37, John xi. 52. This 
word corresponds with the Hebrew nijnp,' one that gathereth, or 
a preacher. 

' In My name. — V. g. 

' Prmvenit. Wesley, who avowedly copied from Bengel, explains the pas- 
sage, " The Kingdom of Ood is come upon you — unawares, before you ex- 
pected: so the word implies." Bengel himself renders it, "So ist je daa 
Reich Gottes bereits liber euch kommen." — (I. B.) 

' '^v"P' Koheleth is the appellation by which Solomon is designated in the 

ST MATTHEW XII. 31, 32. 273 

31. B\ot.(i(pri[i,!a, blasphemy) The most atrocious kind of sin. 
He who insults the majesty of an earthly king by injurious 
language, is much more severely punished than he who steals 
many thousands of gold pieces. — afdnoirai, shall he forgiven) so 
that the punishment may be remitted to the penitent. — n roO 
Xlvsd/iarog ^Xaa<pri/iia,, the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost) Sin 
against the Holy Spirit is one thing, blasphemy against the 
Holy Spirit is another. The word d/Aapria, sin, is not repeated 
here. The sinner injures himself by sin ; the blasphemer affects 
many others with irreparable harm. And the Pharisees blas- 
phemed the Holy Spirit, not in a mere ordinary holy man, but 
in the Messiah Himself. 

32.' Tou vkij roD ' AiiSptimu, the Son of Man) This expression is 
used in accordance with our Lord's condition as it appeared to 
men, inasmuch as He was then conversing with them oh an 
equal footing, see Phil. ii. 7, as He is described in ch, xi. 19 ; 
cf. also Gnomon on ch. xvi. 13. It is not therefore easy, in these 
times, to say anything against the Son of Man : it is more easy 
to commit blasphemy against the Holy Spirit.' — ours — oSn, x.r.x., 

book which bears this name, viz. Ecclesiastes. On the signification and de- 
rivation, see Gesenius in voc. — (I. B.) 

1 KaJ Of idi/, and whosoever) The words immtdiately preceding are hereby 
further explained and illustrated. — ^V. g. 

^ Therefore their words were directed against the Son of man, when they 
spake insultingly concerning Him on account of His connection with Naza- 
reth, on account of His lowly bearing and conversation, etc. ; but it was 
against the Holy Spirit that those words of theirs were directed, whereby 
they brought allegations against His miracles, which were performed by the 
instrumentality of the Holy Spirit, and ascribed them to the powers of dark- 
ness. It was at that time especially, when Christ was sojourning in the 
midst of them, that men were able to incur the guilt of both kinds of sinful 
speeches. But what is the present state of those who, in our time, bring 
criminations against the good operations of the Holy Spirit in His instru- 
ments ? Christians, no doubt, for their part have the Spirit, and besides His 
presence, are not without their own blemishes. If, then, any one brings 
charges against some Christian, perhaps he in a great degree sees only the 
blemishes of that Christian, and so in a less degree observes the good that 
is in him ; and, therefore, he does not blaspheme against the Spirit in others, 
however grievously he sins in other respects. Christ Jesus, being endued 
with the Spirit beyond all measure, had no foreign element at all intermixed ; 
therefore the blasphemies with which He was assailed, were much more 
enormous sins. — V. g. 

VOL. I. S 

274 ST MATTHEW XII. 33-36. 

neither — neither, etc.) i.e., he shall in both drain to the dregs the 
most sure and most grievous punishment. See Chrysostom on 
this passage. 

33. Kai, and) Understand again voifjeare, make ; resolving the 
imperative into the future. — xaXiv, good) The Jews wished to 
be a good tree with bad fruit, though they plainly knew it to 
be contrary to the truth. 

34. T^s y,a,p8!ag, rJ ero/ia, of the heart, the mouth) See ch. 
XV. 18 ; Kom. x. 9 ; 2 Cor. iv. 13. 

35. Qrigavpou, treasure) There is truly treasure and hidden 
abundance in every man.^ — ra ayaSA — nvripot., the good things, 
evil things) The article has frequently a relative value : I have 
therefore sometimes thought that it was on that account added 
to aya,6a, good things, as being already mentioned in ver. 34, 
and not to iroiinpa, which does not there occur. But many have 
either written or omitted the article too promiscuously.^ The 
ancient Cambridge MS. has ayaiii. without an article.* 

36. 'Frifia., word) A nominative absolute, as in Luke xxi. 6 ; 
John xvii. 2; Acts vii. 40; Kev. iii. 12, 21, and in the S. V. 
of Ps. xvii. (xviii.) 31. — apyhv, idle) not only evil. Goodness of 

^ This word treasure, which plainly implies abundance, proves that also 
in the preceding ver. the word ■jr'kiipafiec is not to be too readily understood 
as fulness (Germ. Ueberfluss) : although in its own proper place it may be 
understood, by a Hebraism, simply as a thing contained, sVm- Luther himself 
does not translate it Was im Herzen ist, what is in the heart, but, Wess das 
Herz VOLL ist, that with which the heart is pull. Coriip. Luke vi. 45, where 
^mavpo; is explained by ^eplairivfiec. SeeErnesti Neueste Theol. Bibl. T. i., 
p. 809.— E. B. 

' See f. n. on Maestricht's twenty-second Canon, quoted in Section ix. of 
the Author's Preface. — (I. B.) 

* In his App. Grit, in loc. Bengel writes — 

" Vo6 ante irounpa) Er. Bos. a.ji.y., etc., T(i Comp. Aug. 2. Byz. Far. 6, 
vel plures ; Ohtys. Artipulus in priore colo lectus, in altero non lectus, medium: 
et articulus ssepe vim relativam habet : ideo ad rd dyaSa, versu 34 laudata, 
non ad 'uravnpot, ibidem non memorata, adhiberi, aliquando mihi visus est, 
unde alii bis, alii ne semel quidem, alii posteriore tantum loco scribendum 
putarint. Sed nimis promiscue, etc.," as in Gnomon. — CI- B.) 

In the margin of Ed. 2, and in Vers. Germ., the article roe is omitted. — 
E. B. 

BD omits Toc before ayaia. Perhaps the Toi of Rec. Text crept in from 
the to' dyaiov of Luke vi. 35, through the Harmonies. LA read also lei 
ronripd. But the primary authorities oppose this reading. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW XII. 37-40. ?75 

treasure does not produce even anything idle.^ — avoiiieovei 
\6yov, they shall render account) i.e., they shall pay the penalty 
of. A metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent. 

37. "'Ex, x.r.x., by, etc.) Words exhibit the righteousness or 
unrighteousness, which is in the heart. 

38. ' AvenpiSiisav, x.t.\., answered, etc.) As though they would 
not otherwise believe the words which they had just heard. — 
6iXo/ii\i, we wish) Why do we wish ? Because it so pleases us. 
They thus deny the signs which our Lord had already per- 
formed. — &■![}) (Sou, from Thee) i.e. from Thee Thyself, as in ch. 
XVI. 1 — £x roD oupavou, from heaven. 

39. Ttve&, a generation) A race of the same age and disposi- 
tion. — (i,oi-)(aXlg, adulterous) i.e. strictly so speaking : see ch. v. 
32 ; and also, by synecdoche, very guilty ; see James iv. 4. — 
eri/ji,iwv, a sign) and one too of a certain special kind. This word 
is thrice repeated here with great emphasis ; cf. 2 Cor. xi. 12, 
where the meaning is. They wish for an occasion, and no occa- 
sion is given them; which resembles what is said here. They 
seek for a sign, and no sign shall be given them. — l'7ril!^riTiT, seeheth 
in addition) i.e. beyond those which it has already seen, it 
requires further signs, as if it had seen none yet. — rh eri/Lim 
Ima,, the sign of JonaK) that is such a one as was given in 

40. 'lumg, Jonas) Jonas did not then die, but yet it was as 
much believed that he would not return from the fish, as it was 
that Jesus would not return from the heart of the earth ; yet 
both of them did return. — h rjj xoiXioj, toZ xfinvi, in the belly of 
the whale) We ought not to doubt that Jonah was in the belly 
of the whale, on account of the narrow throat of some animals 

' I can hardly think that it can be proved by the Arabic idiom, that this 
precept of our Lord ought to be restricted to lies ; for the words xlya 5e 
vftii/ not obscurely intimate that the language of Christ moves in a descend- 
ing climax, and that from evil words, mentioned in ver. 35, He goes down 
also to idle words. Compare the similar Epitasis (successive increase in the 
force by the descending climax) in aiaxporns, fiupohoyla, surpaTiT^ict, Eph. 
V. 4. Let us weigh well the caution which is found in Matt, v, 19, and 
which can never be too much recommended to all Critics, Teachers, and 
Sacred Orators, when about to enter on the investigation of the force of ex- 
pressions and phrases, espeaally in morals. — E. B. 

' 'E» hfiipiif Miami, in the day of judgment) Oh ! what a great day ! — V- g- 

27fi ST MATTHEW XII. 40. 

of that kind. For there are various sorts of whales, and in 
these days, the bodies of men are found in their stomachs ; and 
even if such were not the case, we must suppose that fish espe- 
cially made for the occasion ; see Jon. ii. 1. — 'iffrai, shall be) A 
sign for the future, as in John ii. 19, vi. 62, 39. — y^(, of the 
earth) From thence shall they have a sign, and not one from 
heaven before that, although they sought it thence ; cf. Luke 
xi. 16. No signs, except such as were exhibited from the earth, 
and performed for the good of men, were suitable to the Mes- 
siah's state of humiliation. They did not know that the sign of 
that time was suitable to that time; see ch. xvi. 3. After- 
wards signs were shown, and shall be shown from heaven : see 
Acts ii. 19 ; Matt. xxiv. 30. — TfiTs rtiiipag xal rpiTg vvxra;, three 
days and three nights) No one doubts that Jesus was in the 
heart of the earth three days. — He remained there however only 
two nights, as far as night signifies the darkness interposed be- 
tween day and day (cf. Mark xiv. 30) ; and yet the calculation 
of three days, and the same number of nights, holds good if you 
do not interpret it with astronomical exactness, but resolve it 
by synecdoche. For three days and three nights are the peri- 
phrasis of a single idea, and have the force of a single word and 
term, if such existed, by which the remaining of Jesus in the 
sepulchre is expressed, as if you should say a-space-of-three-days- 
and-nights (triduinoctium), or three-nights-and-days (tria noctidua). 
Three days might have been simply expressed, but this is the 
idiom of the sacred style, that in indicating continuous time the 
intervening nights are added ; see ch. iv. 2 ; Gen. vii. 4 ; 1 
Sam. XXX. 12, 13 ; Job ii. 13. And then it sounds better to say' 
three days and three nights, than three days and two nights, al- 
though the Lord was buried on the actual day of the prepara- 
tion, not on the night preceding and joined to it, and the space 
of twenty-four hours is regarded simply as a natural day with- 
out the change of darkness and light ; and in fact the first night- 
and-day, used synecdochically,^ was from about the tenth hour 
of the Friday up to the night exclusively;' the second and 

' In the original, "concinnivis dicitur," i.e. it sounds more sysfcmah'c, it 
sounds more uniform, to say. — (I. B.) 

' See Appendix on the figure Synecdoche (I. B.) 

• The night not being included.^Eo, 

ST MATTHEW XII. 40. 277 

fullest, from the beginning of that night up to the end of the 
Sabbath and beginning of the following night ; the third, strictly 
speaking, from the beginning of the following night up to the 
resurrection of the Lord, and the rising of the sun on Sunday 
morning. Two nights, therefore, were certainly joined with two 
days ; nor does one night taken from one day, i.e. the first, affect 
the truth of the language, which denominates the thing in ques- 
tion from its superior part (locutionis a potior!^ rem denominan- 
tis). In fine, there were not two nights and days, nor four; 
therefore there were three. The Hebrew mode of expression is 
agreeable to this ; concerning which, see Lightfoot and Wolfe 
on this passage, and Michaelis on Josh. ii. 16. Although what 
I have here said may satisfy a reader who is not unreasonable, 
I would also further observe, that the synecdoche does not belong 
so much to the three-day s-andr-three-nights as to the actual re- 
maining in the heart of the earth. Scripture indeed frequently 
defines a certain time, and expresses not the whole matter 
which commensurately and exactly occupied that time, but a 
part of the matter longer in duration than the other parts ; as, 
for example, the fom" hundred and thirty years of the sojourning 
in Egypt, Ex. xii. 40 ; and thus passim the whole book of 
Judges. In this passage, therefore, the remaining in the heart 
of the earth, i.e. in the sepulchre, is expressed, but at the same 
time the whole period of the Passion is implied, certainly from 
the agony in Gethsemane, when Jesus feU on the earth which 
He was the next day to enter, and from the capture by which 
the Jews commenced their undertaking to destroy that Temple 
(as Erasmus thinks, Annot. F. 134). Nay, the glorious beginning 
of the three days on Thursday is clearly intimated, in John xiii. 
31 [comp. Harmon. Evang. p. 310, 366], as dating from the 
time when the Jews bargained for the Saviour, who was to be 
committed to the earth. The remaining in the earth, taken in 
a wider signification, includes all these things ; see Ps. Ixxi. 20. 

1 " A potiori" implies tliat the whole twenty-foiur-hour-day (the first of 
the three in question) is denominated, not only from a part, but also from 
the superior part, viz. the part which had the daylight, and which is regarded 
as superior to the part during which darkness prevailed, viz. the night pre- 
ceding Friday, and attached to it, according to the Jewish mode of counting. 

978 ST MATTHEW XII. 41. 

For the Son of Man was a sign to that generation, not only m 
His sepulchre, but most especially in His passion ; see John 
viii. 28. In this manner, the three days and three nights are ex- 
actly completed from the dawn of Thursday to the dawn of 
Sunday. The time of the death of the two witnesses is exactly 
defined, Rev. xi., to be three and a half days; therefore we 
ought to consider that the three days and three nights of our 
Lord's remaining in the middle of the earth have been also ex- 
actly defined. The middle, or heart, of the eai'th should not be 
precisely sought for ; but these phrases are opposed to the earth 
itself, on the surface of which Christ dwelt for more than thirty 

41. "Av5f>£; N/vsu/i-a*, men of Nineveh) whose example was fol- 
lowed by their wives and children. In the following verse, the 
example of one woman is added, who heard a wise man, though 
it might seem more natural for the weaker sex to seek prophecy 
than wisdom. — &va<STf)<sovTai, shall rise) In the next verse, we find 
iyifStiSirai, sJmU be raised up; cf. in Luke xi. 32, 31 ; shall rise 
of their own accord, shall be raised up by the Divine volition. 
The force of each word is contained in the other. — //.erSt, with — 
xaraxpmugiv, shall condemn) Cf. Eom. ii. 27. Therefore, at the 
Last Judgment, those whose conduct is similar or opposite,* will 
be pitted in turn against each other. — ilg, at) The faith of the 
Ninevites is hereby'' asserted (proprie dicitur). — See Jonah iii. 5. 
Cf. the use of tig, in Rom. iv. 20. — xripuyfia, preaching) without 
miracles.' — 'ima, of JonaK) who was mentioned also in ver. 39. 
The messengers of salvation are prophets, wise men, and scribes; 
See ch. xxiil. 34. It did not become the Lord to act the 
Scribe ; see John vii. 15, and cf. Gnomon on Luke iv. 16 : but 
He, the greatest Prophet, from the race of prophets selects him 
who best suited this occasion, namely Jonah ; and, being wisdom 
itself. He, from the race of wise men, selects that distinguished 
wise man, Solomon ; and declares that Something Greater than 
either of them was then present. Both of them had been believed 

' " Quorum par aut opposita est ratio," — who stand on a like, or a con- 
trasted and opposite footing, in relation to the judgment. — Ed. 

' The tl; implies the faith whereby they turned to, and believed in, the 
hing of Jonah. — Ed. 
U in the case of Solomon, ver. 42. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XU. 42-15. 879 

without signs. — WkeTov, Something Greater) He who is rather 
to be heard.^ — ude, here) close at hand, cf. in the following 
verse. — Jx ruv 'gipa.rm rrn yra, from the uttermost parts of the 

42. NoVou, of the south) from Arabia-Felix. — nXiTov 'SaXo/iuvcg, 
Something Greater than Solomon) Solomon was wise, but here is 
Wisdom itself. — See Luke xi. 49. 

43. 'Orat, x.T.\., when, etc.) Having rebuked and dismissed 
the interruption of the Pharisees, Jesus pursues those matters 
which depend upon ver. 30 ; cf. Luke xi. 23, 24. — sf sXtf^j, has 
gone ovi) as had been said in ver. 29. — Mp^iTai, he goeth through) 
one after another. — dvuSpuii, without water) Where there is no 
water, men do not dwell ; see Ps. cvii. 35, 36. — avniraiaiv, rest) 
Rest is wished for by every created being. The devUs think 
that man is their proper resting-place. — oujj ilplgxv, findeth none) 
sc. except in man. It is miserable always to seek and never to 
find it. 

44. oTxov /iou, my house) What the enemy had once occupied, 
he considers as a portion of his property. — l^nKhv, I came out) 
He speaks as if he had not been cast forth See the pride of the 
unclean spirit, which shows itself not merely in this word, but 
from his whole speech, as though it had been at his option 
either to come out or to return. Our Lord uses the same word 
without any particular emphasis in ver. 43. The same word 
may either have emphasis, or be without emphasis, in different 
speeches, according to the different condition and mind of the 
speaker. — Ix^iv, when he is come) for the sake of reconnoitering. — 
eipitxei, x.r.x., he finds, etc.) Therefore, the house was not so be- 
fore the enemy had been cast forth.— ^(r;^oXa^oiira, vacant) Tran- 
quillity, although in itself good, is not far distant from peril. 
The same verb <s-)(p'kaZin occurs in the S. V. of Ex. v. 8, 17, for 
HEsn, to he idle. — aieai>oi/j,hov, swept) i.e., cleared from evils. — xixos- 
liri/ihov, adorned) sc. with good things ; see ver. 28. The enemy 
seeks especially clean places to rest in, not that they may remain 
clean, but that he may render them also unclean. 

45. ToVe, then) sc. when he has reconnoitred it — im-a, seven) 
Therefore, counting him, there are eight. The fathers have 

' Who is Himself about to be the Judge. — V. g. 

280 ST MATTHEW XII. 46-49. 

numbered also eight deadly sins : see Colunibanus,^ and Gol- 
dastus' on Mm; also Ephraem Syrus,^ f. ujt/3. The seven, how- 
ever, diflPer from that one in wickedness, perhaps also among 
themselves. The greater number includes the lesser numbers 
also disjunctively ; cf. Luke viii. 8, with Matt. xiii. 8. There- 
fore, six spirits may occupy one, five another, four another, etc. 
— mvnfiripa, more evil) i.e., operating with greater subtilty, not 
by violent paroxysms. There are, therefore, unclean spirits who 
are yet less evil than others ; and there are other spirits exceed- 
ingly malignant— xciToixiT, inhabit) make their habitation more 
perseveringly than before. — %£(>ova, worse) Seven times worse 
and more,— xa/, also) That which happened to the man in his 
body, shall be done to this generation spiritually.* 

46. Mrirrjp, mother) It is clear that, on this occasion, the 
thoughts and feelings of Mary were not in unison with those of 
her Son. — "AuriS, unto Him) as if for His sake." 

48. T/ff IsTiv, x.r.x., who is, etc.) He does not scorn His mother, 
but He places His Father before her (see ver. 50) : and, with 
reference to this principle, He does not acknowledge His mother 
and brethren ; and uses this form of words to convey a reproof. 

49. Kal, X.T.X., and, etc.) The greatest gentleness and sobriety 

^ St Columbanus was a native of Ireland, who flourished towards the 
close of the sixth and commencement of the seventh century. He was cele- 
brated for his writings, theological and poetical, as well as for the extent and 
success of his missionary labours. — (I. B.) 

2 Mblchior Goldastus von Haimenspeld, a Swiss by birth, edited the 
works of St Columbanus, and others, in 1604. He was a laborious anti- 
quarian and philologist. Born in 1676 or 1578 ; died in 1635. — (I. B.) 

' Ephraem Stbus was an eminent father of the Church, who flourished in 
the fourth centiury. He was born at Nisibis, where he became a pupil of 
St James, the celebrated bishop of that place. He went to Edessa a.d. 
363, and, embracing a monastic life, retired to a cavern in one of the adjacent 
mountains, where he is said to have composed most of his works, which are 
very numerous. Some, however, are attributed to him, of which he was not 
the author. He obtained a high character for sanctity, and died in 378 or 

* Inasmuch as this generation has had so great a deliverance vouchsafed 
(offered) to it by the power of Christ V. g. 

" Oi aSeAipoJ avnv) These were not sons whom Joseph had brought to 
Mary at their marriage ; for Christ, as He was accounted the Son of Joseph, 
so was accounted as absolutely his first-begotten Son. — V. g. 

• Their intention was to interrupt him ; Mark iii. 21, 31. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XII. 50.-XIU. 2, 3. 281 

are here combined with the greatest severity.^ — iSou, behold) cor- 
responding to the same word in ver. 47. 

50. iLotriari, shall do) He does not say does, but He speaks 
somewhat conditionally. — rh 6iXn/jt,a, the will) by which we are 
born again.^ — aMg, he) This man, and he only. — adi>.(p>)g, 
brother) This word is said for the third time with great force. — 
xal aSiXpri, and sister) The plural appellation of brethren in 
ver. 46, 47, 48, 49, includes sisters also. — /i^rjjfi, mother) The 


2. To irkoTov, the vessel) The article indicates a particular 
vessel which was wont to be had there. — ko,!, x.t.K., and, etc.) sc. 
when the people saw Him. — alyiaXh, beach) Hesychius renders 
aiyiaXhg by o irapoi^aX&eeios £" roTifi -^a/i/iudei rj ■^rjfi&ai s;^*"', — 
i.e. " the seaside in a sandy place, or abounding with pebbles." 

3. 'Ev rrapa^oXaTg, in parables) The Evangelist here indicates 
a remarkable period of Christ's teaching to the people in 
Galilee, as to the chief priests and elders of the people in 
Jerusalem. See Mark xii. 1, — ne^aro aWoii h irapa^okati 
Xiytiv, He BEGAN to speak to them in parables.^ Parables are 
frequent in the East : but our Lord had previously taught 
much, in both places, without parables. The parables in the 
present passage are seven : four addressed to the people, in ver. 
3, 24, 31, 33 ; and three to the disciples, in ver, 44, 45, 47.'' 

1 The reason for this severity is to be found in the parallel passage, Mark 
iii. 21, as Miehaelis shows in the Einleitung, etc., T. ii., p. m. 1162. — E. B. 

2 James i. 18.— E.B. 

» Compare Matt. xxi. 23. [Qy. 28].— E. B. 

* The parable concerning the four different kinds of soil the Saviour ex- 
plained to His disciples, at their request, before that He returned to the 
house — all other witnesses, however, being out of the way. — whether His ex- 
planation was given on the sea or on land, ver. 10 ; with which comp. Mark 
iv. 10. Then next He set forth the rest of the parables before the multi- 
tude, Mark iv. 33 j and, returning to the house. He cleared up also the parable 

882 ST ilATTHEW XIII. 3. 

The first four and the last three form severallv two groups, 
which are, respectively, intimately connected together. The 
former are connected by the formula, " another parable ;" the 
latter, by the formula, " Again the kingdom of heaven is like." 
And since the seventh refers more than any of the others to the 
end of the world, which the first does not refer to at all, but 
appHes the prophecy of Isaiah to the people at the time of our 
Lord's teaching, — these seven parables have a most recondite 
meaning (see ver. 35), applying especially to distinct periods of 
the Church's history and condition, besides the common and 
universal principles which they teach concerning the course and 
administration of the kingdom of heaven ; and this in such a 
manner, that each begins successively to be fulfilled after that 
which preceded it, though no preceding one concludes before 
the beginning of that which follows. The first and second, and 
only these two, were explained to the apostles. In the first, 
before the explanation — in the second, after it — occurs the 
formula, " He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. The first, 
indeed, was fulfilled, as we have already observed, in the first 
age — namely, that of our Lord's ministry ; the second, in that 
of His apostles, and thenceforward, for then men began to 
sleep (see ver. 25) ; the third and fourth denote the propaga- 
tion of the kingdom of God among princes and the whole 
human race ; the fifth describes the darker condition- of the 
Church; the sixth, the state of the kingdom of God when 
esteemed above all things ; the seventh, the condition of the 
Chiu:ch in the last days, greatly mixed. It may be asked, 
whether these seven parables extend through the whole period 
of the New Testament dispensation in such a manner that the 
three latter begin from the goal of the four former ; or whether 
those four extend from the beginning to the end, and also these 
three ? On the settlement of these questions depends a more 
accurate distribution, which I leave to be decided by the wise, 
[merely subjoining the following sketch] : — 

of the tares for the disciples, who begged Him to do so, ver. 36 ; with which 
comp. Mark iv. 34. After the setting forth of these parables, of which 
several are derived from the tillage of land, within the lapse of a few days 
the barky harvest began. In like manner the parable of the net (ver. 47) 
cast into the sea, was put forth close by the sea. — Harm., p. 322. 

ST MATTHEW XIII. 4-10. 283 

1. The time of the apostles, . . ver, 16 

2. After the decease of the apostles, . 25 

3. Constantine, . . . 32 

4. Nine centuries under the trumpet of the 

seventh angel, .... 33 

5. The kingdom of the Beast, and the Reformat 

tion, ..... 44 

6. The kingdom of God esteemed above all 

things, Satan being bound, . . 46 

7. The last confasion, ... 47 
O gviipm. — He that soweth) in the present tense ; i.e. Christ. 

4. Uapa rfiv oSov, by the wayside) when the field and the road 
touch each other. 

5. UiTpiidr), rochy) This expression does not indicate stones ly- 
ing scattered over the field, but a continuous bed of rock under 
the ground, with only a slight covering of soil. — om £/%£, had 
not) We must understand a\Xa, other, in the nominative plural. 
iroXKfiv = the Hebrew 31, much : it sometimes signifies too much; 
here, sufficiently nfiuch. — e^avsTuXi, grew up high) not merely 
avireiXe, sprang up. 

6. 'Exau/iar/ff3?j, they were scorched) sc. in a less degree from 
without. — l^npdv^ri, they were dried up) sc. utterly from within.^ 

7. ' Avsi3rifia,v a,} axavSa/, the thoms sprang up) beyond the crop 
itself. They had not before then grown so high. Those who 
have heard the "Word, yet do not grow in good, turn their 
strength to increase in evil. 

8. KaXjjv, good) sc. soft, deep, clean (purgatam, i.e. cleared of 
stones, thoms, and weeds). ^ — 3/tsv — 'ids — ids, some — some — some) 
referring to aXXa, other, at the commencement of the same verse. 

9. 'O s'xwv, he that hath) Cf. ver. 11, 12, 13.^ Let him that 
heareth, hear : to him that hath shall be given. 

10. Aiarl, x.r.X., why ? etc.) It seemed a new thing to the 
disciples ; see ver. 3. 

' A man, to whom any degree of good begins to adhere, is liable to the 
loss of it, even though he may not lose it all at once.- — V. g. 

' Soft or friable, deep, and cleared of weeds and thorns, are respectively 
opposed to the hard stiff soil of the wayside, the shallow soil spread over the 
underlying rock, and the thorny ground.— Ed. 

• E. B. adds 43. 

284; ST MATTHEW XIII. 11-14. 

11. "On, because) This maybe referred to the preceding 3;ar/, 
why ? Cf. in ver. 13, dia roDVo, therefore. — u/i/i', to you) who have. — 
T-a fjLtjffr^pia, the mysteries) This term is applied, not to all things 
which all ought to know from revelation, but to those things 
which they, to whom secret things are revealed, know beyond 
those who know only what is strictly necessary. — sxiivois, to them) 
who are without, in contradistinction to I/aTv, you, who are within.' 
ou dsSorai, it is not given) sc. to comprehend mysteries fully and 

12. "Ex"i hath) to have, signifies to be rich. He who hath 
rejoices in this as his distinguishing criterion, viz. that he is one 
tliat hath, and becomes day by day more sure of perseverance. — 
■jTipisetu^rigerai, he shall be rendered more abundant^) and shall 
surpass his former self.^ — Sgn; olx sxfi, wlwsoever hath not) The 
conjunction Sn (because), in ver. 13, refers to this, and fifimn 
(lest at any time), in ver. 15, to ap^ndiTai (shall be taken away). — 
xa/ i! e;^£/, even that which he hath) shall be taken away. — ap^fi- 
eirai, shall be taken away) Even though he hear, yet he shall 
not hear ; and that which he hath heard shall at length (un- 
doubtedly after the judgment) be so taken away from him, that 
he shall be as if he had never heard anything. The damned 
shall be tortured with ignorance, and the thirst for knowledge. 

13. "On, K.T.\., because, etc.) Our Lord, therefore, did not speak 
to the people in parables without a cause. And nevertheless 
He had often before spoken to them without parables, out of com- 
passion (see ch. ix. 36, and Mark vi. 34), and they had not pro- 
fited [by His teaching]. — oii&i eumuei) neither do they understand. 

14. Kal, and) therefore. — avavXnpourai, is now being refulfilled^) 

' In the original, "hoc vim habet removendi." I hsive paraphrased it, so 
as to express Bengel's meaning in a manner intelligible to the English 
reader. — (I. B.) 

2 In the original, "nosse mysteria nuda." Literally, to know mysteries 
naked, i.e. fully revealed, without concealment or obscurity. — (I. B.) 

" Mysteria nuda," mysteries without the clothing of the parabolic form or 
guise, — Ed. 

' E. V. Shall have more abundance. — (I. B.) 

■• "This is the case in things temporal, and much more so in things 
spiritual."— B. G. V. 

» E. V. "is fulfilled."— (I. B.) 

" Is receiving its complete (full measure of) fulfilment. "—Ed. 


This word differs from the simple verb ifkrifoZTtxi (is now being 
fulfilled), which is employed elsewhere in citing prophecies. The 
saying of Isaiah (vi. 9) was being fulfilled in his own days, and 
in the ages which followed, and also clearly and especially in 
the days of the Messiah. — dxojj, x.r.X., by hearing, etc.) i.e. by 
however little you come short, yet you shall come short [of 
understanding what ye hear to the salvation of your souls]. 

15. 'Eira^uv^ri y&p ^ xapdta rou Xaou rourou, FOE this people's 
heart is waxed gross) It stands thus in the S. V. ; but in the 
Hebrew there is no word corresponding to the Greek y&p, for. 
The language, however, rapidly turns itself away from them.^ — 
ii xapbla, the heart, toT; iiel — roif opSaX/toCs, with their ears, their 
eyes) These three occur again immediately in the opposite order : 
" with their eyes," " with their ears," " with their heart." The 
heart is the first in the beginning, the last in the end. From 
the heart corruption flows into the ears and eyes ; through the 
eyes and ears health* reached the heart. — ixififiugav — //.^•rore — 
ideu/iai aurous, they have closed, lest at any time I should heal 
them) God therefore had wished to heal them ; and it is clear that 
healing was close to them, if they had only turned to it. In 
Mark iv. 12, we read " xal dps3^ airoTs t& a/iapT^/iara ;" i.e. " and 
their sins be forgiven them." Cf. Ps. ciii. 3. — auvZsi, should un- 
derstand) The seat* of alivegig, understanding, and vo^eic, percep- 
tion, is the heart, not the brain : this is equally true of 'rupueig, 
hardening (see John xii. 40), and of exorag/ioe, darkening (see 
Eom. i. 21) ; as also of amarla, unbelief, and irieni, faith, which 
is followed by ttnerpofri, conversion.* 

^ " Serrao autem celeriter se ab iis avertit." This is one of many in- 
stances where it is impossible to find an English equivalent to the Latin 
" Sermo." Bengel's meaning is, that whereas, in ver. 9, God had commanded 
the prophet to go and speak to the Jews, saying, " Hear ye indeed, but 
understand not ; and see ye indeed, but perceive not," in ver. 8, He sud- 
denly changes the Sermo, i.e. the mode of speech, the direction of His words ; 
and, instead of desiring Isaiah to address the people, turns from them, as it 
were, and gives an injimction to the prophet, regarding them, it is true, but 
not addressed <o them : sc. " Make the heart of this people fat, etc." — (I. B.) 

^ " Sanitas," lit. soundness, an expression applied indifferently to mind or 
body, as in the well-known passage of Juvenal : — 

"Ut sit mens sana in corpere sano." — (1. B.) 

• " Subjectum quo."— (I. B.) 

* " The Hebrew accents undoubtedly connect the words x«J ffiTrpi\l/a<ri 

28G ST MATTHEW XIII. 16-21. 

16. 'Of^aX/iol—ura, eyes— ears) i.e. those of yoiu- body, above 
the saints of the Old Testament ; those of your soul, above 
the people now present. Theii* eyes and em's were the subject 
of which blessedness could be predicated.^ 

17. TipofiriTai, prophets) See Gnomon on 1 Pet. i. 10, 12. — 
sffsSu/iJiffa)', have desired) And that desire was pious and precious 
in the sight of God : see Gnomon on John viii. 56. — oux sJdov, 
have not seeii) See Heb. xi. 13, 39. 

18. "t/j-i's, you) in contradistinction to the people. — roD evO- 
povToi, of the Sowei') i.e. so called fix)m the Sowei*. 

19. Ml) ewiivTos, itnderstandeth it not) The verb avmmi signifies 
to understand.' The Evil One, or devil, who especially, rather 
than his angels, is meant by the fowls of tlae air, lias less 
power over those things which have entered into the emeii, or 
understanding. — afra^s;, catcheth away) sc. with violence and 
quick cunning, like a bird of prey ; see ver. 4. — h r^ xafittf, 
in his heart. — o errafsig, he that is soion) i.e. as a fai"m is 

20. 'o S^, x.r.x., but he, etc.) In every individual soul one dis- 
tinguishing characteristic is especially conspicuous. — luSDf, imme- 
diately) Too great haste and joyfulness is not always the best 
sign, when the whole strength pours itself forth in outwai'd de- 
monstrations, and consumes itself in them. — /iiT^i j^afSj Xa/t- 
^dvuv, with joy receiving) see Gal. iv. 14, 15. 

21. 'P/^av, root) which is plainly necessaiy, and springs from 
the word itself. — itfiexaifit ssti, is temporary)^ He believes 
whilst the time inclines him ; see Luke viii. 13. The adjective 

(and should be converted) more closely with avtmi (should understand) than 
with lavufteci (I should heal). And in many passages of the Old Testament 
which are quoted in the New, the Hebrew accents agree more accurately 
with the force of the exact words of the Inspired original than the punctua- 
tion employed by the Greeks : e.ff. Matt. iv. 15, xix. 5, xxi. 5 ; Luke iv. IS ; 
Acts vii. 6, viii. 32 ; Heb. i. 12, iii. 9, xii. 26, xiii. 6. And yet these Greeks 
were Christians. We ought not, therefore, to think that the Hebrew accents 
have originated with the modern Jews left to their blindness. Their origin 
is far more ancient, far more sublime." — App. Chit., Ed. II., p. 120. 

' " Subjectum quo beatitudinis."— ( I. B.) 

2 That such is Bengel's meaning is clear from his own German Version, 
where he renders /n,^ cvniitmf by '• und nicht vcmimmt." — (I. B.) 

» K V. "durethfor a while."— ('• B) 

ST MATTHEW XIII. 21;, 23. 287 

TposKaipo;, taken alone, expresses somewhat good, but without 
perseverance; it is therefore followed here by the adversative 
partide di, but, and in Mark iv. 17, by iTra, afterwards. — 
3X/4'£<ws, affliction) generally. — S/wy/ioO, persecution) specifically.^ 
— hit. rJii Xo'yov, because of ilie word) when it is propagated by the 
mouth and expressed by the life. — euSOs, immediately) That 
which is quickly produced, perishes quickly.^ 

22. 'H airdrn roD (rXourou, the deceitfulness of riches)^ Baches 
remove the soul from that tranquilhty which is here opposed to 
the care of this world.* — S,xafi:oi y'mrai, becometh unfruitful) sc. 
the word in man becometh so (see Mark iv. 19) ; i.e., the word 
in him who hears it does not arrive at good and perfect fi'uit fit 
for use : the man bringeth no fruit to perfection, ou nXtefofii, 
Luke \m. 14. Thomas Magister ' says, imafxa. bh&pa, uv a 
xap'irog lav/ ;^p^<r;/40S av^puvois (is rfoipfiv axafira., rh havriov, uv roTg 
xapitoTs o\) ^uivTai oi av^pu'jor axapirov ds, rh firi 'iroioZv xafTh, •jtap 
oidifl ruv iraXaiut luprirai : i.e., " Trees which are styled euxa^'s-a, 
are those, the fruit (xa/iffo's) of which is serviceable for food to 
men : (f.x.a.pira, on the other hand, are those, the finit of which men 
do not use for food : but oExaf"?rov, in the sense of having no finiit, 
IS not found in any of the ancients." 

23. "Os, who) sc. the hearer ; cf. Mark iv. 20 : otherwise S; 
might also be referred to rh Xiyni, the word; — xap'ffo<popiT, beareth 
fruit) sc. perfect finiit. — o /ih — S Si — S fis, som,e — som,e — some) 
The pronoun o is clearly here in the accusative neuter ; for the 

'■ Persecution can be brought to bear against one either by an unkind side 
look, or by a jesting speech added in the way of mockery. — V. g. 

^ 2x«*8«>i('^£T«() He is offended, and therefore relapses into unbelief.- 
-V. g. 

3 Which is manifold in its varieties of form, and which, though it de- 
ceives men in an awful manner, yet scarcely ever se6ms to them vforth while 
being taken into consideration at all.;— V. g. 

' ^vft-jrpiyei, choke) Many engage in the discussion (treating) of the Word 
of God in such a way as if the heart were not a field in which the seed is to 
remain and grow, but a granary which can contain at one time less stores, 
at another time more — at one time something, at another time nothing. 
-V. g. 

' Thomas Magisteb, sumamed (0EOAOTAO2, The Servant 
of God), was a Monk and a Grammarian, who floiu-ished at the beginning of 
the fourteenth century. Saxius describes him as " vocum Atticarum ma- 
gister."— (1. B.) 


subject^ og, which occurs here in the singular number, cannot 
possibly be divided into three classes of good hearers of the 
word by o fih — o dk — o de {one — another — a third), which is the 
common reading.^ Moreover the protasis has o in ver. 8, and 
the parallel passage in Mark iv. 8, 20, has 'iv also twice over.* A 
single hearer's plentiful, moderate, and less plentiful progress 
from three several grains, so to speak, is signified by a hundred, 
sivty, and thirty* As there are three degrees of hearing with- 
out fruit, so there are also three degrees of fruitfiilness ; which is 
not, however, restricted precisely to the proportions an hundred, 
sixty, and thirty fold: for another grain might also produce 
forty, fifty, seventy, eighty, ninety fold, etc. : since there is a 
greater distance between the numbers one hundred and sixty, 
than there is between sixty and thirty. To him that hath shall 
be given. 

' The word " Svjbjec^' is used here in its logical sense, viz. the Subject of 
the Proposition, i.e. the person or thing concerning which something else is 
predicated or asserted. — (I. B.) 

' Such is the reading of E. M. In his App. Crit. Bengel writes,: " o ter) 
codd. nonulli vetusti apud Staptdensem, vel etiam alii apud Sus T. i., Harm. 
Evang. p. 1047 ; Ephrem Syrus f. a.x.X in vita Abrahamii ; Isidorvs Pelus. 
1. 2, ep. 144. Lat. Neogrosc. vel plures nee non Syr. (o ter) edd. Aug. 1, 
Byz., etc., perinde ut versu 8, o pro o, et Marc. iv. 8, h pro h, non nulli 
habent codices." — (I. B.) 

Beng. does not seem to me to speak of a different reading, but of the 
common interpretation, that there are here three classes of good hearers. 
He plainly understands there to be the one and the same good hearer, who 
bears fruit from the same seed in different degrees at different times. Hence 
Luke viii. 8 gives the one degree only, viz. the hundredfold, as the normal 
state of the believer's fruitfulness. However, in opposition to Beng., the 
transition from o; to o f«£», o 8e, neut. nominative, would not be unnatural 
(whether taken of one and the same good hearer, or of different classes of 
good hearers), as the individual becomes in a manner identified with the seed 
in process of time, just as the nutritive elements of the soil become identified 
with, and taken up into, the young germ : hence aitapik, he who is sown (ap- 
plicable to the seed, but here also to the person), occurs in ver. 19, and aSxx*, 
ver. 8, is nominative neuter, and plural, followed by S (th, S IL There is 
no notable variety of readings in the case Ed. 

' i.e. the h, which occurs three times in Mark iv. 8, is repeated as many 
times in ver. 20. — (I. B.) 

* When such a hearer turns the one and the same doctrine, on the oppor- 
tunity of hearing it being given him even a hundred times, to his own 'prdtit 
and that of of hers. — V. g. ^ 

ST MATTHEW XIII. 24, 25. 269 

24. iiaps^rixiv ai/ToTs, He set hefore them^) as food is set before 
a guest.* — h Ti/j aypifi, in the field) sc, that in which He Himself 
is : for it is said " In," not " into" His field. 

25. Touc av^piivovg, the men) sc. those whose business it was 
to watch the field. The Lord Himself does not sleep. — AuroC, 
His) it is not said their enemy. — ^/^awa, zizans^) This word 
does not occur in the lxx. nor in the more ancient Greek writers ; 
it is therefore evidently formed from the Hebrew fi, a flower. 
Many flowers which are noxious to the husbandman grow 
among the corn. — awi, x.r.X., throughout, etc.) everywhere among 
the wheat. — mt^xSeh, departed'^) on which account the zizans ° 
remained for some time unnoticed. 

1 E. V. « put He forth unto them."— (I. B.) 

' 'H fiaaAii'ce tuu oiipoiiiau, the kingdom of heaven) As often soever as men- 
tion is made of this in the discourses and parables of our Lord, this very ex- 
pression is to be regarded as a succinct recapitulation of the whole Gospel. 
-V. g. 

' E. V. " Tares." — " Apparently the darnel or bastard wheat (lolium 
album), so often seen in our fields and by om: hedgerows ; if so, what follows 
will be explained, that the ' tare^ appeared when the wheat came into ear, 
having been previously not noticeable. It appears to be an Eastern word, 
expressed in the Talmud by B-'a'it. Our Lord was speaking of an act of malice 
practised in the East ; persons of revengeful disposition watch the ground of 
a neighbour being ploughed, andin the night following sow destructive weeds." 
(Roberts' Oriental Illustrations, p. 541, cited by Trench on the Parables, 
p. 68.) (The practice is not unknown even in England at present. Since 
the publication of the first edition of this Commentary, a field at Gaddesby, 
in Leicestershire, was maliciously sown with charlock [sinapis arvensis] over 
the wheat. An action at law was brought, and heavy damages obtained 
against the offender.) "Jerome inloc. says: — 'Inter triticum et zizania 
quod nos appellamus lolium, quamdiu herba est, et nondura culmus venit ad 
spicam, grandis similitudo est, et in discernendo nulla aut perdifScilis dis- 
tantia.' Jerome, it must be remembered, resided in Palestine." — Alfoed in 
loc. Wordsworth says, that it was a degenerate wheat, and which may also 
be reclaimed into wheat. See also footnote 5. — (I. B.) 

* He went his way, in order that he might not be observed — V. g. 

" De Kitto, in his Illustrated Commentary, says, " The Darnel, called 
Zuwan by the Arabs and Turks, and Zizanion by the Spaniards, is described 
by Dr Russell and Forskal as well known to the people of Aleppo, as often 
growing abundantly in their corn-fields. If its seeds remain mixed with the 
meal, it is found to occasion dizziness and other injurious efiects upon those 
who eat of the bread : the reapers in that neighbourhood, however, do not 
separate the plant, but, after the threshing, reject the seeds by means of a 


290 ST MATTHEW XIII. 26-32. 

26. Ton, then) Where the good grows, there the evil becomes 
at length more apparent. 

27. Ktif/s, Lord) The name of the Son of Man ; see ver. 37. 
— w^tv, x.r.X., whence ? etc.) The servants did not know who had 
done it, or when. — ^/^av;a, zizans) Zizans have a greater resem- 
blance to wheat than thistles and thorns have ; the toleration 
therefore of the former, does not involve as a consequence that 
of the latter. They often not only pass themselves off for wheat, 
but also attempt to root out the wheat as if it were zizans. 

29. Oii, no) The zeal of the godly against the zizans is not 
blamed, but yet it is reduced to order. — a/ia) at the same time. 
— rh eTrov, the wheat) which you might mistake for zizans. 

30. 2urau^av£ff9a/, grow together) Growth in good and evil 
takes place simultaneously, sometimes in the case of individuals, 
and generally in that of men taken collectively ; and the further 
that ages proceed, the more conspicuous do they both become. 
— b Tip xaipSi, x.r.X., in the time) Then it will at length be the 
right time to do so. — itfurov, first) that the godly may behold the 
punishment of the ungodly ; the ungodly not see the glory of 
the godly. Thus in ch. xxv., though the Judge addresses the 
righteous first, yet afterwards in the last verse the ungodly are 
banished into eternal fire before [the godly are admitted into 
heaven]. — degfias, bundles) As from eraSiiiili (a standing place, 
station, etc.) comes erd'hi/^n (a carpenter's rule, etc.), and from 
AC/ia {physical or moral filth, etc.) comes xVl {outrage, etc.), so 
from Saff^Jj (a hand or bond) are derived bieiia, (a bond), and 
fi£d-/i)j (a bundle) ; see Eustathius. They will have no choice : 
those of like kind will be joined together. — xaraxaDira;, to burn 
utterly) They will be bmrned, and that utterly. — 8s, but) Then the 
separation will have been effected. — ewayayire, collect) and bring. 

Zl." Avhjxami, a man) The similitude is here taken from a man, 
as in ver. 33, from a woman ; cf. Luke xv. 4, 8. 

32. "o, which) sc. seed: for zo'zxos {grain) is masculine. — 
(i^ixpoTifO)/, the least) i.e. not absolutely, but in the proportion 
which the seed bears to the plant. It was a well-known 
kind of seed, used proverbially; see ch. xvii. 20. — amf- 

van or sieve. We are also informed that, in other parts of Syria, the plant 
is drawn up by hand, in time of harvest, along with the wheat, and is then 
gathered out, and bound up in separate bundles." — (I. B.) 


aarm, of seeds) The world contains various seeds of wisdom, 
power, and virtue ; the Christian faith has surpassed them all, 
having been propagated through the whole world. The king- 
dom of heaven is like a grain ; and so is the whole of Christianity, 
faith, etc. These things may be variously expressed. The 
faith here intended is that of all those beHevers, who embrace it 
before others: the others are those who believe afterwards — 
nations, kings, etc. — /yis/'^ov — Xa^avav — divSpov, greater herbs — 
tree) two classes of vegetables. Tremellius,^ on this passage in 
the Syriac Version, adduces examples of such immense trees. 
— It became a tree, one may say, in the time of Constantine.^ 
— roi '!rereiv&, the birds) see Ezek. xvii. 23. — xXadoig, branches) sc. 
widely spreading. 

.33. ' Wixpu'^iv, concealed) The lxx. in Ezek. iv. 12, render 
the Hebrew JIJJ' (to bake) by iyxpuvrca (to conceal*), whence is 
derived lyz^up/as, a cake. — tfcira' rpia, three measures) As much 
as was generally carried by a man, or taken for baking, at 
once ; see Gen. xviii. 6. — l^vfi.u^n, was leavened) I would 
rather refer this to the propagation, than the corruption of 
the Church. The leaven is the kingdom of heaven itself, in- 
cluding both the gospel and the apostles.' — oXoii, the whole) sc. 

^ Emmanuel Tremellius was born in the sixteenth century at Ferrara, of 
Jewish parents. He rendered himself master of the Hebrew language, and 
secretly embraced Protestantism. He became Professor of Hebrew at Heidel- 
berg, from whence he went to Metz, and thence to Sedan. He made him- 
self known by his Latin Version of the Syriac New Testament. He died in 
1580.— (I. B.) 

2 The kingdom of Christ is being extended now throughout the whole 
world. — ^V. g. 

^ "3W, (1.) prop, io^o in a wVcfe. . . . Hence fijy and Jii^a a round 
cake. . . . 

(2.) denom. from nss to hahe bread or cake, Ezra iv. 12." 

" ras and nw (1 Kings xix. 6 ; Ezek. iv. 12), fem. a cake bahed under hot 
cinders," etc., Gesenius. — (I. B.) 

* i.e., in the passage from Ezekiel, to cover with, sc. hot embers ; E. V., 
Jaie.— (I. B.) 

' iyxpv(pieis, Of, o, slpro; iyx., a loaf baked in the ashes, Hipp. Luc. Dial. 
Mort. 20, 4, etc. Liddell and Scott. — (I. B.) 

' " Cujus rationes et evangelium et apostolos complectuntur." — (I. B.) 

No necessity, in fact, compels us to take the leaven in a bad sense: hencei 
as the word does not necessarily imply censure, bad leaven is termed th« 
old leaven in 1 Cor. v. 7. — V. g 

293 ST MATTHEW XIII. 35-41. 

flour.' A strong expression. This appears to refer to the 
whole human race, which consists of three measures, having 
spread over the earth from the three sons of Noah.^ 

35. tJ prjSiv, which was spoken) viz. Ps. Ixxviii. 2 — atoi^iu li 
•Kapa^oXaii 5-J erliiha, [j,tiv, (p6sy^o/j:,ai Trpo^Xri/iara air apy/ii, I will 
open my mouth in parables, I will utter [things which have been] 
problems from the beginning. — vptxprirov, prophet) who was the 
author of that psalm. The Spirit of Christ was in the prophets ; 
therefore the prophets could, after their manner, predicate of 
themselves those things which were afterwards most richly 
fulfilled in Christ. — dfo/gw, / will open) which before had not 
been done. — ipiv^o/iai, I will utter) in Hebrew nyDS, I will pour 
out, which the LXX. elsewhere render Ipiiyo/iai in Ps. xix. 3, and 
£^ipi-oyo/j,ai in Ps. cxix. 171, and cxlv. 7. Hesychius renders 
ipiiyirai by avajSdXXn, throws up, i.e. as a spring does water. He 
also renders spsuyiTo by s^puy^^iro, roared, e/3^u£v, was overflowing 
with ; but /3f i^s'v is said of the noise of the floods, and the roaring 
of the Hon. Therefore the verb epdyo/jiai denotes a gushing 
spring, which resounds by reason of the abundance and impetu- 
osity of its waters ; whence the LXX. put ipi{iyie6ai also for JKB*, 
to roar. — xamHioX^s, foundation) It does not mean only the 
foundations, but also the building; see 2 Mace. ii. 29. 

36. ^pdaov, explain) The disciples, being teachable, ask for 
fiirther instruction. 

38. oItoi, these) Of whom most account is taken ; or especially 
the disciples then present. — roD mvr)po\J, of the wicked one) The 
word is in the masculine gender. 

39. "S.mTi'kiia — ayyiXoi, consummation — angels) They form the 
predicate here, the subject elsewhere. — evvTsXna in ver. 49, is the 
meeting or combination of the ends (rSiv nXuv) ; see 1 Cor. 
X. 11. 

41. AiiroD, His — Avrov, His) Such is the majesty of the Son of 
Man. His are the angels (see the end of ver. 39) ; His is the 

' A little leaven, as in evil, Gal. v, 9, so in good, leavens the whole mass. 
—V. g._ 

" This conjecture will not be thought ridiculous by him, who remembers 
that there may be not merely one reason for a particular circumstance or 
expression (as the reason ah-eady given in the note above on auTctrpicc, which 
see), but several reasons. — E. B. 

ST MATTHEW XIII. •42-15. 293 

kingdom of heaven ; His is the world ; cf. ver. 24, with ver. 38. 
— ^aeikiiag, the kingdom) whicli is the kingdom of grace. — 
gxdvdaXa, stumbling-blocks) obstacles, which had hindered the 
good seed even in the case of others. The punishment of these 
is pecuharly great.^ ^ 

42. Ka( fiaXouiiv, and they shall cast) This is repeated in the 
same words in ver. -50. 

43. Tors, then) After the ungodly have been removed. — 
ix\d/i-^ou6iv, they shall shine forth) They shall not burn as the 
ungodly, but they shall shine forth, singly, and much more, 
collectively.^ The same word is employed by the Lxx. in Dan. 
xii. 3. — roD Xloirph; avrZv, of their Father) who is righteous and 
glorious. How great is the diiference of the righteous from the 
children of the wicked one ! see ver. 38. — o sp^wv wra, x.t.X., he 
that hath ears, etc.) A formula suited, not only to the people, but 
also to the disciples. 

44. ©jjtfaufiffi, treasure, store) Not of com,* but of gold, gems, 
etc.—~!iixfivfi//,svi{> — 'ixpv-^e, hidden — he hid) It had escaped the 
notice of him who found it ; then, when he found it, he con- 
cealed it from others. He hid it in the same field in which he 
found it. Such are the earnestness and prudence of the saints ; 
see Prov. vii. 1. They find the things which are hidden ; they 
hide them when found. The finding the treasure does not pre- 
suppose the seeking for it, as in the case of the pearls, which are 
found by diligent search. — %af as, for joy) Spiritual joy is an 
incentive to deny the world. — avrov, of it) i.e. the treasure ; or 
else it is an adverb.* — hir&yn, departeth) In the present tense, as 
vaXiT, he sells — ayopd^ii, he buys. In ver. 46, the preterite is 
put. The state follows the act.^ 

45. Oupamv — avSpd'irifj, of the heavens — to a man) Comparisons 
of heavenly from human things. See ver. 52 ; ch. xviii. 23, xx. 

' T^i/ di/o/ilctu, iniquity) for their part — to the utmost of their ability, and 
as far as in them lies. — V. g. 

^ What can be sweeter, even to think of, than this ? — V. g. 

8 Cf. Jer. xli. 8.— B. G. V. 

■* Meaning " there." In which case, instead of "for joy theebof," the 
passage would be rendered "for the joy which he has found or stored up 
THERE, sc. in the field." — (I. B.) 

" Toil xypov Ikuuoii, that field) with the treasure. If thou art influenced by 
the desire of true gain, follow this parable. — V g. 


] , xxii. 2. — s/^'jropui, a merchant) The word 'i/j,mpoi denotes one who 
travels and voyages for the sake of merchandise. — /xapyaplrag, 
pearls) The plural passes to the singular in the following verse. 

46. "Eva, one) An incomparable one ; that is, the kingdom 
of heaven itself .'^ 

47. 'Ex 'jravTog yivovg, of every kind) See John xxi. 11, and 
Gnomon thereon. 

48. 'E'!rXripu6rj, was filled) The number of the wicked and the 
righteous will be completed in the last days. — za/ xaSiaavng, and 
having sat down) Deliberately, with the purpose of performing 
their task. — xaXA — eairpa, good— putrid) Individuals out of every 
kind of fishes.^ — sf w, without) sc. the net. 

49. novjj^oDg, the wicked) and unrighteous. — Ix ilUov, from the 
midst) The wicked, although they are more in number, are 
not accounted of any value f cf. ver. 30. — tm hna'im, of t!ie 
righteous) and good.'' 

51. UavTa, all things) Our Lord was ready to explain the 
other parables also to His disciples ; but they understood them, 
if not perfectly, yet truly. 

52. nag ypa//,/j,aTeijg, every scribe) Jesus Himself is neither 
YPa/ifiaTii)g, a scribe, nor /iaSrirevhlg, discipled, i.e. instructed as or 
made a disciple (initiatus). He speaks therefore in the present 
instance of His disciples ; and that which had previously been 
said to the disciples in plain words (ver. 12), is now (that they 
have made such advance in learning as to be styled even 
scribes) confirmed to them by a parable. A scribe is a man 
imbued with the doctrine, or even the letter, of the Old Testa- 
ment ; by va'ktt.t& (old), therefore, are meant things known from 
Moses and the prophets. This is the genus : the species' is 
supplied by the clause /ia^jjrsuSs/s, x.r.X — i.e. a man instructed 

' Xlt'Trpax.s, sold) This is indeed to renounce all things whatsoeyer thon 
mayest possess. — V. g. 

' How is it that the bad man does not loathe himself? — V. g. 

^ Cf. Gnomon on ch. iii. 12, in voc. a-jcvpou (I. B.) 

* Ver. 50. E/j rrn) Kajiimy nu -rrvpo;, into the furnace of fire) O what 
wretched beings are they who are tormented in that fire ! — V. g. 

' The words genus and species are here used in their logical sense. Bengel 
means to say that the character indicated is not only that of a " scribe" 
generkaVy (or universally), but of one who is " instructed to the kingdom of 
heaven"-^{l. B.) 


also in the doctrine of the New Testament : such is the force of 
jca/ni, new — things then first revealed ; see ver. 35. New things 
are here mentioned before old, as the latter receive light and 
savour from the former, and are at length tempered together 
most harmoniously. See 1 John ii. 7, 8. — fiadrinuhlg, instructed) 
as ^aiiXtlu signifies both to make a king, and to act the king, 
so also /ia^jjrsuw, to maJce disciples (expressed in John iv. 1 by 
/j^a^jjT&s miiTv), and act or be a disciple ; see ch. xxvii. 57. The 
former meaning obtains in this passage. — rri ^aei'kiici., in the 
kingdom) Others' read ilg riiv ^aeiXiiav, unto the Mngdofn. In 
either reading, by metonymy or prosopopoeia, Christ Himself is 
intimated, as in ch. xi. 12. If you accept the latter reading, cf. 
2 Cor. xi. 3 ; if the former,^ ch. xxvii. 57. — anSpui'fftfi, unto a 
man) Almost all the parables are taken from human affairs, for 
the sake of perspicuity. — sxjBdXXii, bringeth forth) plentifully. — 
Srjeaupou, treasure) store, sc. of corn. — xaivSi xal -^raXaid, new and 
old) a proverbial mode of speaking of a great plenty from the 
last and the present year ; see Cant. vii. 13. — The new things, 
as from the treasures of the kingdom of heaven ; the old things. 

1 Such is the reading of E. M. In his App. Crit. Bengel writes : " tl; t^v 
Qxai'Ktici.v) edd. Bos. a. (i. Stap. etc. Ex fiuSnrivM;, lis facile iteratum. 
(t^ ^aaiKita') Bos. y. Cypr. Par. 6, 8 y Vsser, 2 ; Origenes constanter, 
ssepe ; Cyrillus, Procopius. Placet Heinsio. Lectio media, vinde in tvj fiouii- 
Xf/a, Med. Ghrysost. Cyrillus alibi, Lot. Irenaeus, latine certe, Cant. — (I. B.) 

^ The margin of both Editions, as well as the Germ. Vers., prefer the 
Dative.— E. B. 

Tischend. with BC Syr. Orig. 3, 459/, reads rji fimriT^ilif. Lachm. with 
Dba Vulg. Iren. 237, Hil., reads h rij fiatriXilef. Lachm. claims C for h 
rij I3mr. in opposition to Tischend. Rec. Text, s/jt. /Sair/Xs/aj, is not supported 
by primary authorities. The shorter reading, rij fistcriXstif, is cceteris pari- 
bus preferable to the longer, as the shorter would be more likely to originate 
the other two, the longer ones, it; r. /3«(r. and h r. fmui. (which look like 
glosses of the shorter), than either of them to originate it ; ch. xxvii. 57 
supports it. Besides, it is not simply members of the kingdom who are 
here spoken of, but those who, being already in it themselves, are qualified 
henceforth to be teachers for it. I prefer, with Olshausen and Storr, ex- 
plaining it, " made a disciple for the kingdom," i.e., for its benefit; one who, 
being instructed himself, is capable of labouring for the kingdom. But 
Beng. takes rji li»<ri>^iitf as a Prosopopoeia — the Kingdom meaning Jetus 
Christ, who is the embodiment of the Kingdom — "made a disciple to the King- 
dom," i.e. to Jesus Christ. — Ed. 

296 ST MATTHEW XIII. 53-55. 

as a scribe from the scriptures of the Old Testament ; of. ver. 


53. 'ETiXsaiv, finished) These parables form a regular and 
perfect whole, which He is therefore said to have finished ; see 
ch. xi. 1.^ Thus, in Luke vii. 1, we have I'jrXrjpugi, He completed. 
These parables contain, however, besides the general condition 
of the Church of the New Testament, a more special account of 
future events. Cf. Gnomon on ver. 3, and on John xvi. 13. — 
/jLerrjpsv, He departed, Lat. migravity He ended for the time His 
sojourn at Capernaum.* Thenceforward Jesus did not remain 
so long in one place, being harassed by Herod. 

54.^ 'Sofia, wisdom — dmdfin;, mighty works) supernatural 
powers : See 1 Cor. i. 24. We ought to be carried forward, by 
admiration of the teaching and works of our Lord, to a beUev- 
ing (fidelem) recognition of His person ; otherwise admiration 
ends in stupor. 

55. TotJ T-lxrovos — ^ /i^rjjp, of the carpenter — His mother) Hence 

' The new things already have the palm of superiority. — ^V. g. 

^ sc. tTiXetreu harrcuiaaii zoig SiiSexa. — Ed. 

' The word implies change of abode as well as departure. — (I. B.) 

* In the same manner, the same word, furiipiv, is used in ch. xix. 1 of the 
last journey of the Saviour from Galilee to Judea, which He took before the 
Passion. — Comp. Jer. xxxix. 9. Therefore that verb is opposed to the 
dwelling which, for a considerably long time, Jesus had had at Capernaum, 
ch. iv. 13. Not long after, the Saviour returned thither afresh ; but after 
having made a survey [lustratione, a ptirifying examination : see John vi. 
66-71] of His disciples. He presently departed again, John vi. 22-71 [see ver. 
24, 59]. The same thing happened after the interval of nearly a year. Matt. 
xvii. 24 : and this was the last of all His visits there. His address to the 
city of Capernaum, Luke x. 15, was delivered at a distance from it, when 
He had already finished no inconsiderable part of the journey which led to 
the Passion : comp. Luke ix, 51. He subsequently addressed Jerusalem in 
the same manner from a distance, Luke xiii. 34. — Harm., p. 324. 

" E(V t'liv ■xa.Tf.iia. ctinov) In the same way as He had gone forth into 
public, in a manner which was clearly " His custom," at Nazareth, Luke iv. 16 : 
so, having left Capernaum, He returned afresh to Nazareth. It was then 
that the people of Nazareth said those things which He had foretold in Lukeiv. 
23 they would say. [See Gnomon there : where Beng. explains, "Ye will say," 
etc., thus : This feeling, owing to which ye say (ver. 22), Is not this Joseph's 
Son ? will wax stronger, when ye shall hear of my future miracles, which, 
owing to your unbelief, shall be less numerous among you than others : You 
will then say, Physician, heal thyself — En.}— Harm., 1. cit. 

BT MATTHEW XIII. 66-58.-X1V. 1. 297 

it ma} he inferred that Joseph had long been dead, and that 
Mary had hved in obscurity. — Map/A/i — 'idxalBog, Mary — James) 
They speak of them thus as if they had nothing but a name, by 
which name they were well known. 

56. 'AdiXfal, sisters) These they do not condescend even to 

57. 'EffxavSaX/^oi/ro, they were offended) as it happens with 
those who observe one thing, but neglect to observe another, 
which ought rather to have been observed. — vpo^^rr);, x.r.X., a 
prophet, etc.) In a prophet there are two parts : the one which 
he possesses in common with others, ordinary, natural, domestic ; 
the other, which is peculiar to his calling, heavenly, spiritual, 
public. Those who know the former do not observe the latter. 
FamiHarity breeds contempt. Such is the case in our own 
country, much more so in our home. — ari/iog, contemned) The 
contempt which a prophet meets with elsewhere, is not con- 
tempt if it be compared with that which he meets with in his 
own country ; elsewhere he certainly receives some honour. 

58. 'Amerloiv, unbelief) The reason why many miracles are 
not performed at present, is not so much planted Christianity, 
as reigning infidelity.^ 


1. 'El/ ixtlviji 7-fi xocipSi, at that time) It was now about a year 
from the commencement of our Lord's public ministry. — iixoueiv, 
heard) The ears and courts of kings resound with news ; but 
spiritual matters, however widely pubHshed, scarcely ever arrive 

' In the original, " non tam est fides plantata quam infiielitas regnans; i.e. 
it is not so much that Christianity, having been already planted, does not 
require the aid of miracles, as that the wide prevalence of unbelief prevents 
their being performed. — (I. B.) 

' And if they do reach them at all, they appear in an imperfect form and 
blended with what is false ; nor are they easily turned to good purpose. 
Nevertheless, at times, a joyful exception to this is to be met with. — V. g. 


2. naiely, servants) The friends of princes are for the most 
part young.i In time of fear, the great speak promiscuously 
with the small.— euros, tJiis) Herod was tormented by his con- 
science.^ It was not consistent with the character of such a 
king to arrive at an absolute decision. He concluded, but with 
doubt ; see Luke ix, 7, 9. Herod was a Sadducee ; but Sad- 
duceeism wavers when anything strange occurs. Keason [mere 
human reason] prefers ascribing marvellous circumstances to 
ancient, or at least departed saints, rather than to those who 
are alive ; and to those whom it has once begun to esteem highly 
rather than to others.^ — 'ludwtig, John) Herod had not heard of 
the works of Jesus before the death of John. John had not 
performed any miracles during his life ; but because he had 
been a holy man, men now suppose that he must nevertheless 
have possessed miraculous power; cf. ch. xvi. 14. So great 
power has the reputation of holiness even with those who are 
themselves unholy. Moreover, as the actions of Christ were 
ascribed to John even when dead, it was necessary that he 
should decrease in order that Christ might increase. The 
Greeks speak much and often of the things which our Lord's 
forerunner, slain before Him, annoxmced and preached to the 
dead ; see Leo AUatius,'' de libris ecclesiast. Gr. pp. 303, 304 ; 
and Wetstein° on the dialogue against the Marcionites, p. 33. 

1 Alluding to two of the meanings of -jtcus, tlie one implying youth, the 
other attendance on a superior. — (I. B.) 

' So far was he from speaking thus in jest. — E. B. 

° John most speedily attained the consummation of his course ; but those 
who had deprived him of life, subsequently atoned most dearly for it. 

* Leo Allatius (or Allacci). A laborious and indefatigable writer, of a 
vast memory, whose writings display great reading. Born in the Isle of 
Chios, of Greek parents, 168B. Having been admitted into the Greek Col- 
lege at Rome, he embraced the Roman Catholic religion, and was eventually 
appointed keeper of the Vatican library by Pope Alexander VII. Died 
1669.— (I. B.) 

^ The author here intended is not J. J. Wetstein, Bengel's great critical 
rival, but John Rudolph Wetstein, son of the author of the same name. 
He was a native of Basle, and became a theologian and philologist of that 
Academy. He was born in 1647, and died in 1711. He published at Basle, 
in 1674, " Origm against the Marcionites," in Greek and Latin, with notes 
—{I. B 


So do the Latins also, quoted by Ittigius^ in his dissertation on 
the gospel preached to the dead, § xi. : see also Ambrose on 
Luke i, 17, and Gerson's^ second lecture on St Mark. — o (Sk't- 
risTrii, the Baptist) This surname is given to John even by 
Herod, even by the daughter of Herodias, even by Josephus, 
so celebrated was it. — auros, he) himself. — ai duvd//,iig, mighty 
works) He speaks of them as objective realities. — h aurSi, in Him) 
sc. in Jesus. 

3-12. '0 y&p 'Hpddris, n.r.X., for Herod, etc.) It was not neces- 
sary that the death of John should be foretold in the Old Tes- 
tament, or be described professedly and in order; because he 
did not die for us. The mention of him, however, is gracefully 
resumed when our Lord was now in the zenith of His career. 

3. 'Hpu^idda, Herodias) This princess was hostile to the latter 
Elias, as Jezebel to the former. — roD a^sXpoij aurov, his brother) 
Most authorities* prefix cD/X/Votu fi-om St Mark, who is known 
not to have taken all things from St Matthew by his being 
the only one who names this brother of Herod. The shorter 
reading of St Matthew has been preserved intact by the Vulgate, 
' fratris,' of his brother, alive, and not childless, as we learn 
from Josephus, xviii. 7 ; but it was sufficient for the Evangelist 

1 Thomas Ittiqius, a native of Leipsic, of which Academy he became a 
theologian and historian ; was born 1643, and died 1710. He was the 
author of many learned works. — (I. B.) 

" John Gerson; born at Gerson, in France, in 1363 ; educated at Paris, 
where he became Canon and Chancellor of the Church. He greatly distin- 
guished himself, at the Council of Constance, by many speeches, especially 
by one, in which he enforced the superiority of the Council over the Pope. 
He was one of the most illustrious men of his time, and obtained the sur- 
name of Doctor Ohristianissimus. Cave says that no one can be conversant 
with his works without very great benefit. His writings are very numerous. 
-(I. B.) 

' Such is the reading of E. M. In his App. Crit. Bengel writes, — 
" (<3E>AiV?roy) Lot. plerique, et inde Cant. Angl. Mag. Augustin. sed 
habet Sax. ^iT^l-s-jrov, prsemittunt plerique ex Marco. Brevior," etc., as 
in Gnomon. — (I. B.) 

Lachm. with BZ Orig. 3, 470J, reads OA/txou — airou. h has uincv 
O/XiVsrou. Tischend. omits O/JkVttou with Do (?) c Vulg. OAiVwow looks 
like a gloss of the harmonies from Mark vi. 17. However, the omission 
might also come similarly from Luke iii. 19. — Ed. 

The marg. of both Editions agree with the Gnomon. But Vers. Germ, 
retains ^^AfVa-ow in this passage. — E. B. 

300 ST MATTHEW XIV. 4-9. 

to say that he was his hrother. Herodias^ was also the niece of 
both, being the daughter of their brother Aristobulu«. 

4. Oupc E^stf", it is not lawful) John did not break the force 
of bitter truth by arguments of a too concihatory nature ; neither 
his words were soft, nor his dress. John did not come into 
Galilee, but yet he was able to reprove Herod. — eol, to thee) Hins 
even of kings should be rebuked in the second person. — ix^iv, 
to have) Theologians must not give up questions concerning 
marriage (see ch. xix. 3, 4), since it is their duty to examine 
everything which is lawful or unlawful ; cf. ch. xxii. 17. 

5. 'lE<po^t]6ri, feared) They often fear who crush the witnesses of 
truth, whilst the witnesses themselves fear not their oppressors.^ 

6. Teiimlojv) Either the day on which he was bom, as the LXX 
use the word in Gen. xl. 20, or that on which he began to reign. 
Remarkable days of high festival are accompanied -with, great 
danger of falling into sin.' — up^fidaro, she danced) A light 
matter ; the handle of a most weighty matter. — Svydrnp, daughter) 
Salome by name. — h r£ /tsirw, in the midst) in the sight of all 
during the banquet. 

7. ' aiioXiyneiv, promised, agreed) The girl had asked by 
dancing ; and the king appears, even before this, to have been 
in the habit of giving her something on his birth-day. 

8. TJpo^i^askTga,, being before instructed) i.e. before she asked. 
— Sibi, here) Before the king could repent. — irivaxi, in a charger) 
which perhaps she held in her hand. The ungodly know how 
to propose the most horrible things with elegance of language 
and sweetness of sound. 

9. 'EXvvriSr}, was grieved) Conscience was not yet entirely 
banished from the monarch's breast. The sudden necessity of 
executing an evil purpose startles even the worst. The joys of 
this world are accompanied by sadness. — o jSaeiXiii, the king) 
strictly tetrarch ; see ver. 1. — eummxtifihouc, reclining at his 
table) The king feared the guests, the guests the king. By not 

1 See Genealogical Table, p. 120.— (I. B.) 

' An evil purpose, which has been scarcely begun, is afterwards, whenever 
a very slight opportunity may present itself, brought forth into action. — V. g. 

' Of this kind are, for instance, dedication-festivals, market-days, etc. ; 
for, when these are celebrated according to custom, often weariness and 
lamentations succeed to vain rejoicings. And yet the world does not allow 
itself to be advised to better things. — V. g, 

ST MATTHEW XIV. 10-15. 301 

Interceding as they ought to have done for John, they became 
accompHces in his niiirder. 

10. ' AmxKpdXiss, he beheaded) Even this kind of death was a 
proof that John was not the Messiah : cf. John xix. 36.' — 
'ictiantiv, John) a sudden and violent death, even by decapita^ 
tion, is not always miserable. 

11. Tj) firiTpl aur^s, to her mother) who without doubt treated 
it cruelly. 

12. TJ (fS/ia, his body) without the head. — iXSovri;, x.t.X., 
coming, etc.) From that circumstance the death of John was 
advantageous to his disciples.^ — a^jTriyyuXav, announced) It 
is not said with what manifestation of feehng Jesus received 
this announcement ; doubtless He received it as it befitted the 

13. 'Axougag, having heard) sc. those things which are men- 
tioned in ver. 1—12.° — ave'^dprieev, departed) The murderer of 
the Baptist was unworthy to hear or see the Lord : see ch. xxi. 
23-27. Afterwards, indeed, he did see Him ; Luke xxiii. 8 ; 
not, however, coming of His own accord, but forced by the 
violence of His enemies ; and therefore Herod's seeing Him, on 
that occasion, was not a sign of favour. Cf. the case of Samuel 
and Saul, 1 Sam. xv- 35 and xix. 24. — xar Idiav, apart) no one 
being taken with Him, except His disciples. — •'rs^jj, on foot) See 

14. 'E^iX6iiv, having come forth) sc. from His retreat into 

15. 'O'^iae, evening) The evening has various degrees; see 
ver. 23. — ii oipa, the hour) sc. for dismissing the people, of 
taking food and rest, or of going to search for food. — iavnii, 

1 It was not fitting, to wit, that even a bone of Christ's body should be 
broken, much less His head taken o£F. — ^V. g. 

' That is, the death of their master was the means of leading them to 
Jesus — the greatest of all blessings. — Ed. 

' Namely, that the fame of Himself had reached Herod. Comp. John iv. 
13.— Harm., p. 331. 

* Edstathius, the grammarian, who flourished in the twelfth century, was 
Bishop of Thessalonica. He wrote commentaries on Homer, and on Diony- 
sius the geographer. He must not be confounded with the amatory writer, 
Eumathius the Macremholite, who wrote under this name in the fifteenth 
century, and was an obscure grammarian. — (I. B.) 

302 ST MATTHEW XIV. 16-28. 

for themselves) The disciples seem sometimes to have bought 
food for them. 

16. oil %^£/av, no need) We should not labour for that which 
is not necessary. — hiJ-i7i;, you) significantly. The disciples already 
possessed the rudiments of miraculous faith.' 

17. "Apnvg, loaves) obtained for the present exigency one by one. 

19. ' AmiiXiSnvai, to be seated) The faith of the people is thus 
exercised. — tous aprovc, the loaves) sc. whatever was there. — 
aml3\i-^ac, looking up) Jesus referred everything to the Father 
(see John xi. 41, xvii. 1) with the most entire confidence : far 
different from the practice of sinners; see Luke xviii. 13. — 
0/ di f^aSriral, but His disciples) A prelude to their future admi- 
nistration.^ See Acts iv. 35. 

20. nan-E5, all) How much more can all partake of the one 
body of the Lord in the Holy Supper. — xXao/iarwn, of fragments) 
of most excellent bread ; cf. John ii. 10. A most substantial 
miracle. The people were not permitted to carry any away for 
the sake of curiosity. — SuiSixa, twelve) see Gnomon on ch. xvi. 
9. There were remnants also of fishes ; see Mark vi. 43. 
They were preserved for future eating, not, like manna, as a 

21. Tuvaixuv xal •:raihim, women and children) of whom no 
doubt there was a large number. 

22. EuSiug, straightway) Our consideration ought not to dwell 
on things which we have well done. — ijvdyxaaiv, constrained, 
compelled) as it is allowable to believe, for important reasons. 
They did not willingly sail alone. — rh <!r'kom, the vessel) men- 
tioned in ver. 13.— te^s, x.r.X., until, etc.) He is not said to have 
told them that He should pray. He gave an example of pray- 
ing in secret. 

23. TJ opog, the mountain) which was in that region. Moun- 
tains and elevated places (see Acts x. 9) are especially suited 
for prayer, on account of their solitude, and their being open to 
heaven. — xar Idlav, apart) Not even the disciples being present. 
In such a retreat, matters of the greatest importance took place 

1 In the original, " Eudimenta fidei miraculorum apud discipulos"^i.e. 
that special faith which is required for the performance of miracles 
-(I. B.) 

* Sc. of the charities distributed to the needy brethren.— Ed. 

ST MATTHEW XIV. 25-31. 808 

between God and the Mediator. It was no dramatic represen- 
tation that interceded for us.^ What passed between Christ and 
the Father may be inferred, for example, from Ps. xvi. and 
Luke xi. 2, 3. Cf. ver. 1 and John xvii. — vposiii^aeSai, to pray) 
beyond midnight ; see ver. 25. The fruit may be seen in ver. 
33, 34. 

25. TsrapTYi, fourth) and last. The Jews also divided the 
night into four watches. The disciples were subjected to great 
straits for some time, till He brought them help. — airrikh, He 
departed) His prayers, though they had lasted a long while, 
being as it were broken off. He departed to help His disciples. — 
-KtpmaTuv, x.T.X., walking) though the wind blew strong. 

26. ' '&'i^ they were troubled) We often take Christ 
for another rather than for Christ : cf. ver. 2. The disciples 
now feared not only the sea, but also the Lord. — panrao/ia, an 
apparition) (panasiho. and (pagij^a are identical in meaning. See 
Wis. xvii. 15, 4. Nor does pavrasla greatly differ from them. 
Ibid, xviii. 17. 

28. KsXi\i(fov, command) A remarkable exercise of faith. 
Peter, from desire for Jesus, leaves the vessel, whether he has 
to walk on the sea or to swim through it. Cf. John xxi. 7. 

29. 'EX^E, come) More is required of him who offers himself 
spontaneously to Christ; he is more greatly tempted, more 
mightily preserved. 

30. BXi'jrtav, seeing) Peter both felt the wind, and saw it on 
the waves. — riv ave/iov the wind) The wind had been strong be- 
fore that, but had not been so much observed by Peter. — Ipo^^dri, 
he was afraid) Although he was a fisherman, and a good swim- 
mer ; see John xxi. 7. They who have begun to depend on 
grace are less able to employ nature. — xararnvrli^eaSai, to sink) 
According to the measure of his faith, he was supported by the 
water ; just as the Israelites prevailed according as the hands 
of Moses were held up. 

31. 'OX/yoV/irrE, thou of little faith) Even great faith is little 
in comparison of that which we ought to have. We should also 
possesss constancy. — ilg t'i, wherefore'^ to what end?) With 
what advantage ? He is not blamed because he came out of the 

' " Non intercessit actio scenica" — i.e. our Lord's intercession was real, 
genuine, substantial ; not mythical, theatrical, or fictitious. — (I. B.) 

sot ST MATTHEW XIV. 36.-XV. 1, 2. 

vessel, but because he did not remain in the firmness of faith. 
He was right in exposing himself to trial ; but he ought to have 
persevered. — IdlSTaffas, didst thou doubt) The nature of faith is 
perceived from its opposites, doubt and fear. See Mark v. 36 ; 
Eom. xiv. 23 ; James i. 6.* 

36. Mo'voK, X.T.X., only, etc.) Such was their pious humility.^ 


1.' 0/ a-jrh 'lepofoKu/jLiav, which were of Jerusalem) Who ap- 
peared to excel in authority and zeal, having come such a long 

2. Twv ■jrpie^vr'epm, of the ancients) The word 'rpiajSuTipoc: some- 
times denotes a dignity or ofiBce ; sometimes it is opposed to 
youth ; sometimes, as in this place, to later generations. — aprcv, 
bread) The Jews eat other kinds of food without washing their 
hands more readily than bread. See Wall's' Critical Notes, 
p. 47. 

1 Ver. 33. ©sou vU; if, Thou art the Son of God) Since they perceived 
that Jesus was such by reason of His miraculous walking on the sea, they 
ought not to have wondered at this very miracle to such a degree as to be 
lost in amazement. It is for this reason they are censured by Mark vi. 51, 
52. For the mind, which faith has rendered intelligent and sober, unlearns 
excess of astonishment. — Harm., p. 333. 

Ver. 35. o! aalpi;, the men) who perhaps were engaged in labouring in 
the fields. — y, g. 

^ 'Oaoi riipaiiro, as many as touched Him) Out of so great crowds of miser- 
able men, not even one is found who met with a repulse in seeking help from 
Jesus. However, those who were ungrateful were subsequently reproved, and 
those who needed it were warned to avoid new acts of sin Harm., p. 337. 

' TffTs, then) By this particle, the narration of the events which had hap- 
pened before and after the Passover is connected together : from which we 
may infer that Jesus, at that time, had not gone up to Jerusalem. — Harm., 
p. 340. It was at a time most unseasonable that the hypocrites made an 
oblique attack on Him, starting a question, high sounding, no doubt, but 
after all ending in mere minutise. — V. g. 

' After the feast of the Passover had been celebrated at Jerusalem. — 
Harm., p. 340. 

" William Wall, D.D., sometime Vicar of Shoreham, a learned divine 


3. Aiari, wfiy) He replies by a question similar in form to 
that which they had proposed in ver. 2.' — xal u/is/'j, ye also) 
Whether My disciples transgress or not, you are the greatest 
transgressors. — ha, x.t.\., on account of, etc.) Traditions, even 
where you could least expect it, detract from the commandments 
of God.^ — i/iSiv, your) They had said, of the ancients ; Jesus is 
no respecter of persons. 

4. ' O yap &shs, for God) In contrast with l/iiTi Si, but you, i^ 
ver. 5. — rlfia, honour) Honour signifies benefits which are due 
(see Gnomon on 1 Tim. v. 3), the denial of which is the greatest 
insult. Thus, in the S.V. of Prov. iii. 9, ?-//ia rhv Kvpiot {honour 
the Lord) occurs mth reference to sacrifices. An instance of 
metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent. In Exod. sx. 
12, S.V., it stands thus : — rl/ia ron warepa eou xal rriii lirtrifa Sou : 
honour thy father and thy motlier. The second eou (thy) is not 
expressed in the present passage. — o xaxoXoym, he that curseth) 
In Exod. xxi. 16 : o xaxoXoyuv ira-rifa aurou ij //.riTipa auroD davuTCj) 
reXiurdrco :' he that curseth his father or his mother, let him die* the 
death. — Life is assailed by curses, and children receive their life 
through their parents. — Savdru), death) Observe this, O youth ! 

5. "T/is?'; de, but you) What God commands are the offices of 
love ; human traditions lead into all other things.' — 6upov, a gift) 
i.e. it is a gift. Wliatsoever, etc., is Corhan. The formula was 
^i> njnj '•JKC t3ip, Let all that by which I might he serviceable to 
thee in any way whatsoever, be to me Corban ; i.e. Let it be as 
much forbidden to me to benefit thee in anything, as it is un- 

of the English Church; horn 1645 or 1646 ; died 1727-8. The work here 
alluded to is entitled — 

" Brief Critical Notes, especially on the various readings of the New Tes- 
tament Books ; with a Preface concerning the Texts cited from the Old 
Testament, as also concerning the use of the Septuagint Translation. 8vo. 
London, 1730."— (I. B.) 

1 The truth is never at a loss for questions, which it may put in opposi- 
tion to the questions of hypocrites. — V. g. 

* And what an amount of injury, from time to time, has heen the result 
of the accumulation of such traditions, however much particular ones may 
be not without their show of plausibility, can hardly be stated. — ^V. g. 

' The Vatican MS. reads rihivziitiu ^uucctu. — (I. B.) 

♦ Lit. " Let him die by death."— (I. B.) 

' In the original, " in alia omnia eunt," i.e. into all things which are of a 
different, nay, a contrary character. 

VOL. I. V 

306 8T MATTHEW XV. 6-9. 

lawful for me to touch the Corban. See L. Capellus' on the 
Corban. Or else, to avoid the appearance of avarice, they ac- 
tually offered to the Corban what was due to their parents; 
as many persons give to the poor or to orphans those things 
which they grudge to others, which they extort from them, or 
deny them. — o lav, %.t.X., whatsoever thoumightest be profited, by me 
— inpiXriSrig, thou mightest be profited) The priests used tb say, 
i? nan''. It be useful to thee," when the people offered anything. 
— xal, and) This particle denotes the commencement of the 
apodosis.' — o!i fi^ ■nij.nori, shall not honour) The decree of the 
Pharisees was, such an one shall be free from all obligation to- 
wards father and mother. Our Lord, however, expresses this in 
words which bring out more clearly the unrighteousness of the 
Pharisees in opposition to the commandment of God. 

6. Ka;', and thus) 8i&, on account of) The heart which is occu- 
pied with traditions, has no room for the commandments of 

7. TlpoKprinvai, prophesied) i.e. foretold. 

8. 'O Xaig oZro;, x.t.X., This people, etc.) In the S. V. of Is. 
xxix. 13, it stands thus, iyyl'Cfi Mo( o XaJs ouro? Ik rffi oTo/iar/ ahroZ 
xal h ToTg ysiXieiv avruv •nfiSiel Me, fi 8e xapSla — diddaxovrig ivrdX- 
aaTo, Mpii'jrciiv xal diSaexaXlag, — This people draweth nigh unto Me 
with their mouth, and they honour Me with their lips : but their 
heart — teaching precepts and doctrines of men. — ouroj, this) The 
pronoun here implies contempt ; see 1 Cor. xiv. 21. — Ms, Me) 
sc. God, speaking by the mouth of Isaiah. — xaphia, heart) by the 
approach of which'' (cujus accessu) God is truly and fully wor- 

9. Mdrriv, in vain) How much vanity has there been in the 

' LuDovicus Capellus was bom at Sedan in 1586. He became a theo- 
logian and philologist of Saumur, was a first-rate Hebrew scholar, and deeply 
versed in Rabbinical learning. His writings are very numerous. He died 
in 1658.— (I. B.) 

' Sc. " It (i.e. the offering) be profitable to thee." A form of benedic- 
tion— (I. B.) 

' By a Hebraism, which however is also found in Greek, ex. gr. Demos- 
thenes de Cor., " Whosoever (when any one soever) shall say, etc. — then (»ai) 
he shall not (need not) honour," etc. — Ed. 

Compare a similar construction occurring Rev. ii. 24. — E. B. 

♦ i.e. by the drawing nigh of which, as well as with the lips. — Ed. 

• Most stress is indeed made to rest on the heart. See ver. 19. — ^V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XV. 10,16. 807 

greatest part of religions throughout so many ages and climates ! 
— es^ovrai, they worship) They paid little regard to the command- 
ments of God, and that little they defiled by observing the com- 
mandments of men. — SiSdaxovng diSa,cxa\ia.g, teaching doctrines) 
laboriously, constantly, in great numbers, cf. Mark vii. 13. — 
evT&X/iara, precepts) In apposition with diiagxa'Klag, doctrines : 
these hToXfiara, precepts, were unworthy to be called hroXat, 
commandments. Precepts are adorned and seasoned by doctrines. 
— avdfxi'Troiv, of men) although they be ancients (ver. 2) ; who 
have no authority in religion. 

10. TLpoffxaXiga/jiiivoi, having called to Him) All were not always 
attentive. The Pharisees were not worthy that this should be 
said to them ; see ver. 14. — tov o%?i.ov, the multitude) Lest they 
should be deceived by the speech of the Pharisees. 

11. oi, X.T.X., not, etc.) Unless such were the case, the faith- 
ful could not, without the greatest disgust, inhabit a world sub- 
ject to vanity. — ri ix'!ropiv6iJ,imv, that which cometh out) Original 
sin is evidently here implied. — roDro, this) used demonstratively. 

12. oJda;, knowest thou^'- They perceived the omniscience of 
Jesus. — igxav&aXMrigav, were offended') Having taken, or rather 
laid in wait, for ofPence. 

13. (bMTi'ia, plant) Doctrine, or rather man. The purJii is so by 
nature, the <p\irtia by care. — narij^, x.t.X., Father, etc.) See John 
XV. 1. 2. — expiZ,!iiOrjaiTai, shall he rooted up) And this shall be the 
result of their being offended with Christ. Such a plant, how- 
ever fair in appearance, is without Christ {extra Christiun). 

14. "A<piri aurous, let them alone) Do not regard' them. — o&nyol, 
guides) see Is. ix. 16.* 

15. ' A-!n>xpihls, answering) The candour of sacred historians in 
recording the errors of holy men is remarkable in all the books 

' Rather Thou knotoeat : for the comment, which follows, shows that Beng. 
did not read these words with an interrogation. — ^Bd. 

He does so, however, both in his Greek New Testament and German 
Version.— (I. B.) 

' And regard Thee with aversion in consequence. — V. g. 

• There is a verbal reference to a!(p£Te mirovs in the original, " nolite eos 
morari" which cannot be preserved in the translation — q. d., Let them go ; 
do not detain them, or trouble yourselves about them. — (I. B.) 

* ', both) In the case of senseless men, it is better that the one 
should withdraw from the other. — V. g. 

309 ST MATTHEW XV. 16-22. 

of the Bible. — ra^a/SoX^v rair>i», this parable) Our Lord's lan- 
guage becomes parabolic in ver. 13, but was plain and literal m 
ver. 10, 11. Peter therefore, as a disciple, speaks incorrectly. 
Our Lord, however, does not expressly find fault with this. So 
that they held fast the matter, [He excuses the manner.] 

16. 'T/ji,i7g, you) corresponding with fi/iiv, to us, in ver. 15. 
You, hot only the Pharisees and the multitude. — dtfiviro/, with- 
out understanding) corresponding with euvltn, understand, in 
ver. 10. 

17. Ou'ireu, not yet) Although you have been instructed in ver. 
11, and elsewhere, in the whole system of divine morality, from 
which you might have inferred this matter also. — voirre) perceive. 
— lis, into) Into is repeated thrice without any mention of the 
heart, which is the true seat of real purity or impurity. 

19. AiaXoyigfiol vovrjpo!, evil thoughts) such as the Pharisees en- 
tertained. The article is added in Mark vii. 21. — pom/, tLm-/iia.i^ 
K.T.X., murders, adulteries, etc.) Sin against the sixth and follow- 
ing commandments. The plural number increases the force. — 
^Xaofrj/iiai, curses) sc. against our neighbour, combined with 
false witness. In such enumerations, the absence of the copu- 
lative conjunction has often the force of etc., as if he who speaks 
wished to add more, or to leave more to the imagination. — Cf. 
Mark vii. 22.^ 

20. Ol xomi' rhv avSpwirov, do not defile the man) In the very 
appellation of man, is contained (latet) an argument : for the 
spiritual nature, which is the superior part in man, is not reached 
by outward filth. 

21. Ti fiipri, parts) i.e. not towards the whole region. 

22. ' 'E^tXiodea, ti.t.X., having come forth, etc.) For Jesus did 
not enter the borders of the Canaanites. — Ixpafiyaaiv, cried out) 

• The filth of the draught is not so great as is that of a human heart not 
yet cleansed. Who is there that thoroughly weighs this consideration ? who 
strives earnestly after true purity ? But, as concerns the man who leaves 
this life destitute of such purity, whither is he rushing? Into the gulf of 
fire and brimstone. Alas I what a mass of filth that shall be, which is made 
up of so many impure beings ! Be not offended. Reader. Ofiensiveness of 
language is profitable to be used in this case. See that thou dost conceive 
a loathing of the thing itself, and be moved to flee from impurity of heart. 
■ -V. g. 

' Xauxadix) of the posterity of Canaan V. g. 

8T MATTHEW XV. 23-2S. S09 

from a distance, from behind ; cf. ver. 23, 25.* — iii, me) The 
affectionate mother had made her daughter's misery her own; 
see ver. 25 and 28. — T/e Aau/S, Son of David) Therefore the 
woman had heard of the Promise either long ago or lately. 

23. At, but) It was fitting that this declaration, and as it were 
protestation of the unworthiness of the heathen, should precede 
the declaration of individual worthiness for which it prepared the 
way : nor did our Lord grant help so much to the prayers of 
the Canaanitess alone, as to those of the Canaanitess and the 
disciples together. — oix Avexpliri — Xoyov, answered not — a word) 
Thus the lxx. in Is. xxxvi. 21 ; 1 Chron. xxi. 12. — osffoXuffov, 
dismiss) An instance of metonymy of the consequent for the an- 
tecedent : Le. Help as you are wont, cf. ver. 24 ; for our Lord 
was not wont to dismiss those who called upon Him for aid with- 
out according it. — xpat^Uy cries out) We may suppose that the 
disciples feared the judgment of men, and made their petition to 
our Lord, both for their own sake, lest her crying out should 
produce annoyance, and for the sake of the woman herself. 

. 24, 26. E/ //,ii — roTs xvvaflois, except — to little dogs) Our Lord's 
language, in ver. 24, contains no repulse, as explained in ver. 
26,^ but rather suggests hope to constant faith. The twenty- 
fourth verse is to be tmderstood, not with reference to the whole 
mediatorial office, but only our Lord's preaching and miracles. 

24. 'AmgrdXriv, I am sent) Our Lord referred everything to 
His Mission. — vpi^ara, sheep) Israel is the Lord's flock (see Ps. 
xcv.), Jesus the Shepherd. — oJ'xoi) 'lepafik, the house of Israel) 
This appeared to restrict His grace. 

25. 'EXM(fa, coming) sc. in fi-ont of the Saviour from behind 
Him;' although He appeared to have given a repulse even to 
His disciples. 

' That is, ver. 23, " She crieth after us," shows she was in the rear, behind 
Him ; ver. 25, " Then came she," etc., shows she had previously been at a 
dbtance. — Ed. 

' Bengel's words are, " Sermo in thesi expressus, in hypothesi nuUam 
habet repulsam : sed potius spem facit fidei constanti. Thesis autem acci- 
pienda est, non de officio toto mediatorio, sed de praedicatione et miraculis." 
I have endeavoured to render this so as to be intelligible to the general 
reader (I. B.) 

' Thereby stopping up the way before Him [as if she would not let Him 
go farther without blessing her]. — ^V. g. 

810 ST MATTHEW XV. 26-28. 

26. tZv Tixvcav, the children's) Our Lord spoke severely to the 
Jews themselves, but honourably of them [to those without]; 
see John iv. 22. Thus we, concerning the Evangelic Church. 
xvmptoig, to little dogs^) who are not worthy to receive it. But 
yet xuvdpm, the word employed by our Lord, is a diminutive, 
and Jesus thereby gives a handle to the woman to take hold of 
Him. Midrasch Tillim.^ says, " The nations of the world are 
like dogs." 

27. Nat, yea) The woman seizes upon the appellation xvvdpia, 
for she says immediately, xal y&p, which must be rendered, for 
even (etenim). The particle ml partly assents, partly as it were 
places on our Lord's tongue the assent to her prayers, i.e. prays. 
The word is thus used in Philem. ver. 20, and Judith ix. 12.* — 
iffSlii, eat) since the children often waste their bread. — a^rJ rm 
■\iyjm, of the crumbs) She does not say the morsels, nor the 
bread. — ruv mTTovrm, which fall) in opposition to Xa^iTv xal 
^aXih, to tahe and cast, in the last verse. She asks for it as a 
favour, essential to herself, injurious to no one. — aith, from) 
She does not ask to be admitted to the table, but implies that 
she was not far distant from it. Her nation was contiguous to 
Israel. — tui xuplm airZv, of their masters) This indicates the pre- 
rogative of the children, and yet a certain tie of connection 
(necessitudinem) with them on the part of the little dogs. The 
language of the Canaanitess corresponds with the curse ad- 
dressed to Canaan, Gen. ix. 26 : "A servant of servants shall 
he be," etc. 

28. ''n ylvai, woman) Now at length our Lord addresses 
her.* — -//.cydXri, great) Modesty does not interfere with greatness 
of faith ; see ch. viii. 8, 9. — iig, as) After the hard struggle, so 

* Diminutives are used as terms of endearment. Therefore xvnetpioK 
probably here means the household dogs — pet doffs. — Ed. 

Even the third effort was seeming likely to be abortive. Yet she did not 
give over. — ^V. g. 

' i.e. "Allegorical Commentary on the Psalms," a Rabbinical work of high 
repute among the Jews. — (I. B.) 

' Such modes of pleading she could not have learned from books by anti- 
cipation. The Spirit of faith supplies the best forms of prayer. — ^V. g. 

* Assigning to her no ordinary phrase, with which there was no danger of 
the woman being inflated on account of her extraordinary humility of mind. 
-V s. 

ST MATTHEW XV. 29-36. 311 

much the more is given, — dikeie, thou luishest) There- is faith 
even in wishing. — dirJ, x.r.X., from that very hour) The sound- 
ness which followed was lasting. 

29. 'Exa^jjro, sat) He did not take the initiative and command 
the multitudes to approach, hut He awaited them. 

30. ''Erspous, others) sc. who were sick. — ippi-^l^av, cast) since 
they pressed upon each other.' 

32. ^irXay^vl^o/iai, 1 have compassion) Whilst the people for- 
get hunger in admiration, Jesus pities them, and is not affected 
by their praise of His miracles. Glory and mercy elsewhere 
seldom meet. — irpoajjihtuei Mo/, they remain with Me^) It was the 
interest of the people to remain with Jesus ; and yet He em- 
braces that as a reason for conferring a fresh benefit upon 
them. The people were ready to remain longer. — r/, what) for 
6, ifbot which, see the LXX. in Gen. xxxviii. 25. — vrigrus, fasting) 
Our Lord never dismissed any one without relieving their 

33. Ilo^iv, whence) Cf. Num. xi. 21 ; 2 Kings iv. 43. — 
ii(i,T\i, to us) The disciples already understood that they would 
have to take some part in the matter. 

34. 'OXlya l^SljSia, a few little fishes) They speak disparag- 
ingly of their provision, for in ver. 36 the diminutive form is 
no longer employed. 

36. 'Eu^apierrjgoig, having given thanks) It is right to give 
thanks even before food (see Acts xxvii. 35), and there it 
is the same as ihXoyla, or benediction, for it is an acknow- 
ledgment of the Divine blessing for the past and the future. 
Jesus referred everything to the Father, and here gave 
thanks for the loaves, and for the approaching satisfying 
of the people; cf. John xi. 41. — luxa'PieriTv is a verb found 
fault with by Phiynichus,* but used also by Diodorus Si- 

' Ver. 31. riu &eoii 'lupee^x, the Ood of Israel) See ver. 24. — V. g. 

' Fresh patients being ever and anon laid down in the midst, one after 
the other. — V. g. 

' Phrtnicus, a rhetorician and sophist of Bythinia, who flourished in the 
second century of the Christian sera. — (I. B.) 

* Diodorus Sioclus, an ancient Greek historian; Born at Agyrium in 
the first century after Christ (I. B.) 

812 ST MATTHEW XV. 39.-XV1. 1. 

39. '^'Avi^ti ill rh ■jtXoiov, He again went on board the vessel)* sc. 
*hat mentioned a little before in ch. xiv. 33. The word oub^ti 
occurs with the same force in Mark vi. 51. 


1. O/ ^apieaToi xal 'SaBSouxaibi, the Pharisees and Sadducees) 
The common people were mostly addicted to the Pharisees, 
men of rank to the Sadducees (see Acts v. 17, xxiii. 6) ; as at 
present the crowd is more inclined to superstition, the educated 
to atheism, the two opposite extremes. The Evangelists de- 
scribe only two attempts of the Sadducees against our Lord 
(the first of which occurs in the present passage), for they cared 
less than the Pharisees about religion. — sx tov ou;>avoD, from 
heaven) Miracles had been performed from heaven in the times 
of Moses, Joshua, and Elijah. The reason why the Pharisees 
were unwilling to accept as Divine the miracles hitherto per- 
formed by our Lord, seems to have been this : that since He 
had not yet produced any sign from heaven, they thought that 
the others might proceed even from Satan (cf. ch. xii. 24, 38) ; 
and that they considered that a sign from heaven affecting the 
whole creation, would be greater than any signs performed on 
the microcosm of man. [Perhaps, also, they were relying 
on the prophecy of Joel; see Acts ii. 19. — V. g.] The 
Sadducees, who disbelieved the existence of any Spirit, and 
therefore of Satan himself, were of opinion that our Lord's 
power extended only to hunger, and the diseases of the body, 
not to all greater matters. Both were influenced also by 

* Ver. 38. ttrpoixitrx'^ioi, four thousand) They were in truth mighty mir- 
acles, whereby five thousand (ch xiv. 21) and four thousand men were fully 
satisfied with food ; and it was then that the abundance of Jesus' miracles 
had reached its highest point. How widely His glory ought to have been 
spread abroad by so many thousands of witnesses ! — Harm., p. 344. 

' " Signa in microcosmo," signs performed in the little world, the limited 
horizon, of which man is the centre. — Ed. 

' E. V. " took ship." Bengel would give another force to the preposition 
dnoi, and renders di/ifin, iterum conscendit. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XVI. 2, 3. 313 

another motive, namely, the desire to witness a variety of 
miracles, considered merely as sights. Their lust' (libido) is 
indicated by the word tfsXo/ijv, we wish, in ch. xii. 38. 

2. 'O'vl/Zas, '^■poii, evening — morning) Two most common and 
most popular signs f for when the sky is red in the evening, 
the coldness of the night astringes the thinner vapours, so that 
no storm occurs, even though there be wind; on the other 
hand, when in the morning the sky is red and dark, the thick 
vapours burst into a storm by the heat of the sun. 

3. 'Tvozpiral,^ hypocrites) The hypocrisy was their greater 
skill in natural than in spiritual things ; for they who have the 
former have much less excuse than dull men for being wanting in 
the latter, although they are often wanting in it. For an example 
of both united, see ch. ii. 2. — irp6B!a<!nv roD oipavav, the countenance 
of the shy) not face. A man's countenance varies, his face is 
always the same. An instance of Prosopopoeia,* as just before 
in the word ervyv&f^iav, lowering. — rd (irj//,iTa tSiv xaipStv, the signs 
of the times) i. e., those which are suitable to (congruentia) 
each time. Our Lord indicates, that not only are times to be 
distinguished by their signs, but also signs by the character of 
the times, and signs and the kinds of them from each other. 
For the mode of God's dealing with man' is various —by various 

* The word is, of course, not to be taken in the literal force of its ordinary 
signification, but rather in the wider sense which it has in English writers 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (cf. 1 John ii. 16, and Gal. v. 17), 
though there is a special allusion to the epithet adulterous in Matt. xii. 38, 
and infra ver. 6, and to the common source of the various manifestations of 
the ippounfix aapKog. — (I. B.) 

' Although, from the different relations of the powers of nature, they are 
not applicable to all climes. — App. Crit., Ed. ii., p. 124. 

' The larger Ed. gave more weight to the reading of this word than the 
margin of the second Edition : however, the Ver. Germ, has not rejected it. 
— E. B. 

Rec. Text has vTrocpnecl with b. But CDLA ac Vulg. omit it. It is 
plainly an interpolation through the harmonies from Luke xii. 66. Lachm. 
reads xal before to fth with C. But Tischend. omits it, with DLA ac Vulg. 

' i.e. Personification. See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. 
_(I. B.) 

' " Influxus Dei in homines," the influx of the Deity into and among men. 


doctrines, persons, signs, times— all of which correspond among 
themselves : wherefore different signs suit different times. Those 
signs, less splendid indeed, hut such as were altogether beneficial 
to man on earth (see ch. ix. 6), were suitable to the Messiah 
then being on earth ; see ch. viii. 17, Luke ix. 54. Wherefore 
it was incumbent upon them to obtain proofs, not fi-om heaven, 
but from themselves : see Luke xii. 57. For the same reason, 
after His ascension our Lord did not exhibit signs on earth, 
as He had previously done.* — ou hLvaek ; are ye not able ?) sc. 
to distinguish sign from sign : — said with astonishment. If you 
wished it, you could do so most fiilly : as it is, you are pre- 
vented from doing so by a voluntary blindness. 

4. Tivia, nation^) Itself the sign of its own time : for such it 
was to be in the time of the Messiah ; see ch. xi. 6. — mvnpo; 
wicked) and perverse. — iijitiYoXU, adulterous) acctistomed to 
break the marriage vow, which it ought to have preserved in- 
violate to God. — ari/j-iTov, xal grifieTov, x.t.X., a sign, and [no] sign, 
etc.) A weighty repetition. They prescribe the kind of miracles 
just as if there were no other kind; therefore' all kinds of 
miracles are denied to them. The miracles which our Lord 
performed afterwards, were done not for the sake of such as 
these, but for that of the poor* and the sick.** — ri aji//,eTov 'Iwra, 
the sign of Jonah) that was not from heaven, but from the 
aiiddle of the earth. Jonah returning from the whale proved 
his mission to the Ninevites ; thus by the resuiTection of Jesus, 
whom they had not before believed, a proof was given to 
the Jews, that He was the Messiah. He silently intimates, 
moreover, that after the three days spent in the middle of the 
earth, there should be plenty of signs from heaven, which were 
performed by His ascension into heaven, and shall be performed 

' Nor will hereafter signs be wanting from heaven. — B. G. V. 

2 E. V. generation. — (I. B.) 

' Being weary of those miracles, which in great numbers they had seen 

heretofore ; and, therefore, once and again demanding signs from heaven 

Harm., p. 345. 

• " Popelli," " the lower classes," of conventional phraseology. — (I. B.) 

^ And of these miracles, Matthew mentions subsequently scarce one ; 
Mark mentions only that upon the blind man of Bethsaida, ch. viii. 22. But 
as regards teaching, Jesus continued it without intermission. — Harm., 
p. 346. 


at the destruction of the heavens ; cf. ch, xxiv. 30, Acts ii. 19. 
Nay more, not even then was it true that were there no signs 
from heaven ; see ch. iii. 16. — xal xaraXiTiiv aureus a^r^x^s, and 
He left them and departed) Just severity ; see Tit. iii. 10. Our 
Lord never left the people in this manner. 

6. 'Opare, take heed) It is necessary to be careful of the purity 
of doctrine. — ^u/ijjs, leaven) The language is metaphorical, and 
therefore enigmatical ; and by it our Lord tries the progress of 
the disciples, who had abeady been long His hearers. The 
metaphor, however, alludes to the thoughts with which the 
mind of the disciples was then overflowing ; q. d., " Do not care 
about the want of earthly bread, but about the perilous aliments 
which the hypocrites ofier to your souls." It is probable that 
the disciples had forgotten the loaves, because the controversy 
raised by the Pharisees and Sadducees (ver. 1) had put them 
into a state of anxiety and temptation. The Pharisees and Sad- 
ducees were elsewhere strongly opposed to each other, but yet 
on this occasion they conspire together against Jesus (see 
ver. 1) ; therefore He included both of them under the one 
title of hypocrites (ver. 3), and guards His disciples at once 
against both in this passage. And their hypocrisy itself was 
this leaven (Luke xii. 1), induced by which, they did not ac- 
knowledge the very sufficient signs of the present time, but, on 
the contrary, demanded the signs of another time ; whence the 
plural xaipZv, times, is used in ver. 3.^ The believer both be- 
lieves and speaks ; he who separates either of these from the 
other is an unbeliever, is a hypocrite; see Gnomon on ch. 
xxiv. 51. Neither therefore is he free from hypocrisy who has 
little faith; see ver. 8. The disciples are most opportunely 
admonished to beware of this leaven, as they did not yet imder- 
stand it from the present signs ; see ver. 11.^ 

' Nay more, every error of all sects is the one leaven, which the old 
man cherishes. — ^V. g. 

' There is also in this a suitableness of words [His mode of address], inas- 
much as the disciples, who had been present, and themselves taken a part 
in the proceedings, on the occasion of the divine miracles which had been 
twice performed in the case of bread a short time before, were feeling the 
need of bread, now that a sudden want of it had arisen. For that reason, 
they might have the more deeply been mindful of spiritual bread, and have 
seen clearly the need of sound doctrine. — V. g. 

818 ST MATTHEW XVI. 7-9. 

7. 'Aprovi, loaves) The mode of living in the family of Jesus 
was extremely simple and frugal. They thought that they 
should have to buy bread in the place to which they were now 
coming, and that there would not be a sufficiency of bread 
there, which could be ascertained not to have been subjected to 
the leaven of the Pharisees. Our Lord answers, that even if 
no other bread could be procured, yet that He would feed them 
even without the bread of the Pharisees or any of that whole 

8. T/ iiaKoyiZ^iau, why reason yeY Man imputes more griev- 
ously to himself a defect in the care of outward things, to which 
God most easily accords indvdgence. Faith's mode of estimat- 
ing is of a higher kind. — oXiySmeroi, ye of little faith) It is 
easy to fall, from want of faith, not only into doubts and fears, 
but also into errors of interpretation and other mistakes, and 
even forgetfulness.' 

9. Ovitu, not yet) The fault of the slow learner is increased 
by his having heard long ago. — votTri — -[iivrnionliTi, understand, 
remember) The verb voew expresses something more voluntary 
than ew'miii ; see ver. 12 ; Mark vii. 18 ; 2 Tim. ii. 7. Sin 
affects also the mind and the memory. They ought to have 
understood, even if those two miracles had not been performed. 
We ought to remember even the circumstances of Divine works, 
and froni former to hope for further help.* 

9, 10. Ilogov; xoiphovif voeai a-Trvpidas, how many cophini — hoio 
many spyrides) * In the first miracle, as the number of the loaves 

1 Men pass a considerable part of their time, day and night, in turbulent 
thoughts. — V. g. 

' By the setting forth of the caution concerning the leaven, thesmallness of 
the faith of the disciples, who were disquieted concerning bread, was be- 
trayed : but that faith the Lord subsequently strengthened, by reminding 
them of His having twice fed to the full so many thousands. — Harm., 
p. 347. 

" It is not such forgetfulness as they upbraided themselves with, ver. 7, 
but one altogether distinct, arising from unbelief accompanied with stupidity, 
that is here attributed to them as a fault. — V. g. 

* On the distinction between Cophini and iSpj/rides, both of which are 
rendered baskets in E. V., much has been said and written ; some maintain- 
ing their identity, others their dissimilarity. Much diflFerence of opinion also 
exists as to the derivation and original force of the words. The following 
observations of the able and indefatigable Eitto will be read with interest: 


corresponds to ttat of the thousands, so does that of the cophini 
to that of the apostles ; so that each of them had the cophinus 

" These words, although the same in our version, are not so in the original. 
That is to say, the 'baskets' in which the fragments were deposited on 
these two occasions are denoted by different words, both here and in the 
regular narratives of the transactions to which our Saviour refers. The first 
(xo'<p;i/of), was proverbially a Jewish travelling-basket, and is mentioned as 
such by Juvenal (iii. 15; vi. 642), where the word rendered 'basket' is 
hirnis, the same as this : — 

' Banish'd Jews, who their whole wealth can lay 
In a small basket.' 
" The other passage we are tempted to cite entire, as it applies to the con- 
dition of the Jews after the desolation of their city and temple, and the ruin 
of their nation ; when it is well known that such numbers of them gained a 
wretched subsistence by pretending to tell fortunes, that ' Jew ' and ' for- 
tune-teller ' became almost synonymous : — 

' A gipsey Jewess whispers in your ear. 
And begs an alms : a high-priest's daughter she. 
Versed in the Talmud and divinity. 
And prophesies beneath a shady tree. 
Her goods, a basket^ and old hay her bed. 
She strolls, and, telling fortunes, gains her bread : 
Farthings, and some small monies are her fees ; 
Yet she interprets all your dreams for these.' 
" The other word, also rendered basket, in ver. 10, is awpi';: it appears, 
from the citations of Wetstein, to have been a kind of basket for storing 
grain, provisions, etc. ; and therefore larger than the former, probably much 
larger. Campbell translates this by 'maund,' and retains ^basket' for the 
former ; and observes, that although these words are not fit for answering 
entirely the same purposes as the original terms, which probably conveyed the 
idea of their respective sizes, and consequently of the quantity contained ; 
still there is a propriety in marking, were it but by this single circumstance, 
that there was a difference." — Kitto's Illustrated Commentary, in loc. 

It is a remarkable instance of undesigned coincidence — one of the best 
indirect proofs of genuineness — that all the four Evangelists uniformly apply 
the term xitpmoi to the twelve baskets in the miracle of the five thousand 
fed ; and the two Evangelists, who record the miracle of the four thousand, 
apply the term s'Kvpiles to the seven hampers mentioned in that miracle, 
Matt. xiv. 20 J Mark vi. 43; Luke ix. 17; John vi. 13 (so here also Matt. 
xvl. 9, 10) : and Matt. xv. 37 ; Mark viii. 8. Clearly, the two miracles 
were distinctly impressed on the minds of the Evangelists as distinct and real 
events ; the circumstantial particulars peculiar to each miracle being noted 
with the accuracy of an eye-witness, even to the shape and size of the bas- 
kets. A teller of the tale, at third or fourth hand, would have lost thiii 

ni8 ST MATTHEW XVI. 10-12. 

which theji carried foil ; in the second, the number of spyrides 
corresponds to that of the loaves. If they had had more copJdni 
in the one instance, or spyrides in the other, the loaves would 
without doubt have been increased in quantity (cf. 2 Kings 
iv. 6), that the baskets might be all filled ; see Mark viii. 20. 
But the sp2/ns, rendered in Latin sporta, was larger than the 
cophinus ; an ancient gloss renders x6(pmg, corbis, corbula, i.e., 
a twig basket or pannier. Juvenal^ speaks of needy Jews, 
whose household stuff consisted of a cophinus and some hay ; 
from which it is evident that the cophinus was xou(p6ripov, lighter ; 
so that it might be carried about by any one for daily use. 
The spyris seems to have held the proper burden for a porter ; 
cf. Acts ix. 25." 

10. Twv TETfax/ffp^iX/wi', of the four thousand) That which any 
one enjoys and uses may be said to be his. — IXa^tn, ye took) 
sc. for ftiture food, as a compensation for the five and seven 
loaves which ye spent. 

11. IIwc, how) A particle expressing astonishment. — Cf. 
Gnomon on ch. viii. 10. — ou •mfi aprov, not concerning bread) 
The literal meaning is frequently more true and more sublime 
than the meaning of the letter ; and where the latter treats 
of things natural, the former leads to things spiritual. In 
things spiritual, heavenly words ought to be taken more 

12. Suvijxav, they understood) Our Lord still left; something to 
be understood by His disciples. He shows them what leaven 
did not mean in this passage; it was their part, when they 
heard what it was not, to gather what it must be. Thus also 
in ch. xvii. 13. — d*J ttjs dida'^jjg, from that of the doctrine)^ sc. 

delicate mark of truth. Accordingly, our translators, who were not wit- 
nesses, have lost the point, their attention not being turned to the dis- 
tinction, by rendering both alike baskets. — See Blunt Script. Coinc, p. 
285.— Ed. 

1 See preceding footnote. — (I. B.) 

" Quorum cophinus foenumque supellex." — Juv. iii. 14. 

' Where we read, " Then the disciples took him [Paul] by night, and let 
him down by the wall in a basket (Jk airvpHi). — (I. B.) 

' In E. v. the verse is rendered, " Then understood they how that He 
bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the 
Pharisees and of the Sadducees." — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XVI. 13. 319 

from the leaven of the doctrine.' The word doctrine, in oppo- 
sition to bread, is taken in a wide signification, so as to mean 
even hypocrisy. The leaven was this hypocritical doctrine. 

13. 'EXSiiv 'ijjffoD?, x.r.X., But when Jesus had come, etc.) A 
noticeable interval of time occurred between the things just 
narrated and those which are now declared.^ The connection, 
therefore, of the passages is not close. The matters which fol- 
low took place a short time before our Lord's Passion ; and the 
shortness of this intervaP assists the right interpretation of the 
promises made in ver. 18, 28, and of the prohibition uttered in 
ver. 20, ch. xvii. 9, etc.* — Kaigapiiag, of Ccesarea) This very 
name, which had not heretofore been given to the towns of 
Palestine, might have warned all that the Jews were subject to 
Caesar, that the sceptre had departed from Judah, and that 
the Messiah had therefore come. See, however, James 
Alting,^ Schilo, pp. 147, 153. In Scriptural exegesis, the 
reader ought to place himself, as it were, in the time and place 
where the words were spoken, or the thing was done, and to 

' Of which a specimen occurs in ver. 1. — ^V. g. 

' Mark and Luke, it seems, as well as Matthew, here begin a new section, 
wherein, with a common design, they show how He proceeded upon His last 
journey (tour of preaching), replete with salvation, in the northern coasts of 
the land of Israel, Near Cseserea Philippi, He asks the disciples, when He 
was alone with them, " Whom do men say that I am ?" and then He informs 
them of His Passion. Then He so arranges His departure (the course of 
His journey), as that He now imbues the whole land of Israel with the good 
seed. After having exhibited His glory on the mountain of Transfiguration, 
He returns to Capernaum, directing His course from thence through the 
midst of Samaria and Galilee ; then onward beyond Jordan, bending 
His course towards Judea, He bids farewell to Bethabara [John x. 40, comp. 
with i. 28], and, having crossed the Jordan afresh, He came finally to Jericho 
and Bethany, Matt. xvi. 13-xx. 34, etc. — Harm., p. 367. 

' Consisting of about one month and a half. — V. g. 

' A few weeks later, all the details of the truth concerning Him were 
published on every side, the restraints (which He had imposed on them, ver. 
20) being removed. The sum of all which the disciples heretofore learned 
was this, Jesus is the Christ: This is repeated and confirmed, ver. 16, 
and furthermore on it this additional thesis is built, Christ shall suffer, 
etc., which constitutes the sum and substance of the rest of the Gospel 
history. — V. g. 

« James Altinq was born at Heidelberg in 1618 : he studied at the 
Academy of Groningen, where he attained distinction as a divine, a Hebrew 
philologist, and a Syriac scholar. He died in 1679. — (I. B.) 

820 ST MATTHEW XVI. 18. 

consider the feelings' of the writer, the force of the words, and 
the context. — rrji <i>iXiv7rou, Philippi) Thus the inland Csesarea 
is distinguished from that on the sea-shore." — riva, whom) 
The disciples had profited by listening and inquiry; now 
their Master examines them by questioning, and gives an ex- 
ample of catechising. — tov u'liv rou 'Av^pwirou, the Son of Man) 
i.e. Me, whom I myself am wont to call the Son of Man. Peter 
gives the right antitheton [in his reply'], ver. 16 : Thou art the 
Son of the living God. — Cf. John v. 19, 27. This title, the Son of 
Man, which frequently occurs in the Evangehsts, should be care- 
fully observed : no one was so called but Christ Himself, and no 
one, whilst He walked on earth, so called Him except Himself. 
He first applies this appellation to Himself in John i. 51, when 
they were first found who acknowledged Him as the Messiah 
and the Son of God (ibid. ver. 50), and thenceforth very fre- 
quently, both before and after His prediction of His Passion. 
For they who expressed their faith in Him, called Him the Son 
of David. The Jews rightly suspected (John xii. 34), that by 
this title He claimed to be the Messiah. For as the first Adam, 
with all his progeny, is called Man, so the second Adam (see 1 
Cor. XV. 45) is called Son of Man, not with that notion with 
which DIN "'22 (filii hominis), i.e. the weak, are opposed to 
ty'S \33 (filii viri), i.e. the powerful (in Ps. xlix. (xlviii.) 2) ; or 
that in which men are called generally, sons of men (Jilii homir- 
num.), as in Mark iii. 28 ; Eph. iii. 5 ; Ezek. ii. 1, etc. ; but with 
the article, 6 uloi rou ' Avipd'irou. The article appears to refer to 
the prophecy of Daniel, vii. 13. This, in sooth, is that One Man 
whom Adam, after the fall, expected by promise for his whole 
race : o SiuTipos, the second (1 Cor. xv. 47), to whom every pro- 

^ Affectus. See Author's Preface, Sect, xv., and Translator's foot-notes 
in loc— (I. B.) 

2 Csesarea Philippi, previously called Paneas, was enlarged and adorned 
by the Tetrarch Philip, who gave it the name of Csesarea in honour of the 
Emperor Tiberias, adding the cognomen Philippi to distinguish it from 
the great Csesarea, the Roman metropolis of Judea. For further particulars, 
see Kitto'a Scripture Lands, and Lewin's Life and Writings of St Paul. 
-(I. B.) 

» In the original, " Petrus antitheton tangit,"— literally, "Peter touches the 
antitheton," a metaphorical expression apparently derived from shooting at 
a target.— (I. B.) 


phecy of the Old Testament pointed, who holds the rights and 
primogeniture of the whole human race (see Luke iii. 23, 38), 
and to whom alone we owe that we are not ashamed of the 
name of man : see Ps. xlix. (xlviii.) 20, and cf. Eom. v. 15. 
Moreover, our Lord, whilst walking amongst men, by this appel- 
lation, both expressed, and as suitable to the circumstances (pro 
economisi,) of that time, concealed amongst men (cf. ch. xxii. 45) 
and hid from Satan the fact that He was o Tihg, the Son, abso- 
lutely so called, i.e. the Son of God promised and given to man, 
Gen. iii. 15 ; Isa. ix. 6 ; and sprung from man, Heb. ii. 11 ; and 
at the same time, as it were, reminded Himself of His present 
condition. Matt. xx. 28 ; Phil. ii. 7, 8. In the same manner, 
He expressed both His crucifixion and His ascension by one 
word, i/'vj/ftitfai, / be lifted up, John xii. 32. Neither is this appel- 
lation suited only to the state of His humiliation, but the ex- 
pression, the Son of man, is used for every conspicuous situation 
of His, either in humiliation or exaltation ; see John xii. 34, 
and compare therewith, in the following verse, the light is with 
you. And it agrees with the very form of His body, as imply- 
ing youth ; see Dan. vii. 13. Consider the following pas- 
sages :— ver. 27, 28 ; ch. xii. 32, xxiv. 27, 30, 37, 39, 44, xxv. 
31 ; Luke xvii. 22 ; John xii. 23-36, v. 27 ; Acts vii. 56. 
Therefore also this appellation does not once occur in the whole 
df the twenty-one apostolic epistles, but instead of it, the appella- 
tion, the Son of God; for in Heb. ii. 6 the article is not added, and 
the words are those of David, not of St Paul, who yet frequently 
calls Christ both avSpmros (homo), and ««)/> (vir). See the 
Gnomon on Bom. v. 15. And even in the Apocalypse i. 13 
and xiv. 14, as long before in Dan. vii. 13, that appellation is 
only alluded to, not actually applied to our Lord. The agree- 
ment of the apostles, even in the case of this single phrase, 
shows that they wrote by the same Divine inspiration. 

14. 0/ /iE> — aXXo; Se — erepoi S'l, some — some — and others) It is 
not sufficient that we should know the various opinions of others, 
we ought ourselves to have a fixed faith, which then may make 
progress, even by the opinions of others, though vain in them- 
selves. — 'ludvvriv — 5) eva rZiv vpofrtTuv, John — or one of the prophets) 
There is no need to refer this to the notion of a metempsychosis 
believed by the Pharisees ; for they expected the return of Ellas 


822 ST MATTHEW XVI. 16, 17 

himself in person, who was not dead, or the resurrection of the 
others from the dead ;^ see ch. xiv. 2 : Luke ix. 8, 19. — 'lipe- 
alav, Jeremiah) who was at that time expected by the Jews. — 
ha, one) i.e. some one indefinitely. They did not think that 
anything greater could come than they had already had. They 
did not compare Jesus with Moses. 

16. 'Amxpihli, answering) Peter everywhere, from the warmth 
of his disposition, took the lead among the apostles in speaking. — 
2/^wv n'sTpos, Simon Peter) On this solemn occasion his name 
and surname are joined. It is clear that Simon acknowledged 
the Son of God more quickly and fully, and outshone his fellow- 
disciples. — 2u i7, Thou art) He says firmly, Thou art, not I say that 
Thou art. It behoved that Peter should first believe this, and 
then hear it on the Mount of Transfiguration ; see ch. xvii. 5. 
Peter had already uttered a similar confession ; see John vi. 69 ; 
but this is mentioned with greater distinction, since he delivered 
it after so many temptations,'' on being so solemnly interro- 
gated. — 6 Xpierbg, o T/is roD &eou roO ^wiroff, the Christ, the Son of 
the living God) These two appellations, therefore, are not 
exactly synonymous, as John Locke' pretended, though the one 
is implied in the other (see Acts ix. 20) ; and there is a grada- 
tion here ; for the knowledge of Jesus as the Son of God is 
sublimer than that of Him as the Christ. 

17. Maxdpio;, blessed) This word signifies a condition not only 
blessed, but at the same time rare ; see ch. xiii. 16. Jesus had 
not previously told His disciples explicitly that He was the 
Christ. He had done and said those things by which, through 
the revelation of the Father, they might recognise Him as the 
Christ. — 'Sl/iciiv 'B&p 'Ima, Simon Bar-jona) This express naming 
signifies that the Lord knoweth them that are His, and recalls 
to Peter's remembrance that sample of omniscience which had 
been given to him in John i. 42 ; cf. ibid. xxi. \6.* — eap^ xal 

' The suspicion they formed was not that the soul of Elijah or others had 
passed into the body of Jesus, according to the Pythagorean doctrine of me- 
tempsychosis, but an actual return of Elijah in person, or a resurrection of 
the others named. — Ed. 

* John vii.-x. — E. B. 

* The Author of the Essay concerning " The human understanding;" 
bom at Wrington in 1632, died in 1704— (I, B.) 

* Peter himself hardly thought that he was so acceptable [before God]. 

BT MATTHEW XVI. 18. 323 

rJ/xa, flesh and blood) i.e. any man whatsover ; flesh and blood 
are put by metonymy^ for body and soul : see Eph. vi. 12 ; Gal. 
i, 16. No mortal at that time knew this truth before Peter; see 
ver. 14. — oix amxdXv^i, hath not revealed) The knowledge of 
Christ is not obtained except by Divine revelation ; see ch. xi. 
27. — Uarijp Mou, x.T.X., My Father, etc.) By these words the sum 
and substance of Peter's confession is repeated and confirmed. 
The heavenly Father had revealed it to Peter by the teaching 
of Jesus Christ, and thus inscribed it on the apostle's heart. 

18. 2i) il uirpog, thou art Peter) This corresponds with great 
beauty to the words, Thou art the Cftrist.^ — n'sTpoe, •jr'srpa., Peter — 
rock) •Jtirpoi elsewhere signifies a stone ; but in the case of Simon, 
a rock. It was not fitting that such a man should be called 
Hirpa,, with a feminine termination ; on the other hand, St 
Matthew would gladly have written 'ckI tovtij) rS) irirptfj, if the 
idiom would have allowed it ; wherefore these two, 'jrsrpa, and 
■jr'tTpos, stand for one name and thing, as both words are ex- 
pressed in Syriac by the one noun, Kepha. Peter is here used 
as a proper name ; for it is not said. Thou shalt be, but. Thou 
art ; and yet the appellative is at the same time openly declared 
to denote a rock. The Church of Christ is certainly* (Eev. xxi. 
14) built on the apostles, inasmuch as they were the first be- 
lievers, and the rest have been added through their labours ; in 
which matter a certain especial prerogative was conspicuous in 
the case of Peter, without damage to- the equality of apostolic 
authority ; for he first converted many Jews (Acts ii.), he first 
admitted the Gentiles to the Gospel (Acts x.*) He moreover 
was especially commanded to strengthen his brethren, and to feed 
the sheep and lambs of the Lord. Nor can we imagine that this 
illustrious surname, elsewhere commonly attributed to Christ 

Blessed is the man, not he who attributes aught to himself on his own autho- 
rity, but whom the Lord pronounces to be blessed. — V. g. 

^ See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

2 Christ addresses His own, and Christ's own address Him most becom- 
ingly throughout the whole of Seripture. — V. g. 

' Eph. ii. 20.— E.B. 

* And the same apostle, in this very passage, was superior to the rest of the 
disciples in the fact of his knowledge and his confession, seeing that it is 
probable that none of them would have answered at that time with so great 
alacrity as did Peter. — V. g. 

32* ST MATTHEW XVI. 18. 

Himself, who is also called the Rock, could without the most 
important meaning have been bestowed on Peter, who in the 
list of the apostles is called first, and always put in the first 
place ; see Matt. x. 2 ; see also 1 Pet. ii. 4-7. All these things 
are said with safety, for what have they to do with Rome V' Let 
the Roman rock beware, lest it fall under the censure of ver. 23. 
— xa;, x.r.X., and, etc.) A most magnificent promise, including, 
in difierent ways, the gates of hell, the kingdom of heaven, and 
the earth. — olxoSo/i^eca, I will build) He does not say, on this rock 
I WILL FOUND ; for Peter, nevertheless, is not the foundation. 
The wise build on a rock ; see eh. vii. 24. — Mou rf,v ixxXr,eiav, My 
Church) A magnificent expression concerning Jesus, not occur- 
ring elsewhere in the Gospels. — TruXa; aSou, the gates of hell) The 
word -TTuXai (gates) occurs here without the article. Heaven is 
in the next verse put in opposition to rffi ^5»j, hell, which occurs 
here, as in ch. xi. 23. Hell has no power against faith ; faith 
has power with reference to heaven.^ The gates of hell (as else- 
where, the gates of death) are named also in Isa. xxxviii. 10 ; 
Wis. xvi. 13. Hell, ^Bri;, is exceedingly strong (see Cant. viii. 
6) ; how much more its gates ? The metaphor in " gates" is of an 
architectural kind, as in the expressions, " / will build," and 
" the keys." The Christian Church is like a city without walls, 
and yet the gates of hell, which assail it, shall never prevail. 
The defences of hell, and the fortifications of the world, corre- 
sponding to them, are here intended ; as, for instance, the Otto 
man Porte, and Rome, where Erasmus Schmidt' thinks that 
the mouth of hell is ; that it was opened in the time of Marcus 

1 Whether Peter was for any time at Rome, and that too not in imprison- 
ment, is a matter full of doubt. Grant even that he was : he was so cer- 
tainly in no other way save as an Apostle ; and the Church planted there 
was blessed with its own ordinary ministers. It was, therefore, to the place 
of these latter, not to his place, that the Bishops of subsequent ages suc- 
ceeded, who afterwards degenerated into Lords and Popes V. g. 

' In the original, "Contra fidem nil potest in/emus: fides potest in 
c<Blum :" where the preposition " in" implies also motion, or progress toward^ 
heaven. — (I. B.) 

" Even to heaven." — Ed. 

' Erasmus Schmidt was a learned Philologist, born in Misnia in 15C0. 
He became eminent for his skill in Greek and in Mathematics, of both or 
which he was Professor at Wittenberg, where he died in 1637.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XVI. 19. 325 

Ciirtius, and will be opened again hereafter, when the prophecy 
in Rev. xix. 20 is fulfilled. " Rome," he says, " is situated 
very near those parts of Italy where, before the foundation of 
Rome, Homer makes his Ulysses descend to hell, and where, 
afier the foundation of Rome, without the intervention of any 
great distance, VirgU makes his JEneas do the same. But lest 
I should appear to wish to plead on poetical credit (although 
these poetical assertions may be regarded Uke the prediction of 
Caiaphas), attend to historical testimony : — In the middle of 
the Roman Forum, once upon a time, if we are to credit Livy 
and other Roman writers, the hell, which you (Papists) place in 
the bowels of the earth, opened its mouth, and that chasm could 
not be filled up with any amount of earth thrown in, until 
Marcus Curtius, armed, and on horseback, leapt in — in order, 
forsooth, that as the heaven received Enoch and Elijah alive, so 
hell might receive this Curtius alive, as the first fruits, by these 
gates of hell then opened in the middle of the Roman Forum, 
which will, without doubt, again be opened by Divine power, 
when the beast and the false prophet shall be cast alive into 
the lake of fire burning with sulphur, as is foretold in Rev. 
xix. 20." 

19. Atiffw tfo/,^ 7" iciZZ jrir« t/iee) The future tense. Christ Him- 
self, afier His glorification, received the keys economically." 
See Rev. i. 18, and German exposition of the Apocalypse. Our 
Lord afterwards gave the keys, which He here promised, to 
Peter, not alone, but first in order of time (cf. Luke v. 10) ; 
since Peter was the first who, afler the resurrection of Christ, 
exercised the apostolical office ; see Acts i. 15, ii. 14. If the 
keys had been given exclusively to Peter, and the Bishop of 
Rome after him, and not to the other apostles also, even after 
the death of Peter, the Bishop of Rome should have acted as 
pastor to the other apostles. — rds xXs^s, the keys) Keys denote 

1 The margin of Ed. 2 makes the reading aol liura equal in authority to 
Zaao ml. — B. B. 

Ba, Rec. Text, Origen 3,526a, 529rf, 630a, support liuru <toi. D6c Vulg. 
Cypr. support aol liiaa. — ^Ed. 

■-' i.e. As Christ, without any derogation to His proper Divinity. — (I. B.) 

' CEconomice,' in conformity with the Mediatorial economy, which ap- 
pertains to Ilim. — Ed. 

326 ST MATTHEW XVI. 19. 

authority. Tertullian, in his work on fasting, ch. 15, says, 
Apostolus claves macelli tibi tradidit : the apostle'' has given thee 
the keys of the meat market, where he alludes to 1 Cor. x. 25. 
The keys are available for two purposes, to close and to open ; the 
keys themselves are not said to be two.'^ One and the same key 
closes and opens in Eev. iii. 7. The Jews declare that a thou- 
sand keys were given to Enoch. See James Alting's Hist, pro- 
mot, acad. Hebr. p. 107. — rns ^agiXiiag rZv oupavSiv, of the kingdom 
of heaven) He does not say of the Church, nor of the kingdoms of 
the world. — hrjerig, Xiiarig, thou shalt hind — thou shalt loose) The 
keys denote the whole office of Peter. By the expressions, 
therefore, of binding and loosing,^ are comprehended all those 
things which Peter performed in virtue of the name of Jesus 
Christ, and through faith in that name, by his apostolic autho- 
rity, by teaching, convincing, exhorting, forbidding, permitting 
(see Tertullian, already quoted), consoling, remitting (see Matt, 
xviii. 18, 15; John xx. 23) ; by healing, as in Acts iii. 7, ix. 
34 ; by raising from the dead, as in Acts ix. 41 (cf. ibid. ii. 24) ; 
by punishing, ibid. v. 5 ; cf. 1 Cor. v. 5 ; he himself records, in 
Acts XV. 8, an instance of a matter performed on earth and 
sanctioned in heaven. It is advisable to compare with this 
passage that in Matt, xviii. 18, and with both of them the third 
in John xx. 23. In this passage, to Peter alone, after uttering 
his confession concerning Jesus Christ, the authority is pro- 
mised, first of binding, and secondly of loosing sins, and what- 
soever is included under that authority ; and this is done as it 
were enigmatically, it not being expressed what things were to 
be bound and loosed, because the disciples were not yet capable 
of understanding so wonderful a matter ; see Luke ix. 54. In 
chapter xviii., after our Lord's transfiguration, the disciples, 

' Sc. St Paul.— (I. B.) 

" The keys of the market," i.e. the free use of authority to buy and eat 
whatever meat is sold in it. — Ed. 

* More keys, in fact, may be accounted to have been delivered to Peter. 
Hence it was that with so great efficacy he opened the entrance into the 
kingdom of heaven to the Jews and Gentiles. Comp. the opposite case [of 
the Pharisees, who shut up the kinffdom of heaven against men}, ch. xxiii. 4, 
13 ; Luke xi. 52 V. g. 

' These words as to binding and loosing do not properly apply to the keysp 
but yet have a close connection with the use of the keys. — V. g. 

ST MATTBEW XVI. 20. 827 

who had made some progress in faith, are invested in common 
with the authority, first of binding, and secondly of loosing, the 
offences of their brethren, but most especially of loosing them by 
prayers in the name of Christ. In John xx., after His resur- 
rection, our Lord haviag breathed upon His disciples, gives them 
the authority, firstly of remitting, and secondly of retaining 
sins ; for thus are the words and their order^ changed after the 
opening of the gate of salvation. The greatest part of the 
apostohc authority regards sins (cf. Hosea xiii. 12). The remain- 
ing particulars are contained in this discourse by synecdoche. 
It is not foreign to our present purpose to compare a passage of 
Aristophanes as to the use of the verb Xue/n — ^Frogs ; Act ii. 
scene 6, Epirrhema^ [Ed. Dindorf, 691], — ahtav sxhiiti, atsai 
r&; irfioTtpov a/iapTias (%p^) — i-e. " we ought to forgive (or remit) 
the faults of those who explain the cause of them." 

20. Mr)div>, to no one) Jesus had not, even to His apostles, 
said that He was the Christ, but He left it that they might dis- 
cover it themselves from the testimony of facts. It was not 
suitable, therefore, that that should be openly told by the apostles 
to others before His resurrection, which was to corroborate the 
whole testimony to the fact of His being the Christ.' For 
Jie who injudiciously propounds a mystery to those who do not 
comprehend it, injures both himself and others. Had they done 
so, those who beheved in any way that Jesus was the Christ 
might have sought for an earthly kingdom with seditious up- 
roar ; whilst the rest, and by far the greater number, might have 
rejected such a Messiah at that time more vehemently, and have 
been guilty of greater sin in crucifying Him, so as to have had 
the door of repentance less open to them for the future. After- 
wards,'' the apostles openly bore witness to this truth. — o Xpieris, 
the Christ) Soon after the disciples had acknowledged and con- 
fessed that Jesus was the Christ, He exhibited to them His 

^ The order before had been — 1. Binding (answering to retaining) ; 2. 
Loosing (answering to remitting). The order is now reversed. — Ed. 

' In old comedy, a speech, usually of Trochaic tetrameters, spoken by the 
Coryphaeus after the Parabasis. Liddell and Scott, q. v. — (I. B.) 

' Inasmuch as even Peter himself could hardly have reconciled the doc- 
trine concerning the Son of God with that of His Passion. — Harm., p. 369. 

* And that, too, after the lapse of but a few intervening weeks, — Barm^ 
p. 369. 


transfiguration (ch. xvii. 1-5), and openly spoke of Himself 
among them as the Christ ; see Mark ix. 41, and John xvii. 3. 
21. 'At-J roVf, at that time and thenceforward — ^p^a'^o, x.r.X., 
began, etc.) It is clear, therefore, that He had not shown it 
them before.^ The Gospel may be divided into two parts, from 
which the Divine plan of Jesus shines forth. The first pro- 
position is, Jesus is the Christ; the second, Christ must suffer, 
die, and rise again (cf. John xvi. 30, 31, 32), or more briefly, 
Christ by death will enter into glory. Jesus first convinced His 
disciples of the first proposition (de subjecto) :^ in consequence 
of which they were bound to believe Him concerning the second 
(de prsedicato), even before His passion. After His ascension, 
the people first learnt the second proposition (prsedicatum), and 
thence were convinced of the first (de subjecto) ; see Acts 
xvii. 3. As soon as Jesus had persuaded His disciples of the 
first proposition (ver. 16), He added the second.^ Afterwards 
He led them to the mountain of Transfiguration.'' The order 
of the evangelic harmony is of great importance with regard to 
the observing of these things. Men frequently teach all 
things at once : Divine wisdom acts far otherwise. — Stmueiv, 
to show), i.e. openly. — Sti dsT AurJi' a,'!rsX6tTv, that He must go) and 
at the same time relinquish that mode of living to which the 
disciples had become habituated. — vahTv, to suffer) When aught 
of glory accrued to Jesus, as in this instance by the confession 
of Peter, then He was especially wont to make mention of His 
approaching passion. This first announcement mentions His 
passion and death generally ; the second, in ch. xvii. 22, 23, 

^ Except in covert [enigmatical] words. — "V. g. 

' " De subjecto," " de prtedicato," lit. " of the subject," " of the predi- 
cate." I have ventured to render the passage in language more generally 
intelligible— (I. B.) 

' Viz., In ver. 21, etc., as to His suffering, death, and resurrection.— Ed. 

' Where the same voice sounded from heaven, as before His baptism, 
" This is my Beloved Son ;" there being added the Epiphonema, or appended 
exhortation, " Hear Him." To wit, He was to be heard, or given heed to, 
especially in regard to those things which had constituted the main subject 
of the conversation very recently held on the mountain (between the 
Lord and Moses and Elias, Luke ix. 31), concerning his approaching 
" decease at Jerusalem "—concerning His Passion, I say, His Death and His 
Resurrection. — Harm., p. 370. 

ST MATTHEW XVI. 22, 23. 329 

adds His being betrayed into the hands of sinners ; the third, 
in ch. XX. 17—19, at length expresses His stripes, cross, etc. 
The first was nearer in point of time to the second, than the 
second to the third. — vpie^uTiptiiv, ap^'ipit^'j ypa/ji/j,are(av, elders — 
chief priests — scribes) Three classes of those who ought to have 
led the people to the Messiah ; corresponding nearly to the 
Council of Justice, the Consistory, and the Theological Faculty 
of modern times. — syipSrimi, to be raised) He adds nothing yet 
of His ascension. By degrees, all further and later particulars 
are disclosed ; see ver. 27. 

22. UpodKa^o/iivos, taking hold of) as if he had a right to do 
so. He acted with greater familiarity after his declaration of 
acknowledgment. Jesus however reduces him to his proper 
level ; cf. Luke ix. 28, 48, 49, 54, 55.-6 nirpoi, Peter) The 
same mentioned in ver. 16.^ Reason endures more easily the 
general proposition concerning the person of Christ, than the 
word of the Cross. Sudden changes occur in Peter, in ver. 16, 
22, and ch. xvii. 4. Thence he bears witness from experience to 
the truth, that we are preserved by the power of God (1 Pet. i. 5), 
not our own. — np^aro, he began) He had received the other 
doctrines without making any objection. — IXms '2oi, propitious 
unto Thee) sc. May God be. An abbreviated formulary. Thus 
In 1 Mac. ii. 21, we meet with I'Xews fi/ui xara'Kmin v6/iov, God 
forbid that we should forsake the law. And thus the LXX. some- 
times express the Hebrew rh'hri-^ 

23. "X's-ayE, depart) It is not your place to take hold of and 
rebuke Me. By how much the more He had declared Peter 
blessed, by so much the more does He now reprove him who 
was previously prepared by faith to digest the reproof, in order 
that He may both correct him and preserve the other disciples ; 
see ver. 24. — ovleu Mou, behind Me") out of My sight. He had 
commanded Satan to do the same ; see ch. iv. 10. — ', Satan) 

1 There being thus afforded a remarkable specimen of how easy it is for 
one to stumble [to be offended with the humbling truths as to Christ] the 
more grievously [in proportion as one had the more boldly avowed the truth 
before] V. g. 

' As in 2 Sam. xx. 20.^(1. B.) 

' It becomes thee not to be My adviser, but My follower [oTtku Mow]. 

830 ST MATTHEW XVI. 24. 

an appellative. Cf. John vi. 70, where our Lord says, concern- 
ing Judas Iscariot, xai l| i/iuiv iTs SidBoXos Ignv, and one of you is 
a devil— Bwi cf. Gnomon on Kev. xii. 9. — Peter thought him- 
self very kind when he said 'iXitag, x.r.\., but yet he is called 
Satan for so doing. Cf. 2 Sam. xix. 22, where pc signifies one 
who puts himself in the way as a hinderance.^ — exavdaXov Mou, 
My stumbling-block") i.e. thou dost not only stumble or take of- 
fence at My words, but, if it were possible, thou wouldst furnish 
Me with a hurtful stnmbHng-block by thy words. This is said 
with the utmost force, and declares the reason of our Lord's 
swift severity towards Peter.' If an)rthing could have been 
able to touch the soul of Jesus, the words of the disciple would 
have been more dangerous than the assaults of the tempter, 
mentioned in the fourth chapter of this Gospel. Cf. Gnomon 
on Heb. iv. 15. — Rock and stumbling-block (lapis offensionis, lit. 
stumbling stone) are put antithetically. Our Lord sends away 
behind Him the stumbling-block placed before His feet. — rd 
roij ©EoD, the things of God) sc. the precious word of the Cross. 
The perception of Jesus is always divine.^ — rSiv Mpuiav, of men) 
the same as flesh and blood in ver. 17. 

24. &iXbi, X.T.X., wishes, etc.) No one is compelled; but if he 
wishes to do so, he must submit to the conditions. — omgiii Mou 
eXSeiv, to come after Me) This denotes the state and profession, 
as axoXouhkct) (let him follow) does the duty, of a disciple." — u'lrap- 
V7]sd,g9ca, let him abnegate, or utterly deny) Weigh well the force of 

1 Where David so calls the sons of Zeruiah. — (I. B.) 

2 E. V. "An offence unto Me."— (I. B.) 

' In this way the Saviour repelled, at the very moment of their approach, 
all things whatever might have been a stumbling-block or offence, }ust as fire 
repels water which approaches very close to it, but which cannot possibly 
mix with it. — V. g. 

* The Cross is a stumbling-block to the world : the things which are op- 
posed to the Cross were a stumbling-block (offence) to Christ. This feeling 
and perception concerning the « suffering' of Christ, and of those who belong 
to Christ, and concerning the ' glory' which follows thereupon [1 Pet. i. 11], 
Peter cherished at a subsequent time, as his own first Epistle abundantly 
testifies. — V. g. 

' " Id denotat statum et professionem ; sequatur, ofBcium." For a person 
may go after or behind another without following in his steps. In the one 
case, he appears and professes to walk in his steps ; in the other, he really 
does so: the one implies profession— the other involves practice. — (I. B.). 


the word in cli. xxvi. 70. To abnegate is to renounce oneself. 
Tims, in Tit. ii. 12, we have the simple word &pn7e6a,i, to deny ; 
in Luke xiv. 33, AvordeeteSai, to set apart from himself — to bid 
farewell to, or forsake. These expressions are contrasted with 
6/ioXoyia, confession, or accordant profession ; see Heb. x. 23." — 
Kai axoXovhiTw Mo/, and follow Me) that he may be where I am. 

25. 0sXj) — eSigai, shall wish — to save) It is not said, " shall 
save." — -^u^riv, soul) The soul is the man in his animal and 
human capacity. — eZgai, to save) sc. naturally. — avokieu, shall 
lose) sc. spiritually, or even corporeally. — amXeari, will lose) sc. 
naturally, having cast away all egoism^ by self-abnegation. It 
is not said, shall wish to lose. — mxiv ''E/iou, for My sake) This is 
the object of self-abnegation : but many from other causes lose 
their Kves, sc. for their own sake, or that of the world. — ivprign, 
shall find) In St Mark and St Luke it is auisii, shall save, shall 
save sc. spiritually, or even corporeally. The world is full of 
danger. The soul that is saved is something that has been 

26. Tin x6g//jov SXot, the lohole world) No one has ever yet 
gained the whole world ; yet, if he should gain it, what would it 
profit him? — 4"'%^''? soul) True wisdom refers everything to 
the interest of the soul ; false, to that of the body. — r/ bu>gu, 
what shall he give ?) The world is not enough.^ — avraXXayfio,, 
as an equivalent, lat. redhostimentum) which ought not to be of 
less value than the soul for which it is given. 

27. MsXXe/ tp^igSai, is about to come) A stronger expression 
than sXeiigirai, will come. As the teaching concerning the per- 
son of Christ is immediately followed by that concerning His 
Cross, so is the latter by that concerning His glory. — ron, then) 

' Peter disowns himself, when he suffers himself to do that which he had done 
in the disowning of Christ. When the human feelings of Peter desire this or 
that thing, Peter retorts — I do not know Peter any longer; there is no rela- 
tionship at all between me and him, nor is it evident to me what the man 
means or intends. Whoever has gained such power against himself, to him 
the Cross is anything but irksome, and there is nothing sweeter than the 
following of Christ. — V. g. 

" " Suitate."—(I. B.) 

• The whole world is not enough as a ransom to redeem the one soul of 
even one man. But what a vast multitude, in truth, Christ redeemed by His 
own blood, namely, the whole world ! — V. g. 

332 ST MATTHEW XVI. 28. 

All things are put off till then. — amduau hdaTuj, He will render 
to each individual) This is the attribute of Diviae Majesty ; see 
Rom. ii. 6.' — ''rpa^iv, action, conduct, doing) The word is put in 
the singular, for the whole life of man is one doing J' 

28. Tnlg, some) Our Lord does not mention them by name ; 
and it was profitable for them not to know that they were the 
persons meant.* Peter then scarcely hoped that he would be 
one of them. — ude, here) A strikingly demonstrative particle. — 
stag av I'dusi, until they see) Something is indicated which was to 
happen, but not immediately (otherwise all, or nearly all, would 
have lived to that time), but yet something which would take 
place in that generation of men. This term {terminus) or period 
has various intervals : the vision, or seeing, various degrees up to 
the death of those who saw it, which followed at various times : 
cf. in Luke ii. 26, the expression <i:ph n 'Ibri, before he liad seen, 
used with regard to Simeon. And the advent of the Son of 
Man advanced another step before the death of James (see Acts 
ii. 36, and passim till xii. 2, and cf. Heb. ii. 5, 6, 7) ; another 
before the death of Peter (see 2 Pet. i. 14, 19, and Luke 
xxi. 31) ; another, and that the highest, before the death of 
John, in the most magnificent revelation of His coming, which 
the beloved disciple has himself described (see Gnomon on John 
xxi. 22) ; a revelation to which the event foretold will corres- 
pond ; see ver. 27, and ch. xxvi. 64. And a previous proof of 
this matter was given in a week* from this time on the Mount 
of Transfiguration ; and, at the same time, out of all the dis- 
ciples those were chosen who should most especially see it. It is 
beyond question, that those three' who witnessed our Lord's 
transfiguration were peculiarly favoured with reference to the 
subsequent manifestations of His glory. This saying of our 
Lord appears to have been referred to, but not rightly under- 

' There is most frequent recurrence of this expression in Scripture. — V. g. 

* From which, according as it is subject to Christ or to the belly, many 
works continually, and as a natural consequence, either good or else bad, come 
forth (result) V. g. 

And He may have thereby also at the same time sharpened others. 
— V. g. 

* " After six days," chap. xvii. 1.— Ed. 

s Of whom James, in the year 44, Peter in 67, John in 102, are generally 
said to have died. — Harm., p. 372. 

ST MATTHEW XVII. 1, 2. 333 

stood, by those who imagined that the last day was near at hand. 
— rJv T'liv roS ' AvSpiimv lpy^6/iivov, the Son of Man coming) His con- 
spicuous coming to judgment (see Gnomon on ver. 13) is meant, 
which would begin to foUow immediately after His ascension. 


1. 'H/Ji'spa; i^, Sia; days) St Luke says, iiet! fiiiipat oarii, as it 
were, about, eight days ; enumerating the days both of the word 
and the deed. This definition of time intimates some connec- 
tion with what has just preceded. The teaching concerning the 
Son of God, and His departure, or Passion, was confirmed by 
the Transfiguration. — irapa\a./j,^dni, taketh with Him) Our Lord 
knew what was about to happen on the Mount. — o 'ijjffoD?, Jesus) 
As the name of Jesus is introduced here to indicate the com- 
mencement of a new portion of the Gospel history, it is clear 
that the declaration in ch. xvi. 28 does not refer exclusively to 
the Transfiguration. — rh nirpot xal 'Iaxw/3o» xal 'ludwriv, ron 
dSsXpii/ atiTou, Peter and James, and John his brother) St Matthew 
Candidly relates those circumstances also in which other apostles 
Were preferred to himself. The writings of Peter and John, 
who were present on the occasion, are extant : the former men- 
tions this event in his second epistle (2 Pet. i. 17, 18) : the 
latter takes it for granted,* as a thing well known, and attested 
by sufficient evidence. Cf. on the choice of the three apostles 
here selected, ch. xxvi. 37. — Spog, a mountain) The name of the 
mountain is not mentioned, and thereby superstition is pre- 
vented. Several very remarkable divine manifestations have 
been made on mountains ; see Acts vii. 30, 38. The opinion 
which regards Tabor as the scene of the transfiguration is 
specious. See Jer. xlvi. 18. 

2. MfTifiopipwdri, was transfigured) This verb implies that our 
Lord had always possessed the glory within Himself. The force 

' No doubt the transfiguration was included in the reference, John i. 14, 
" We beheld His fflory, the glory as of the Only begotten of the Father, fall 
of grace and truth." — Ed. 


of the verb iJ,iTa(!xni^a,riZia6a.i is different, as in Phil. ui. 
21 and 2 Cor. xi. 14 ; cf. also the distinction between liopfri 
and eyJiiJ^a,, in Phil. ii. 6, 7, 8.^ — pSs, light) inferior to that 
of the sun;^ for His garments diluted the splendour of His 

3. "np^jjirav, appeared) sc. with their bodies. — Mwcrjis xa) 'HXlag, 
Moses and Elias) The depai'ture of each of them from this 
world had been singular : each of them was remarkable for 
revelations vouchsafed to him on Mount Sinai and Horeb. 
Both of them are mentioned together in Mai. iv. 4, 5. It is 
probable that Moses was raised to life immediately on his death 
and burial, so that he was not dead whilst Elias was living in 
heaven : he certainly, after his decease, entered the land of pro- 
mise, in which this holy mountain was situated. And yet Christ, 
not Moses, is the anrap'^it, the primitise, the firstr-fruits. The 
resuscitation of Moses does not confer life upon others ; that of 
Christ does. This appearance, however, of Moses alive from 
the dead, is full of mystery. Who will venture to assert that 
he had already obtained immortality {a'^avaeia), and did not 
receive any advancement in bliss (psXTiaigig) after the resurrec- 
tion of Christ 1 ' Oh, how many things there are in the world of 

^ Sc. h fioptpfl &SOV vvap'jca}! — fiopCp^u SoiJxou Xa/Sw* — xai ii-)(,iipi.a.Ti lipt^sls 
ug tx.u^pci}TQg. 

Mop0^, forma, according to Beng. 1. c, expresses something absolute. 
^X^fix, habitus, refers to the aspect and feeling (refertur ad aspectum et 
sensum). I think as habitus is from habeo, so a-jc^pi,a, from exa, a^a ; and 
therefore aycjiifia is the whole external condition of man, as seen in his form 
(fiop(pii), gesture, and gait, — the bearing and state of a man. — Ed. 

^ Whereas His face shone as the sun. His raiment was only white as the 
light. — Ed. 

' On the first day of the month Adar, according to Josephus, B. IV. Ant., 
at the end, Moses died (comp. Deut. xxxiv. 8 ; Josh. i. 11, iv. 19). Beng. 
had mentioned this in Harm. Ev., Ed. i. on this passage, and liad noticed that 
Ohrist's transfiguration had taken place at the same time of year, in the pre- 
sence of Moses ; subjoining a caution, that though this remark might not seem 
to have much weight, yet it was possible it might be of use to some hereafter. 
Shortly after, some one appealed to the transfiguration of Christ as having 
occurred in the month of September, as a ground of expecting the coming of 
Moses and Elias in the month of September a.d. 1737 : an error which this 
observation of Beng., however minute and overstrained it may seem to 
some, might have served to refute. See Harm. Ev. Ed. ii., pp. 376, 376. 
— E. B. 


glory above our comprehension ! If this appearance of Moses 
and EHas were not mentioned in the canonical Scriptures, 
although attested by other sufficient witnesses, who would not 
consider it as a fable ? — /isr' Avtou gvXXaXovmg, conversing with 
Him) There is no pleonasm.'' Each of them conversed with 
Jesus. A conversation of the highest importance (colloquium 
maximum). Moses stood at the end of the first dispensation,^ 
Elias, in the middle of the middle dispensation ; Jesus, on the 
threshold of the last. They bear witness to the true Messiah, 
and to Him only, — /j,ir Autou, with Him) They conversed with 
Him only, not with the three apostles. 

4. KoCkh, good) the Hebrew 31D in the first chapter of Genesis. 
— £?na/, to be) i.e. to remain. Nay, something very different — 
xaXhv 7JV, was good [" expedient for them"] ; see J ohn xvi. 7. There 
was no need of tabernacles for standing (see Luke ix. 32), nor 
for a single night (see ibid. 37.)^ — il e'iXiis, if Thou wilt) A good 
and necessary condition. — rpsii, three) not six. The apostles 
wished to be with Jesus. — Miiierj, x.r.X., for Moses, etc.) Peter 
knew Moses and Elias in that light. 

5. "Eti, yei) with but Httle delay. — XaXoDvros, speaking) His 
speech had clearly not been suitable. — i&oxi — ihov, behold! behold!) 
Matters of great moment, one of the greatest revelations. — n<f>i\r\, 
a cloud) Human nature cannot bear the glory of God without 
admixture or interposition. Strong medicine is diluted with 
fluid. Sleep must be added ; see Luke ix. 32. Moses and 
Elias, however, were permitted to enter the cloud (ibid. 34) : a 
great admission I The Divine majesty is firequently conspicuous 
in clouds. — aOroOs, them) sc. the disciples ; see Luke ix. 34. — 
(puv^, a voice) A voice came firom heaven, firstly, ch. iii. 17 ; 
secondly, at this central period; thirdly, and lastly, a little 

^ See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 
^ At the end of the first dispensation, viz. the patriarchal ; though Moses 
also stood at the beginning of the second, viz. that of the law. In this latter 
point of view, as Moses stands at the beginning of the law as its repre- 
sentative, so Elias at the beginning of the prophets, and the Lord Jesus at 
the beginning of the Gospel, at once its representative and embodiment. — 

' Peter no longer now has the wish that he had continued on that moun- 
tain. It is now his privilege, by means of the Cross, to pass from that which 
is good to those things which are better. — V. g. 


before our Lord's Passion, John xii. 28. After each of these 
voices from heaven, fresh virtue shone forth in Jesus, fresh 
ardour and fresh sv^eetness in His discourses and actions, fresh 
progress. — oZrog eenv, x.r.X., This is, etc.) This speech has three 
divisions, which regard the Psalms, the Prophets, and Moses, 
from which they are derived^. — AiroD, Him) In contradistinction 
to Moses and Elias. This command, hear Him, was not uttered 
at His baptism; see Matt. iii. 17. — axouiTi, hear) It is the busi- 
ness of wayfarers rather to hear and publish what they have 
heard, than to see as Peter wished to do. The Father sanc- 
tioned all things which the Son had said of Himself as the Son 
of God ; and what He was about to say even more fully, espe- 
cially concerning the Cross. For the Father on this occasion 
bore witness Himself expressly concerning Him as His Son : 
concerning the Cross, His Son was to be heard more and 

7. 'H-^aro, touched) They were prostrated by what they saw 
and heard ; they were raised again by His familiar and eflSca- 
cious touch. — /j,fi (po^tTeh) cease to fear. 

8. 'IneoZv fiovov, Jesus alone) Hence it is evident that He . is 
the Son, who is to be heard, not Moses, nor Elias. 

9. Mribivi, to no one) not even to their fellow-disciples. — Iwj 
ou, x.r.x., until, etc.) After His resurrection they did men- 
tion it; see 2 Pet. i. 18. St Matthew also recorded it, although 
he had not been present. — amgTp, have risen) The glory of 
the resurrection rendered this previous manifestation more 

10. T/ ou/, X.T.X., how thenj etc.) To the mention of His death 
they oppose the restitution of all things by EHas, whom (see 
ver. 31) they suppose to have come ; and they think that this 
fact ought not to be concealed, but, on the contrary, published 

' Viz., « I will declare the decree : the Lord hath said unto Me, Thou art 
my Son; this day have I begotten Thee," Ps. ii. 7. "Behold My Servant, 
whom I uphold ; mine Elect, in whom My soul delighteth : I have put My 
Spirit upon Him ; He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles," Isa. xlii. 1. 
" The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of 
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me ; unto Him ye shall hearhen" Dmi. xviii. 
15.— (I. B.) 

And not long before his decease, Peter, in his Second Epistle, appealed to 
this very testimony which declared Jesus' glory. — V. g. 


for the promotion of the faith, that the event may be recognised 
as already corresponding to the expectation of the Scribes. — 
xfurov, first) sc. before the Messiah's kingdom. 

11. "E^jjsra/, Cometh) The present tense, midway between 
prediction and fulfilment ; and the ministry of John was efBca- 
cicus also after his death. — a'ffoxa.To.gTrieii, shall restore) The 
same verb is used by the Lxx. in Mai. iii. 24 [iv. 6]. And this 
office of restoring all things furnishes a proof that the prophecy 
concerning Elias did not refer to his brief appearance on the 
Mount of Transfiguration. — vdvra, all things) sc. regarding 
parents and children, i.e. seminally ;^ see John x. 40, 41, and 
Acts xix. 3. 

12. As, but) He teaches that there is not only no inconsist- 
ency, but also an actual congruity, between the coming of Elias 
and the death of the Messiah. — ovx Wsyvuaav aMv, they knew 
him not) although Jesus (xi. 14) had openly told it them.'' — Sea 
itlEXjjffav, whatsoever they listed') The death of John is not as- 
cribed to Herod alone ; cf. Gnomon on ch. xiv. 9. Jesus asserts 
that Elias has come in the person of John the Baptist ; John 
denies it ; both truly, if you compare these apparently conflict- 
ing statements with the questions to which they were replies. 
The Jews asked John, whether he were Elias (cf. ch. xxvii. 49) — 
he, that is to say, who was to come before the second advent, or 
great and terrible day of the Lord. John therefore replies in 
the negative. The disciples, comparing the opinion of the 
Scribes with the discourses of Christ, and endeavouring to re- 
concile them together, fancied that Elijah the Tishbite would 

1 " Seminaliter,'' i.e., he will sow the seed of these things : he will initiate 
them, as the preparation for what is to follow. — (I. B.) 

' The world either altogether disbelieves the truth, or else, clinging 
to mere expectations, refuses to believe the actual fulfilment itself. 

^ Whatsoever they listed, and that too owing to their evil and wanton lust. 
It is this very blind perversity of the world which causes the necessity that 
one must burst through so many obstacles to a good cause. It not seldom 
happens, that one who has effected some good, waits in expectation of most 
splendid recompences from the world on that account. But the man who 
knows God, the world, and himself, cannot long persist in such an expecta- 
tion. The merits which receive remuneration of this kind are not spiritunl, 
but worldly. — V. g. 

VOL. I. T 

838 ST MATTHEW XVII. 14-16. 

come before the first advent ; therefore Jesus replies, that Ae' has 
already come in the person of John the Baptist.'' 

14. Ka/ iX66\>Ttiiv avTuv, x.r.X., and when they were corner etc.) 
A very different scene is here opened to view from that vchich 
Peter had wished for in ver. 4. — Whilst Moses was on the moun- 
tain, the people transgressed ; see Exod. xxxii. 1 ; whilst Jesus 
was on the mountain, matters did not proceed very well with 
the people. 

15. ''Ekirisov IJ.W rh vlkv, have mercy on my son) The lunatic 
might have said, in the words of David (see Ps. xxv. [xxiv.] 
16), both in the Hebrew original and S.V. :* ^^ Have mercy 
upon me, for I am an only son." And this his father repeats. — 
ri mp — rh \jdiup, THE _fire — THE water) The article implies that 
the nature of these elements universally' is intended : because 
the lunatic is more liable to fall into the paroxysm when 
near fire or water: but in Mark ix. 22 (see Gnomon) fires 
and waters are mentioned, and that indefinitely, without the 

16. 0!/x nbv\i}i6r\ea,v, were not able) It was a disgrace for the 
disciples to be accused from another quarter. Observe the 
candour of St Matthew's confession, implicating himself in this 

' i.e., y^^Elias, who was appointed to precede the first advent. — Ed. 

^ Ver. 13. vspi 'luai/iiov, concerning John) not concerning that Ellas, or 
Elijah, whom they had seen, as recorded in ver. 3. — V. g. 

' Ps. xxiv. 16, LXX. iTTifiMipoi/ 1% ifti xal eJ^itjiroii fii, on /iovoyiuiis eifti 
syu. — Ed. 

* Middleton remarks on this, " Bengel (in Gnom.) has here a note which 
I do not understand : he says, ' Articulus UNrvEBSE innuit naturam horum 
dementorvm, quod Iwnaticus apvd ignem et aquam procUvior sit in paroxys- 
mum.''" Though it savours of presumption to attempt any explanation of 
that which Middleton did not understand, I would venture to suggest, that 
Bengel means to say, that the article shows that the element of fire is intended, 
in the abstract, and consequently every presence of it (universe), in the con- 
crete.— (I. B.) 

In Mark ix. 22, /re and water are not used in the general sense as here 
(Oft-times he falleth into a paroxysm, wherever fire is and wherever water 
's," — this is the effect which these elements produce on him) : but of parti- 
cular fires and waters. Though the sing, n mp is used there, it stands for 
the plural, as the accompanying Siecree show : also the article to gives the 
same force, as there is no plur. of mp, else r« ■jrvpa. would be found. How- 
ever, BCD abed reject the to there ; but A supports it Ed. 

ST MATTHEW XVII. 17-20. 339 

charge. It is wonderful that the devil did not injure the dis- 
ciples; cf. Acts xix. 16. 

17. 'Air/ffroj, x.T.X., faithless, etc.) By a severe rebuke the dis- 
ciples are reckoned as a part of the multitude, — eus «Ve, how 
long) After Jesus had received an accession of strength on the 
Mount, a more grievous instance of human unbelief and misery- 
demanded and obtained His succour ; cf. Ex. xxxii. 19.' — 'ieo/iai, 
jc.r.x., shall I be, etc.) He was in haste to return to the Father ; 
yet He knew that He could not effect His departure until He 
had conducted His disciples to a state of faith. Their slowness 
was painful to Him ; see John xiv. 9, and xvi. 31. — /is^ i/iSiv, 
with you) Jesus was not of this world. — avi^o/iai, shall I suffer) 
An instance of Metonymia Consequentis.'^ The life of Jesus was 
a continued act of toleration. 

18. 'E'TTSTi/irieev aurjS, He rebuked it) as an enemy. — aurj3, it) sc. 
the devil. — auroD, of him) sc. the child. 

19.' Kai sTmv, x.t.X., and said, etc.) A salutary submission, 
and enquiry as to the cause. — Start — oux fiSuvrjdr}/£iv, why — were we 
unable?) They had been already in the habit of performing 
the miracle in question ; see ch. x. 1. 

20. 'Airierlav, unbelief) in this case. — cr/Vr/v iig xoxxov aivd'jriu;, 
faith as a grain of mustard seed) contrasted with a huge moun- 
tain. This faith is contrasted with a strong faith, and one 
stimulated by prayer and fasting [see ver. 21]. From this it is 
clear, that the transportation of a mountain is a less miracle than 
the ejection of a devil of the kind mentioned in the text ; for 
the devil clings more closely to a man spiritually, than the 
mountain to its roots physically ; and faith, even the smallest, 
is more powerful than the fixtui-e of a mountain. You will say, 

^ The transfiguration may have probably been the most delightful, and the 
case of the lunatic the most painful, of the events which befell Jesus whilst 
sojourning on the earth. — V. g. 

2 See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

Here, the substitution of the consequent for the antecedent. Jesus puts 
His toleration of them (the consequent) instead of His sojourning with them 
(the antecedent of the former). — Ed. 

* 0/ iia6mr«,], the disciples) Not even Peter, James, and John being ex- 
cluded (excepted). Otherwise, one would think that the expulsion of the 
demon should have been committed to them on their return from the moun- 
tain. — V. g. 

840 ST MATTHEW XVII. 21-24. 

" Why then is that miracle less frequent (than the other) ?" 
Afiswer. It has nevertheless been performed sometimes ; but it 
is not necessary that it should be performed frequently, although 
the opulence of faith reaches thus far. A mountain is naturally 
by creation in its proper place : a devil is not so when possessing 
a man : wherefore it is more beneficial that the latter should be 
cast out, than that the former should be removed ; cf. on faith, 
Mark xi. 22, 23, 24, xvi. 17 ; John xiv. 12, 13.— spiTn, ye shall 
say) i.e. ye are able to say — ye have the power of saying. This 
is said especially to the apostles ; for all have not the gift of mi- 
racles. — rffl opti roiiT-w, to this mountam) so. that mentioned in ver. 
1 ; see also ch. xxi. 21. Examples of such miracles are not 
wanting in the history of the Church ; see one of them in Note 
to the Panegyric on Gregory Thaumaturgus,* pp. 127, 128 ; see 
also Le Fevre's Commentary, f. 78. — imT, there) Ye shall be 
able also to assign a place to a mountain. — olSiy, nothing) not even 
if the sun is to be staid in his course. 

21. Touro hi rh yhof, x.r.X., but this kind, etc.) Our Lord does 
not in this passage speak of the whole race of devils, but of this 
particular kind or class of them ; from whence it appears that 
there are more than one kind of devils. The disciples had before 
this cast out devils even without prayer and fasting ; * but this 
kind of devils has a disposition especially opposed to, and re- 
ducible by, prayer and fasting. The disciples were not accus- 
tomed to fasting (see ch. ix. 14) ; and they appear to have been 
somewhat self-indulgent (sobrietatem • . . minus servare) dur- 
ing their Lord's absence. 

22.° MiXXii — 'jrafaiihosiai, shall he betrayed — i/'s x^Tpag avSfiiirm, 
into the hands of men) What a grievous condition I Thus was 
He delivered up who exhibited such great authority in ver. 18. 

24. Kampmov/jb, Capernaum) where Jesus dwelt.* — ra didpax/^cny 

' See foot-note, p. 187.— (I. B.) 

' Since by [prayers and] fastings faith is increased. — V. g. 

* 'E» TJi r«X/X«/iJ6, in Oalilee) As yet abiding in a place separated by a 
long distance from the scene of His passion. — V. g. 

* On a difi'erent footing, however, from what He had been on before : for 
He was now dwelling in obscurity with His disciples, to whom He gave the 
information as to His Passion, Luke ix. 18, etc., until He set out on the 

journey which was to end in His Passion ; Luke ix. 61, xiii. 32 Harm., 

p. 380. 


the didrachmsY the Hebrew ^ptf, shekel, is frequently rendered 
hiifayjjjdi by the Lxx. — 0/ Xa/t/SaiioiirEs, they that received) sc. for 
the Temple." 

25. Na/, yes) It is clear therefore that our Lord had paid it 
the previous year.' — ore ilg^xkv I'lg rriv olxiav, when he was corns 

' " In the original [i.e., the Greek of St Matthew], the ' tribute-money' 
which was demanded, and the ' piece of money,' of twice its value, which 
Peter was to find in the mouth of the fish, are discriminated by their proper 
names. The former is called didrachma, or 'two drachmae,' and the latter 
stater. The latter was of equivalent value to the Hebrew shekel, and was 
equal to four drachmse ; and, consequently, two drachmae were equivalent to 
half the stater and shekel. Leaving the terms untranslated, Peter is asked 
if his Master paid the didrachma f and Peter is told that he should find a 
stater in the mouth of the fish. The stater was also called teiradrachmon, from 
its containing four drachmae. It exhibited on one side the head of Minerva, 
and on the reverse an owl, together with a short inscription. After the de- 
struction of the Temple, the Jews were obliged to pay this tribute to the 
Romans ; and the passage in which the historian relates this, affords one of 
those minute incidental corroborations which have been so abundantly ad- 
duced in evidence of the verity of the evangelical narratives ; for he states 
that the emperor imposed a tribute of two drachmae (Siio lpaxfi'>v) upon the 
Jews, wherever they were, to be paid every year into the Capitol, in the same 
manner as it had been previously paid into the Temple at Jerusalem — thus 
concurring with the Evangelist, that the half-shekel was usually paid in the 
form of two drachmae, or of a single coin of that value. The tax continued to 
be paid to the Romans in the time of Origen. It is understood, however, that 
the Temple tribute, though collected in heathen coin, was to be exchanged 
for Hebrew money before it could be finally paid into the Temple — pro- 
bably on account of the idolatrous symbols which the former so generally 
bore. Hence the vocation of the money-changers, whom oiu* Saviour drove 
from the Temple. They were accustomed, on and after the fifteenth of the 
month Adar, to seat themselves in the Temple, in order to exchange for 
those who desired it, Greek and Roman coins for Jewish half-shekels." — 
Kitto's Ulttstrated Commentary, in loc. — See also Wordsworth, in loc. — (I. B .) 

* The exaction of this Temple -tribute usuaUy took place on the 16th day 
of the month Adar. And, in accordance with this, the length (interval) of 
time admirably corresponds to the events and journeys, as frequently re- 
corded, from the feast of dedication, John x. 22, up to this place, and further 
in continuation up to the Sabbath, of which we have the mention in John 
xii. 1. Both the Sabbaths noticed, Luke xiii. 10, xiv. 1, occupy the middle 
portion in that time ; and the raising of Lazurus took place a few days before 
the solemn and triumphant entry of our Lord. — Harm., p. 380. 

' But, meanwhile, having been solemnly recognised as the Son of GoJi, 
He most becomingly, at this time, enters this protest in presence of Peter 
in vindication of His own dignity. — Harm., p. 380. 

342 ST MATTHEW XVII, 26, 27. 

into the house) for that very purpose. — ff/>olpte<r£v, prevented, an- 
ticipated) Peter was wishing to ask [when Jesus anticipated 
him]. The whole of this circtunstance wonderfully confirmed 
the faith of Peter. Our Lord's majesty shines forth in the very 
act of submission. — 2i/j,iav, Simon) An address as it were domestic 
and familiar.^ — rsXrj Jj xriveov, custom or tribute, lat. vectigalia aut 
censurn) i.e. land-tax and poll-tax. — aXkorpiav, strangers) subjects 
who are not sons. 

26. 'EXiihpoi, free) The argument is as follows : Jesus is the 
Son of God (ver. 5), and the heir of all things ; but the Temple, 
for the sake of which the didrachms are paid, is the house of 
God : it behoved Jesus, on paying the didrachm, to do so under 
protest. They who received the tribute were not capable of 
comprehending (non capiebant) the protest, therefore it is ad- 
dressed to Peter. They who pertain to Jesus, possess also the 
right of Jesus. 

27. "Iva ds fiuri exavdaX!eofi,iv aWoii, But lest we should offend 
them) Our Lord even performed a miracle to avoid giving 
offence; cf. ch. xviii. 6, 7. — auroig, them) who were ignorant of 
our Lord's claims. Men who are occupied in worldly affairs, 
most easily take offence at the saints when money is in question. 
-=-rJv amjSdvra ■irpurov, that first comeih up) A manifold miracle 
of omniscience and omnipotence : 1. That something should be 
caught ; 2, and that quickly ; 3, that there should be money 
in a fish ; 4, and that in the first fish ; 5, that the sum should be 
just so much as was needed ; 6, that it should be in the fish's 
mouth. Therefore the fish was commanded to bring a stater, 
or four-drachm coin, that very moment from the bottom of the 
sea. — &vt1 'Efiou xal gov, for Me and thee) A pair of great dis- 
parity ; for what was Peter compared to the greatness of Jesus ? 
Peter had a family of his own ; the other disciples^ were the 
family of Jesus (cf. Gnomon on Matt. viii. 14) ; therefore they 
said your, not thy Master, ver. 24. 

' 0/ fia.(7i\u; T^f yvi;, the, kings of the, earth) With these is compared the 
Lord Jehovah, for whose worship the tribute was paid. — V. g. 

' The other disciples, as we may reasonably suppose, had not yet passed 
their twentieth year; and therefore were not yet bound to pay the sacred 
tribute. — ^V. g. 



1. 'El hihri rji uipcf, in that hour) when they had heard of the 
freedom of the children, declared in ch. xvii. 26 (which accounts 
for the use of &pa, then, in this passage) ; and when they had 
seen that Peter, James, and John (ch. xvii. 1), had been all 
summoned to the Mount. — rig &pa, x.t.x., who then, etc.) They 
put the question indefinitely in words, but in their own hearts 
they think of themselves.* — h rfi ^agiXilcf rSiv oxipavut, in the king- 
dom of heaven) See that thou enter there : do not enquire before- 
hand what are the several portions allotted to each therein. 

2. Tiaidiov, a little child) A diminutive, to rebuke the disciples 
who sought great things. It is said to have been Ignatius — 
^soip6pos.' Without doubt it must have been a child of excel- 
lent disposition and sweetest appearance who was then present 
by Divine appointment. — Iv iMSifi aurZv, in the midst of them) 
see Gnomon on Mark ix. 36. 

3. Kal ihiv, and said) By asking who is the greatest ? each of 
the disciples might offend himself, his fellow-disciples, and the 
child in question. The Saviour's words (ver. 3-20) meet all 
these oiFences, and declare His own and His Father's anxiety 
for the salvation of souls. We perceive hence the connection 
between the different portions of His speech. — iig rk -rtaibla, as 
little children) They must possess a wonderful degree of humility, 
simplicity, and faith to be proposed as an example to adults. 
Scripture exhibits everywhere favour towards little children. — 
oi [iri elesXSnn, ye shall not enter) So far from being the greatest, 

1 In Mark ix. 33, 34, and Luke ix. 46, 47, the fact is stated with some 
little change in the form in which the circumstances appear ; namely, the dis- 
ciples, after that they had disputed oH the way, and were on that account set 
to rights by our loving Saviour, were at first silent : but then, all having been 
convened together by the Saviour, some finally proposed the question to Him. 
Harm., p. 381, 382. Comp. Michaelis in der Einleitung, etc., T. ii., p. m. 
911, etc.— E. B. 

' Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the meaning of this word : 
some rendering it " one who was carried by God," in allusion to the circum- 
stance mentioned in the text ; others explaining it to mean " one who carried 
God alwaya about with him, sc. in his heart." — (I. B.) 


ye shall not even enter therein. He does not say, " ye shall 
not remain," but, " ye shall not enter," so as to repress their 
arrogance the more. 

4. " Oeris, whosoever) No answer is given concerning the indivi- 
dual whom they inquired about. — ouroj, this man) sc. he, I tell you. 

5. Ai^rirai, shall receive) sc. humbly, lovingly, to the profit of 
his soul, as appears from the contrast in the next verse. — 
roiouTov, such) For little children also are sometimes corrupt.' — 
The same termination occurs in Acts xxi. ZS.'' — Iv, one) God's 
providence is exercised also on individuals ; see the next verse. 
One is frequently mentioned in this chapter. — i-jri rSi M/iarl Mov, 
in My name) Not from natural or political causes. — ovSfian, 
name) see ver. 20. — ''E/is, Me) sc. who am in the little ones 
which believe on Me, as the Father is in Me. In like manner 
it may be said that, in Justification, when God receives a believer, 
He receives Christ. 

6. 'SxavdaXierj, shall offend) sc. by putting a stumbling-block 
in the way of either his faith or practice, by provoking to pride 
or strife, by calling him away from the virtues of that early 
age. The greatest reverence is due to a child, if you are em- 
ployed in anything which is wrong.* Children are more easily 
impressible ; therefore they are more easily injured. — rZv vis- 
Tivovruv, who believe) Jesus paid great attention to little children, 
and endued them with faith; see ch. xiv. 21, xix. 13, 14, and 
xxi. 15, 16. — (Tu/ipE^s/ aurcB, it is expedient for him) i.e., it is his 
interest — it were better for him ; for drowning is far less horrible 
than the fire spoken of in ver. 8, or the lake of fire mentioned in 
Rev. xix. 20. — /liXog ovixhs, amillstoneY An appropriate phrase in a 
discourse concerning offence, for stumbhng is produced by stones. 
— xaTavovTieiri, be drowned) A frequent and horrible punishment.* 

' Therefore He marks out one endued with humbleness of heart. V. g. 

' To/oDrof, ronti/Tti, to/oSto, Att. also roioirov, which however is also found 
in Od. vii. 309, and xiii. 330 ; and seems to prevail in Herodotus. Liddoll 
and Scott.— (1. B.) 

• See Juvenal xiv. 47, 48. — (I. B.) 

" Maxima debetur puero reverentia, si quid 
Turpe paras." — Ed. 

* Literally, an ass millstone — i.e. the millstone of a mill worked bj an a,«; 
and therefore larger than a common hand-mill. — (I. B.) 

' Iif opposition to the kingdom of heaven. — V. g. 


— ittXayii, the sea) sc. the deep ; see Gnomon on Acts xxvii. 5. — 
rrii SaXdesns, of the sea) which was near at hand ; see oh. xvii, 27. 

7. Tp x6g/j,tfi, to the world) offences spread far and wide, — rw» 
exavSAXm, of THE offences) t& exavhaKa, THE offences. — rJ exat- 
daXov, THE offence) The article is emphatic. — avdyxri^ yap earn 
iXhii T& gxdvdaXa, for it must needs be that offences come) espe- 
cially in the age blessed by the presence of the Messiah ; just 
as insects abound in summer. The disciples were near offence : 
how much nearer must others have been! — -TrXfiv, but) used 
emphatically .2 Woe to the world which is injured by offences ; 
but woe indeed to the man who injures it by offence. 

8. E/ di, X.T.X., but if, etc.) He who is not careful to avoid 
offence to himself, will cause offence to others, and vice versa. — 
Xiip, vovg, hand — foot) In the impulse of sinning, acting ill, 
going where we ought not, the hands or other members are 
urged on by the animal spirits rushing together into them : and 
there is great propriety in the expressions employed by our 
Lord : for the imperative ixxo'^ov (cut off), holds good with 
regard to the hand, in as far as it is thus affected, and so on 
with the rest. — ^w^v, life) opposed to eternal fire. — j/wXon x.r.x., 
lame, etc.) The godly, forsooth, in this world are lame, deaf, 
dumb, etc., both to themselves and others ;' see Ps. xxxviii. 14. 
This must be taken of the time of mortification, not that of 
glorification ; for those members which have been most mortified 
will shine the most in glory; see Gal. vi. 17.— a/'wwoi', eternal) 
The word, eternal, signifies sometimes in the Old Testament a 
finite eternity more clearly than it does in the New. 

9. ' OpSaX/j-hg, eye) The eye offends by pride, as in this place ; 
by envy, as in Mark vii. 22 ; by wantonness [as in Matt. v. 28, 
29.] There is a gradation here ; for the eye is dearer than the 
hand or foot. Frequently, when the offence of one member has 
been conquered, offence ensues firom another. — /j,ov6(p6aX/iov, with 
one eye) /iov6<p6aXju,os has the same force in Matthew and Mark as 
iTip6ip6a,X/iog has in Ammonius. — r^i/ Tiewav, hell) eternal fire : see 
the preceding verses. 

' ' A»ayx*i, it is necessary) On account of the frequency of unbelief. — ^V. g. 
' nx^K being added to the previous enunciation, forms an ' Epitasis,' or 
emphatic addition. See Append. — Ed. 
» Comp. Rev. iii. 17 ; 1 Cor. iv. 8-13.— Ed. 

846 ST MATTHEW XVIXI. 10-12 

10. M)i xaraippov^sars, do not despise) They appear to have 
done so from ver. 1, 2. The adult frequently exhibit pride to- 
wards " little ones," by whose appearance they ai-e reminded of 
their origin : whence it comes to pass, that they hold them of 
no account, and pay them no reverence.' He despises them 
who corrupts or neglects to edify them. — o'l ayyi'koi, the angels) 
whom you ought not to oflFend, but imitate, in this very cai'e for 
the " little ones." — alrut, of them) The angels take care of the 
" little ones," both in body and soul ; and so much the more, 
the less that they are able to protect themselves. Grown-up 
men have also their guardian angels, but yet they are in some 
sort left more to themselves. — /SXetouo';, see) as attendants. And 
this concerns not only the dignity, but also the safety of the 
" little ones." Their function is twofold ; see Heb. i. 14. — r4 
"jrpoawjTov, the face) See Ex. xxxiii. 14—20, and Num. vi. 25, 26. 

11. V&p, X.T.X., for, etc.) Infiints are objects of Divine care, 
not because they have not been under the cui-se like others, but 
because they have been rescued from it. — to amXuXhi, that which 
teas lost) The human race was one mass of perdition, in which 
infants, even those of better disposition, are also included, on 
account of original sin, but the whole of it has been redeemed. 
If a king were to say that he would rebuild a city which had 
been consumed by fire, he would not wish his words to be un- 
derstood of a single street. The loss of a sinner is, in the sight 
of God, something as it were contingent. Therefore foreknow- 
ledge does not imply necessity. 

12. T/ vfiii doxiT, x.r.x., what think ye ? etc.) A gracious in- 
stance of Communicatio." — ixarhv, an hundred) Otherwise the 
loss of one out of so great a number would be easier.^ — iv, one) 
The roundness of the number would be broken, and the exact 
hundred diminished, by the loss even of one. — apE/'s, leaving) It 
is the business of shepherds to give their first c;ire to wandering 
sheep, as distinguished fi-om those which are in the right way. — 
M T& 'ipn, into the mountains) even with great toil, into solitary 

' See Gnomon on ver. 6, voc. (rxaulai^lati, and footnote. — (I. B.) 

' " A figure in rhetoric, whereby the orator consults the audience what they 

would do in such a case." — Ainstnorth. It is used in this sense by Cicers. 

See also explanation of technical terms in Appendix.— (I. B.) 
• i.e. If it were not a round number (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XVIII. 13-15. 847 

places. The discourse appears to have been delivered on the 
shore of the lake of Gennesareth.^ 

13. 'E&v yhnrai sitpsTi, if it happen that he find it) The finding 
of the sinner, therefore, is, in the sight of Grod, a something as it 
were contingent — ^If it happen that he find it: cf. on the loss 
of a sinner, ver. 11, and Gnomon in loc. Therefore grace is 
not irresistible ; cf. Luke xv. 6, 9, 24, and xvii. 18. — a/ifiv Xiyu 
l/iii, verily I say unto you) This formula refers to the Apodosis,^ 
as in Luke xi. 8, and John xii. 24 ; cf. the Divine adjuration 
in Ez. xxxiii. 11. 

14. Oix 'ieri SiXri/jLo,, it is not a wish)" or anjrthing to be de- 
sired (cf. Ez. xviii. 23). The article is not added in the present 
passage; cf. hXri/j^ara, wishes, in Acts xiii. 22.* We ought to 
subserve the Divine will in caring for the salvation of all. — 
'ilMirpoehv,^ in the presence of) 'The Divine intellect is intimated 
as discerning what things please His will.' — ha, x.r.X., that, etc.) 
i.e. He wishes most earnestly that all should be saved. — sTg, one) 
The disciples had asked in the comparative ;' our Lord answers 
specially in the positive degree. 

15. 'Eav di, x.T.X., but if, etc.) The sum of this chapter is as 

' Which was surrounded by mountains — (I. B.) 

' See explanation of technical terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

5 E. V. « It is not the will." Middleton renders it, " There is no wish." 

_(I. B.) 

« Rendered in E. V. by, "Which shall fulfil all My mil."— (I. B.) 

' In his own German Version Bengel renders the passage thus : — '■'■Alto 

ist es kein With VOR eurem Voter, doss," etc. — (I. B.) 

* B. V. renders the passage, " It is not the will of your Father," etc. 
Bengel would render it literally, " It is not a wish in the presence of your 
Father," etc., and explain it as representing the Divine Intellect as survey- 
ing all possible contingencies (rendered by the Divine power visible to the 
Divine perception), and distinguishing between those which are, and those 
which are not, agreeable to His Will — (I. B.) 

' Bengel has used the word Voluntas four times in this paragraph, and 
that in two different senses. In the first instance, I have rendered the 
singular by Wish ; in the second, the plural by Wishes ; in the third and 
fourth, the singular by Will. — (I. B.) 

* i.e. The disciples had asked, " Which is the greatest in the kingdom of 
Heaven ?" — their question therefore referred to the comparative degrees of 
glory. Our Lord's reply directs their attention to the simple notion, the 
vositive degree of salvation ; the universal requisites on man's part to attain 
.—the universal desire on God's part to bestow it. — (I. Bj) 

B48 ST MATTHEW XVllI. 16. 

follows : Every one is under an obligation, not to place oLstacles 
before himself and others, but to aid both on the way of salvation 
Also : we ought to respond to the Divine will, expressed in ver. 14. 
Also : do not offend thy brother ; cure thy brother's offence.— 
a/iaprrigp els *£, sin against thee) sc. by giving offence ; see 1 Cor. 
viii. 12. — ways, go) (of. mpiuhii, having gone, in ver. 12). That 
will be derogatory to no one. Even Christ came to us and 
sought us. — sXsylov alrhv, reprove himY Afterwards our Lord 
speaks of witnesses. In the present instance, the matter takes 
place in the presence of only two [sc. the parties themselves] ; in 
the latter, of more. — ahrh, him) sc. thy brother. He is reproved 
and forgiven because he is a brother. — [t^ovo\j, alone) Solitary re- 
proof is gracious. — sxsfSrieae, thou hast gained) Therefore thy 
brother had previously been lost through his sin. A gain, and 
a blessed one. The body of the sick man does not become the 
property of the physician who cured it ; the burning house 
does not become the property of him who extinguished the 
fire : that is, they are not gained. But the man whom I have 
gained becomes in some sort my own, as amongst the 
Romans a conquered people became bound, by the ties of 
clientship, to the general who had conquered them ; cf. 
Luke xix. 24, 17 ; Philem. ver. 19, and Gnomon on 1 Cor. 
ix. 19. 

16. °Eva )) 5uo, one or two) so that, reckoning thyself the com- 
plainant, there may be two or three witnesses. The evidence 
of the complainant is of greater weight. — ha siri ar6//,aros, x.r.X., 
that in the mouth, etc.) referring to Deut. xix. 15, the latter part 
of which the LXX. render : iirl oro/iaroj hho jj^aprlfui xat imt arit- 
/laTos TfiZiv /iaprupdiv graSfieirai ir&v jiri/ia — at the mouth of two wit- 
nesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, every word shall be estab- 
lished. — eraifi vav ^^ft>a, every word may be established) sc. both 
against the sinner and afterwards to the Church. This passage 
is one of those which prove that the principles and rules of the 

1 E. V. "Tell him his fault."-(I. B.) 

The margin of both Editions observes that this verb is brought into pro- 
minence by the absence of the copula between it and Svays, " Go, tell him 
his fault." This has not been noticed in the Vers. Germ. — E. B. 

Rec. Text has x«(, with abe Vulg. Hilary, and Lucifer. But BD Orig. 
omit x«l, — Ed. 


forensic law of Moses are not entirely excluded from the polity 
of the Church of Christ. 

17., do not ohey) disregarding the reproof. — r»i 
ixK'KTiffia, the church) i.e., which is in that place where thou and 
thy brother dwell. The church is opposed to two or three in 
about the same proportion as two or three are to one. Amongst 
the Jews, ten men are considered to constitute rny, a church,^ 
or public assembly for the decision of private disputes. See 
Khenferd Opera philological p. 729 ; Buxtorf,^ Synagoga 
Judaica, ch. xxv., where the same things are prescribed to the 
offender which our Lord prescribes here to the injured party. 
— 'ieru, x.r.X., let him be, etc.) Cf. Kom. xvi. 17 ; 1 Cor. v. 11 ; 
2 Thess. iii. 14 ; 2 Tim. ii. 21 ; Tit. iii. 10 ; 2 John ver. 10.— 
foi, to thee) Although, perhaps, not to the witnesses and the 
church. Therefore no one should be considered as a stranger 
before he has been reproved, and disregarded the reproof. — 
ehixhi, THE heathen) (sing.) We take this opportunity of mak- 
ing some observations on the Greek Article.* B. Stolberg 
rightly remarks, in his manuscript collection on the particles, 
that " there is scarcely an instance in the Scriptures where the 
article is redundant." It is nowhere clearly useless ; it is never 
added without an object, although philologists frequently attri- 
bute to it a wrong force and meaning. It is equivalent to the 
German der {the), and denote less than hie (this), more than 
quidam (some, a certain one, or thing). It has, therefore, a de- 
terminating value ; and it determines either (1) the universality 

' See Bloomfield and Kitio in loc, and Trench's New Testament Synonyms 
in voc. — (I. B.) 

He is not here speaking of the Catholic or universal Chiirch. — V. g. 

» For Rhenferd, see p. 82, f.n. 2.— (I. B.) 

^ John Buxiobf, the elder, one of the greatest Hebrew scholars of modern 
times. He was bom at Camen in 1664, and died in 1629. He devoted 
himself to the study of Hebrew and Chaldee literature, and became Professor 
of those languages at Basle. The great Scaliger declared that he was the 
only person who understood Hebrew thoroughly. The work cited by Bengel 
is, " Synagoga Judaica, de Judaeontmfide, ritibiis, ceremoniis, tampuhUcis et 
tacris quam privatis ;" a third and enlarged edition of which was published 
by his no less celebrated son, at Basle, in 1661. — (I. B.) 

* I have, in the disquisition which follows, inserted in extenso the passages 
referred to by Bengel. For a fiill consideration of this important subject, 
see that inestimably valuable work, Middleton on the Oreek Article. — (I. B.) 


and totality of the subject, as in Matt. vi. 22, 'O Xu%vos, x.r.X., 
THE light, etc., q.d. the body has no light except the eye ; or 
(2) the whole species, as in Matt. xv. 11, TO iiSifyoii^iwy, that 
which entereth — TO Ixvopivo/iivov, that which cometh out — and in 
Eom. i. 17, 'O di Sixaiog, but THE just, i.e. he that is, or every 
one that is, just ; or (3) the singularity and oneness [i.e. the 
definite and exclusive individuality] of the subject, as in Matt, 
i. 23, 'H -japSivog, THE virgin — in John i. 21, 'O Xpiarcg, the 
Christ,' O -irpo^^TTie, THE prophet — in John xiii. 13, 'O AiSdexaXog, 
x.a.1 'o Kupiog, THE Teacher, and THE Lord; or (4) the restriction 
of the whole genus to a particular species, as in Acts xix. 17, 
T0I2 xaTaixouei, "WHO dwelt at. In logic, however, universal 
and singular propositions are equivalent ; whence (5) it has fre- 
quently a relative force, and that even in partition,' as in Luke 
xviii. 10, 'O ilg tpapidaTog xal'O Iripog riXiivtig, THE one a Pharisee 
and THE other a publican — and in Rev. xvii. 10, 'O sTg eenv, 'O 
aXXog ouTw ^Xk, THE one is, THE other has not yet come ; or (6) 
it expresses a certain peculiar degree of a thing (rei exquisitam 
quandam rationem), as in Matt. viii. 12, 'O xXav6/j,hg, the" weep- 
ing, sc. weeping, compared with which earthly weeping is not 
weeping. It is, in fact, a subject which deserves to be more 
carefiilly examined by Philologists.' In this passage, 'O ehixhg 
signifies the whole race of Heathens, and any one thereto be- 
longing. Thus, in the S.V. of Deut. xxviii. 29, we have "O 
ruipXhg, THE blind. — xa,l o riXiivrig, and the publican) It was easy 
for the Jews to consider any one in the light of a heathen, 
therefore this clause is added to increase the force of the 
language ; for the publicans dwelt amongst the Jews, but were 
shunned by them. 

18. "Oaa eav, whatsoever) i.e. all things with regard to which 
the power of binding and loosing holds good, especially of- 

' i.e. In distinguishing between divisions of a whole, classes of a mass, 
species of a genus, or individuals of a certain description. The two men 
mentioned in the example both answered to the description of those that 
" went up into the temple to pray;" — ^here their similarity or affinity, as 
parts of a whole, or members of a class, ceased ; — the article separates them 
from, and contrasts them with, each other. — (I. B.) 

' Cf. Gnomon in loc— <I. B.) 

' Bengel saw the want : it has since been supplied by Middleton. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XVllI. 19, 20. 861 

fences.' — Sriariri, ye shall bind) see the end of ver. 1 7. — XiitriTi, ye 
shall loose) see the end of ver. 15. There is an intimate con- 
nection between the retention of a private^ and that of a pubUc 
offence, and so also in the case of remission. See ver. 15-35. 
Our Lord teaches that His disciples can bind and loose the sins 
of their neighbours in His name ; see ver. 20. Neither is it 
totally void of effect when they, even for their own sake, through 
anger, bind and hold the offences of their brethren. 

19. UdXiv, again) The same thing is repeated in somewhat 
different language. The particle -TrdXiv is used epitatically,^ as 
in ch. xix. 24, and Gal. v. 3. In this place, our Lord speaks of 
His disciples as acting together ; in ver. 18, in their individual 
capacity. Cf. ch. xvi. 19. — hbo, two) so. two, if not more, con- 
trasted with all; cf. ver. 18 : two, e.g. husband and wife. 
Great is the virtue of united faith. That which may hinder the 
prayers of one man, from his own weakness, is made up by the 
fellowship (societas) of even one brother. — M rrje •yng — h 
oupavoTg, on earth — in heaven) The same antithesis occurs in 
ver. 18. — airfistavTai, shall ask) sc. with regard to binding oi 

20. Ou y&p, X.T.X., for where, etc.) The name of Jesus gives 
power to prayer. — S-Jo ^ rpsTg, two or three) see Eccles. iv. 12 and 
the preceding verses. Three is a mmaber which can be pro- 
cured even in a barren age of the Church : a greater number 
is not so easily obtained, and is accompanied by the danger that 
a hjrpocrite may be present ; yet where many sincere professors 
are together, how great will be the power of their prayers. — s/'j 
rh 'E/iov ho/j,a, in My name, lit. into My name*) sc. with the 

» Christ gave this power to His disciples then, and not till then, when, 
having had experience of the gracious will of oiir Heavenly Father (ver. 14), 
they had recognised Himself, i.e. Jesus, as the Son of God (ch. xvi. 16), and 
had received the Holy Spirit, John xx. 22. — V. g. 

' Pnyatsi, private, i.e. not one privately committed, but one against the 
individual: commvmis public, i.e. not one committed in public, but one of a 
public character. — (I. B.) 

* See explanation of technical terms in Appendix, on the figure Epitasis. 

* Ei; — oi/ofiu is not identical with h — iuo^eiTi, either here or in xxviii. 
19 (Baptizing them — not in the name, but into the name, etc., i.e. into the 
fellowship of the Father, etc so that they may be members of the church 


object of worshipping it. All prayers that are offered in the 
name of Jesus Christ are accepted by the Father ; see ver. 19. — 
ix£^ £//«/, there am T) and aU grace with Me ; see ch. xxviii. 20 ; 
Acts xviii. 10 ; 2 Tim. iv. 17. Where the Son is, there is the 
Father : what the Son wishes, the Father wishes. 

21. noffax/s, how often'?) in one day, or my whole life. Cf. 
Luke xvii. 4. [This question arose from some sense of super- 
abounding Divine grace, which had been so much dwelt upon and 
magnified in the preceding discourses. — V. g. — a/iaprrigfi, shall 
my brother sin ?) These words are to be understood, not of some 
slight offence, which excites a sudden burst of indignation, though 
this also is indeed sinful, yet ready to forgive of its own accord, 
but of some more heavy offence or injury. — V. g.] 

22. ' Ej3do/j,rjxovTdxig Writ,, seventy-seven^) The termination jc*; 
makes the whole number seventy-seven. Thus the LXX., in 
Gen. iv. 24, use the same phrase regarding Lamech.^ 

23. A/a TovTo, tlierefore) understand, " I say." — ^kXriei, willed, 
determined) of His own free will, by His supreme authority. 

24. 'Ap^afihov, when He had bigun) Before the servant knew 
what was the condition' of his fellow-servants. — ih rrfoejive'x^Sri 
Aiirp, there was brought unto Him) though against his will. — iJg, 
one) sc. a servant, who owed, etc. How great must be the debts 
of all, if that of one is so great ! Every one ought to consider 
himself as that one ; cf. ver. 35, 12, ch. xx. 13 ; for the con- 
dition* of all is equal. — /j,upluv rakdvroiv, of ten thousand talents') 
The Greek language cannot express by two words, as a distinct 

bearing the name of, etc.). The words probably mean " Gathered together 
unto my name ;" the sense which Bengel seems to imply — u;, " Ut nomen 
meum colant." — Ed. 

' E. V. " Seventy times seven." Vulg., " Septuagies septies." — (I. B.) 

" If Cain be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold ;" 
not " seventy times seven;" lix. 6n-T«xo»Taxif eVr*. — Ed. 

' One could hardly believe that so great dissension could arise even among 
those entertaining the worst feelings towards others. Therefore there is 
required a willingness to forgive, which cannot be wearied out by any pro- 
vocations, however numerous. — V. g. 

' " Ratio," lit. reckoning — i.e. what was the state of their balance or deficit 
m the debtor and creditor account with their Lord. — (I. B.) 

* " Ratio." See preceding footnote. — (I. B.) 

• The Jewish talent was about £342, 3s. 9d. The talent of gold wag 
worth about £6476.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XVIII. 25-28. 353 

and continuous quantity, a larger sum than this. If we ought 
to remit an hundred denarii to our brother, i.e. forgive him 
seventy-seven times, what a vast amount of sins does the Lord 
forgive us in remitting ten thousand talents ! A talent contains 
about six thousand denarii ; therefore a thousand talents contain 
sixty million denarii, of which how small a part are one hundred 
denarii ! For six denarii make a florin, and nine denarii an im- 
perial dollar, or not much more ; one Hebrew talent, or two 
Attic ones, are two thousand two hundred and fifty florins."^ 

25. 'Exeksiigiv, X.T.X., he commanded, etc.) The Lord shows His 
right, but does not use it : the servant, however, abuses whatever 
right he possesses. — oea il^e, all that he had) The peculium,^ 
which, indeed, itself belonged to the Lord. 

26. MuxpoSu/irieov, have patience) Do not act hastily towards 
me. — irdvTa, all) The servant could not procure so large a sum 
in the whole period of the world's existence ; he merely exhibits, 
therefore, his contrition. 

27. ^ ' A'xiXveev, loosed) as the servant had besought him to do. 
(ip?!C£, forgave) which the servant had not dared to ask. He had 
prayed for one kindness ; and he obtained two. 

28. 'E^iXSijii, having gone forth) being now released fi:om his 
difficulties. Before the accounts had been examined, he treated 

1 There thus results a sum of 15,000,000 thalers, or 22,500,000 florins. 
If even one servant can become liable for such a debt — and Peter, as also 
the other Apostles, ought to have considered that servant as a type, each 
one of himself — what will not the load amount to, which is made up of the 
accumulated debts remitted by the Lord to the whole collective body of those 
who obtain grace? And still more of those sins which must be atoned for 
in the place of torture by those who are the vast majority, whose debt is 
not remitted in any measure. — V. g. 

' Amongst the Romans, slaves had a certain allowance granted them for 
their sustenance, commonly four or five pecks of grain a month, and five 
denarii. They Kkewise had a daily allowance. Whatever they saved of 
these, or procured by any other means, with their masters' consent, was called 
their pboulium. This money, with their masters' permission, they put out 
at interest, or sometimes purchased with it a slave for themselves, from whose 
labours they might make profit. Such a slave was called servi vicarius, and 
formed part of the pbculium, with which also slaves sometimes purchased 
their own freedom. See Adams's Soman Antiquities in voc. — (I. B.) 

• I'n'KiiyxvmhXi) To forgive, and remit constitute the highest work of com- 
passion. — V. g. 

VOL. I. Z 

864 ST MATTHEW XVIII. 29-32. 

his fellow-servant more tenderly; the very joy of recovered Hberty, 
or restored health, etc., is accompanied by a greater danger of 
sin:^ see John v. 14; 2 Kings xx. 13.^ — eTcarhv Brivdpia, a 
hundred denarii) * The names of coins are neuter in Greek. This 
was a sufficiently large debt for a fellow-servant : but nothing 
in comparison with even a single talent, and ten thousand is a 
hundred times a hundred. — andog, x.t.X., pay, etc.) An impor- 
tunate demand. — il, ifY a particle of some force for since. 

29. riapixaXii, besought) Inver. 26, the word used is -irponxivn, 
worshipped. — Xiyuv, saying) sc. in the same words which are 
found in ver. 26. 

30. Oix. ^hXiv, would not) opposed to e^KXay^viehlg, being moved 
with compassion, in ver. 27.^ — aireXdiiv, having departed) sc. to the 
officer. — i^aXiv, X.T.X., cast, etc.) By which act he invaded the 
right of his Lord. 

31. 'EXvirriSriaav 6f:6dpa,, xat eXSovreg insapneav, x-r.X., they were 
very sorry, and came and told, etc.) Their sorrow and their infor- 
mation were righteous. — Xu'ttjj, sorrow, frequently includes the 
idea of indignation. 

32. Auriv, him) singly; for in ver. 24, he had been cited 
in company with the rest — SoDXe <Kovnfi, thou wicked servant) He 
had not been called thus on account of his debt. Woe to him 
whom the Lord upbraids ; see ch. xxv. 26. Mercilessness is 

' So that it is even then in particular, that one becomes liable to anger. 


= See Jer. xxxiv. 8-16.— (I. B.) 

'E.lptu, he found) After you have experienced the divine free favour, soon 
the opportunity will present itself to thee of adopting either a similar, or else 
a different mode of action. — V. g. 

""&!/*, one) It sometimes happens that one wishes well to all (other) men, 
and yet remains inimical and hostile at least to one particular person. — V. g. 

' E. V. " An hundred pence." The denarius was about sevenpence three 
farthings.— (I. B.) 

• Bengel reads ei rt 6((>ei'hiig, which he interprets, if, i.e. since thou owest 
me something. E. M. has o rt D(pttxeis — thai which, or whatsoever thou owest. 
-(I. B.) 

BCD Orig. 3,622a read ttri. But abc Vulg. Lucifer support the o n of 
Rec. Text Ed. 

* Of how great consequence, frequently, is the presence or absence of iiu7^ 
ingness (Velle-Nolle) in cases which are not in themselves of the greatest 
weight. — V. g. 

8T MATTHEW XVIII. 33-S5.-XIX. 1. 855 

peculiarly wickedness. — hehriv, that [debt]) This word refers 
with peculiar emphasis to the former occurrence. 

33. OiJx edii ; did it not behove ?) It did, indeed, by the highest 
rale of equity.^ — Hv euvSovXSs eou, thy fellow-servant) whom thou 
oughtest to have pitied ; My servant, by injuring whom thou 
hast injured Me. 

34. 'OpyieMi, wroth) He had not been wroth before, cf. Luke 
xiv. 21. Those who have experienced the mercy of God, ought 
to be very carefdl of exciting His anger. — ro/j j3airawirra/s, the 
tormentors) not merely jailors (custodibus). — 'iois o5, until) Such 
is the enduring character of guilt, founded on the inexhaustible 
claim of God over His servants,^ 

35. 'Affi rSn xapdiuv u/iZv, from your hearts) A wrong is recalled 
to the mind : it must be dismissed from the mind and from the 
heart. Things which are thus done, are done with unwearied 
frequency [But if not, whenever the debtor unexpectedly meets us, 
our indignation is liable to revive. — V. g.] ; cf. <S'!rXay)(vieki{ 
(being moved with compassion) in ver. 27. 


1. 'ErEXsffEii, X.7.X., finished, etc.) All the discourses addressed 
to the people in GaUlee have a great connection with each other, 
and form a perfect course.' — /urijpev, he departed*) having con- 
cluded His perambulation through Galilee." 

' Tlinaii, all) Comp. the ■irae in ver. 34. O how royal is as well His 
lenity, as also His severity ! — V. g. 

^ " Servos." The word is used with special reference to the parable, and 
does not indicate " the servants of God," in the usual meaning of that phrase, 
but all those who were formed for the service of God, i.e. all His creatures. 
-(I. B.) 

' He was wont to break off nothing abruptly, but to bring all things to a 
complete conclusion; ch. xxvi. 1. — V. g. 

* " Migravit." Cf. Gnomon and footnotes on ch. xiii. 53, where the same 
word occurs. — (I. B.) 

" We may reasonably infer, from this departure, that the events which 
are recorded, Luke xiii. 31 — xviii. 14 (for Jesus was not wont to stay long 
in Samaria), occurred in the space of those three days, of which mention 
occurs in Luke xiii. 32. — Harm., p 421. 


2. 'Exi7, there) In many places a number of cures were per- 
formed at once by our Lord. 

Z} Xlaoav, every) They wished to elicit from our Lord a uni- 
versal negative, which they thought would be contrary to 

4. 'o iroinaag, He who made) so. them ; with this construction, 
Ee who made them in the beginning, made them male and female. 
6 voifieag, smiriissv {He who made, made), is a striking example of 
Ploce.^ — (iff apxrjs, at the beginning) In every discussion or inter- 
pretation recourse should be had to the origin of a Divine insti- 
tution ; see ver. 8 and Acts xv. 7. 

5. 'ETttiv, said) sc. GoD, byAdam. — evexev rovTov,for this cause. 
In wedlock, the bond is natural and moral. — x-araXii-^n, v-.r.X., 
shall leave, etc.) Therefore already at that time the same woman 
could not be both wife and mother of the same man. Such is 
the commencement of the prohibited degrees. The conjugal 
relation, to which alone the paternal and maternal yield, is the 
closest of aU ties. — iraTipa, father) Although neither Adam 
had yet become a father, nor Eve a mother. — r^ yvvaixl alirou, 
to his wife) and thus also the wife to her husband. The 
husband is the head of the family. — 'ieovrai, shall be) one 
flesh while they are in the flesh. — o/ duo, the two^) Thus 
also Mark x. 8 ; 1 Cor. vi. 16 ; Eph. v. 31 ; the Samaritan* 

* Uiipa^ouTes al/Tov, tempting Him) At the beginning of His career, His 
adversaries questioned the Saviour concerning several of the acts committed 
either by Himself or His disciples. But when He had left nothing still re- 
maining to be done for the defence of His own cause and that of His fol- 
lowers, they thenceforth refrained from objections and interrogatories of that 
kind, and the more for that very reason heaped upon Him general questions, 
unconnected with any immediate act of His, it being their purpose thereby 
to surprise Him when off His guard and unprepared. — Harm,., p. 422. 

^ See Explanation of Technical Terms in Appendix. — (I. B.) 

3 E. V. "They twain."— (I. B.) 

■• The Samaritans reject all the Sacred Books of the Jews, except the Pen- 
tateuch. Of this they preserve copies in the ancient Hebrew characters ; 
which, as there has been no friendly intercourse between them and the Jews 
since the Babylonish captivity, must unquestionably be the same that were 
in use before that event, though subject to such variations as are always 
occasioned by frequent transcribing. Although the Samaritan Pent3,teuch 
was known to and cited by Eusebius, Cyril of Alexandria, Procopius of 
Gii»a. Diodorus of Tarsus, Jerome, Syncellus, and other ancient Fathers, it 

ST MATTHE-W XIX. 6-8. 357 

Pentateuch, the Septuagint, and the Syriac* version of 

6. Oiix eV; e/V/', they are no more) They are now no longer two, 
as they were before. — hiio, two) We should not understand adpni;, 
fleshes (cames) : for in ver. 5 we find o/ duo (the two, they twain). 
— 0, that which (quod), not «, those which (quae) : for they are 
now one flesh. — Buvit,su^iv, hath joined together) hath made one. — 
&vSpoi'!ros, man) see ver. 3. — /*)), x.r.X., let not, etc.) The principle 
here involved admits of a widely extended appHcation : what 
God hath separated, commanded, conceded, prohibited, blessed, 
praised, loosed, bound, etc., let not Man join together, prohibit, 
forbid, command, curse, blame, bind, loose, etc., not even in his 
own case ; see Acts x. 15 ; Num. xxiii. 8 ; Kom. xiv. 3, 20. — 
^upi^iTu, put asunder) In every case of sexual connection, either 
God hath joined the two, or He hath not joined them : if He 
hath not joined them, their connection is unlawful ; if He hath 
joined them, why are they separated ? 

7. AoDra;, to give) St Mark (x. 4) has ypd-^ai, to write. 
Moses employs both expressions. — ^i^xioi airodTaeku, a writing 
of divorcement) the LXX. use the same phrase. — xa,l, and) sc. 

8. Uphs, for, because of) — smrpi-'l/iv, permitted) not hsTilXaro, 

afterwards fell into oblivion for more than a thousand years, so that its very 
existence began to be questioned. Joseph Scaliger was the first who drew 
the attention of learned men to this valuable relic of antiquity ; and M. 
Peiresc procured a copy from Egypt, which, together with the ship that 
brought it, was unfortunately captured by pirates. Archbishop Usher, how- 
ever, procured six copies from the East ; and Father Morinus printed the 
Samaritan Pentateuch, for the first time, in the Paris Polyglott (which was 
published in 1645, in ten volumes, large folio), from another copy, procured 
by the French Ambassador at Constantinople. For further particulars, see 
Hartwell Home in voc. — (I. B.) 

^ Considerable doubt exists as to the origin and date of the Peschito 
Striac (or literal Syrian) Version of the Old Testament. It was printed 
for the first time in the Paris Polyglott. For an account of the various 
opinions entertained regarding the date and authorship of this celebrated 
Version (ranging over a period of more than a thousand years), and of the 
arguments by which they are supported, see Hartwell Home in voc. 
-(I. B.) 

^ T^» iix.'Knpox.ii.pVutii, the hardness of heart) So great is the perversity of 
the human mind, that there are not a few things by which it ought to be put 

3r.8 ST MATTHEW XIX. 9-11. 

enjoined, except in that sense in which St Mark (x. 3) employs 
the word. — «•/ apy^i, in the beginning) The origin of wedlock 
was recorded also by the same Moses, from whom our Lord de- 
monstrates the matter. 

9. M)5, not^) The word occurs with the same force in 1 John 
V. 16. — jca/ yai^rigri, and shall marry) The criminality of the 
divorce is especially aggravated by a second marriage. 

10. Tou avSpuvou — /j,iTci rrig yuvaixhg, of the man — with the 
woman) The nouns are used generically. 

11. 'O 3s sJ-JTiv auToTe, x.r.X., Hut He said unto them, etc.) To that 
universal, but less well-founded reason for not contracting ma- 
trimony, grounded on the inconvenience which the disciples 
inferred must arise from its indissolubility, our Lord opposes the 
legitimate, particular, and only good reason, viz. the being an 
eunuch, — i.e. the being exempted by any exceptional cause from 
the universal law of contracting matrimony. — ou -jrdvTig, not all) 
Our Lord opposes these words to the universal proposition of 
His disciples (sc. ou evfi<p£pii ya/inaai, i.e. it is not expedient to 
marry), and they are equivalent to " none." — Cf. Rom. iii. 9, ou 
irdvTiis, not at all [English version, " No, in no wise."] The 
important exception is added. — aXX' oTg d'sdorai, save those to 
whom it is given. — rounv, this) This pronoun refers also to 
what follows. Cf. the Epiphonema,^ in ver. 12, sc. o duvd/iivog, 

to the blush, as the Jews ought to have heen in the case of the writing of 
divorcement, but which it abuses to a preposterous clearing (justification) of 
itself.— V. g. 

• Lachm. reads vitpixTo; "Kaymj icnfviia,; with BD Orig. 3,647c, 648ac, 
6496; " excepts caus4 fornicationis" in c. CZ read ,««) iitX 'jrapuilif, and so 
Tischend. Rec. Text reads the same, prefixing tl. Vulg. " nisi ob fomica- 
tionem," which favours Rec. Text. " Nisi ob causam fornicationis" in ab 
seems a blending of the two readings, il fi,^ and y^oyou. — Ed. 

Bengel reads oj an/ «:roXw)j t^u yvualx-ct cciirov, fiii ivl vopmlcf, whosoever 
shall put away his wife VOT for fornication ; E. M. has ti pt,vi M Topi/eix, if 
NOT (i.e. except) for fornication. The meaning is the same. In his Ap- 
paratus Bengel writes, in loc — 

" fivi) Comp. et al. edd. Aug. I, 4, Bas. 1, Byz. Cypr. Qehl. Med. Mosc. 
Steph. omn. Wo. 2, et sedecim et viginti alii: nee obstat Cant. Colb. 
8, L. Par. 6, Arah. Syr. ei pi^. Er et al. edd. cum pauculis mss." 
_(I. B.) 

^ Epiphonema is an exclamation subjoined to the narration, or demon- 
stration of an important subject. See Gnomon on Rom. i. 15 in voc ovra. 

ST MATTHEW XIX. 12, 13. 339 

jt.r.X., He tliat is able, etc. ; and yap, for, is added at the com- 
mencement of the same verse.^ 

12. E;V/, X.T.X., there are, etc.) There are three kinds of 
eunuchs' : the first and second of which are treated indirectly, 
the third directly, in this passage. For the two former are either 
produced thus by nature, or made thus by the hand of man : to 
the latter it is given from above, although they may have been 
endowed with a body capable of marriage. And these (the 
latter) can receive the saying concerning blessed eunuchism : 
whereas, of those (the former), it can only be said that they can- 
not receive the law concerning marriage ; although they too may 
accidentally (per accidens) obtain blessed eunuchism. — inrJ rZv 
av^Piivm, by men) by whose art they are castrated, that they 
may act as chamberlains, singers, etc., or that they may, on some 
other ground, be prevented from contracting marriage, of which 
they had been previously capable. For these, also, are included 
in a perfect enumeration. — tuvov^mav tavroug, have made themselves 
eunuchs) which they alone can do, to whom it is given. It is 
not in man's power thus to make another an eunuch ; see 1 Cor. 
vii. 7. — kaunug, themselves') sc. by a voluntary abstinence from 
marriage ; sometimes having even relinquished a wife for the 
name of Christ (see ver. 29), and adding exercises calculated to 
preserve chastity, and subdue the fires of nature. — di&, x.r.x., 
for the kingdom of heaven's sake) Not because they can only 
be saved by remaining unmarried, but that they may be able 
to devote themselves more entirely to the contemplation and 
propagation of Divine Truth ; see 1 Cor. vii. 32, ix. 12. — 
XiiptiTu, let him receive) A precept not addressed to all, 
but only to those who are able to receive it. Not even all 
the Apostles seem to have been able to receive it ; see 1 Cor. 
ix. 5. 

13. Upodnnx^n A'jtSj, were brought unto Him) sc. by the zeal 

It is a rhetorical term employed by Quinetilian. See in Append., explana- 
tion of Technical terms. — (I. B.) 

'■ As in Matt. i. 18, where Tischend. and Rec. Text have /tiimTivSiiani 
yoLf T^f fitfrpki etc. (Lachm. omits ya,p with BZ Vulg., Iren., etc.) : the 
yoif, as here, beginning the Discussion (Tractatio) which answers to 
the Statement of Subject (Propositio or Thesis) immediately preceding. 


of those who were older.'^ And the disciples blamed, not the 
little ones, but those who brought them. — iVa, x.r.x., that, etc.) 
If they had asked for baptism, baptism would, without doubt, 
have also been given them. — o'l dh /ia,6)iTa>, but the disciples) The 
greater part of whom appear to have been unmarried : and im- 
married men, unless they are humble-minded, are not so kind 
(minus comes) to infants, inasmuch as they remind them of their 
own former httleness : and the disciples who had left all, do not 
appear always to have sufficiently favoured the admission of 
others ; at any rate, they certainly thought that the care of little 
children was inconsistent with their Master's dignity. The 
humanity of Jesus, however, descends even to little children ; cf. 
ch. xviii. 2, 3, etc. — imr!/j,uv, rebuked) We ought not to be de- 
terred by those who enjoin an unseasonable timidity," cf. ch. 
XX. 31. 

14. Elmv, x.r.K; said, etc.) Previously He had defended the 
law of marriage ; now he defends the rights of children. — apiT$ — 
xal f/,n xiaX-jiTi, permit — and do not prohibit) A most ample per- 
mission. The verb aflr}//,/ does not always mean to dismiss, but 
frequently, as here, to penni'i ; see Mark xi. 16. — ra -xaibla, the 
little children) Haffenreffer renders it infantulos, little infants. 
— roiouTm, of such) i.e., infants, sc. such infants, especially when 
they desire to come to Christ. ro/oDros denotes substance com- 
bined with quality ; see Acts xxii. 22. Grant that such are in- 
tended as are like infants, it follows of necessity, that much 
rather the infants themselves, who are such, have the kingdom 
of God, and both can and ought to receive it by coming to 
Christ. Many of those who then were infants, afterwards be- 
lieved in Christ Jesus, when they had grown up. — >) BaiiXiia, ruv 
oijpavSiv, the kingdom of heaven) He who seeks the kingdom of 
God must come to Jesus. 

15. 'Emhig avroTg rag x^Tpag, having laid His hands upon them) 
as He had been asked to do in ver. 13. The imposition of the 

^ They were therefore in such a state as not yet to be able either to seek 
earnestly after, or understand anything, of their own accord — V. g. 

" In the original, " intempestivam verecundiam," lit. unseasonable bash- 
fulness. — (I. B.) 

Nay, but the desire of the little ones was the more enkindled thereby. 
-V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XIX. 16, 17. 361 

liand, and more particularly of the hands, was employed for 
conferring on, and propagating to, human feeings, especially 
children and ministers of the Gospel, bodily blessings and spiritual 
gifts ; see Acts ix. 12 ; Heb. vi. 2 ; 1 Tim. v. 22 ; 2 Tim. i. 6. 
Our Lord is not said to have prayed, as He had been asked to 
do in ver. 13, by those forsooth who were not fully aware of 
His oneness with the Father. 

16. 'iSoii, behold) sc. whilst Jesus is opening the kingdom of 
heaven, even to infants.-^srs, one) From the rank to which he 
belonged, at length comes one. — AiSdaxaXs ayuSi, good Teacher) 
He that is good teaches well concerning that which is good ; see 
John vii. 12. — miri<su, shall I do ?) the young man asks about 
doitig ; but belief goes before. — ^mv aldviov, eternal life) Eternal 
life was known under the old dispensation, as we are assured in 
Heb. xi. 16 ; and it is explicitly called so in Dan. xii. 2. 

17. T/, K.T.X., why? etc.) He who [alone] is Good,' should be 
asked concerning that which is good.^ For the rest, see Gnomon 
on Mark x. 18. — ii di ^iXng, but if thou wishest) as thou declarest. 
The expression i; "^'ikiig (if thou wishest) occurs again at ver. 21. 
— rijpnisov rag JvroXds, keep the commandments) Jesus refers those 

• In the original, " Qui Bonus est, de bono interrogandus est," where 
" Bonus" is used as a substantive (corresponding to the German " der Qute" 
employed by Bengel in rendering this verse), which has no equivalent in 
English J for though we speak of " the Evil One," we cannot say " the Good 
One." The passage might be paraphrased thus — " He who is personally and 
absolutely good, should be asked concerning that which is abstractly and re- 
latively good."— (I. B.) 

" The reading is here meant, which the margin of both Editions prefers 
to the reading hiyei^ — ©soV, viz. iporx; inpi rov dyahv ; eis eariu 6 dyet^og. 
Comp. the margin of the Vers. Germ, and Michaelis' Binleitung, etc., T. i., 
p. m. 224.— E. B. 

BDLabc, Vulg. Memph. Orig. 3,6645e, read t/ fte ipuTcis vipl rov iyahv 
(D and Origen 3,664c omit toS). Ti fn Tiiyeis dyitioii is the reading of Rec. 
Text with Iren. 92, Hil. 703, 99iac (' vocas' for Xeye/j). Origen 3,664crf, 
writes, 'O /iiv Mctrdaio;, as vepl iyadm 'ipyov iparnMuro; tov ^ariipos h rp ri 
uyadov iTotiiiia ; civeypxipm' o Bi Mapxos xai Aovko,; (Petal tov ^ar^px eiptixivcii, 
t/ fis 'hiytii dyttiov ; oiihis iiyet6os tl fi^ tis 6 ©so'c. BDoic Vulg. Orig. Iren. 
92 read ii; mrii) 6 AyMg (D omits i. be Vulg. Memph. add o &tos ; evidently, 
as I think, a gloss of the Harmonies from Mark x. 18 and Luke xviii. 19. 
Iren. adds " pater in ccelis"). Rec. Text, with Hil. 994, reads oMi dyxio; 
i'l fivi £(f ©eo'f . This is still more palpably a reading copied from the parallels 
in Mark and Luke. — Ed. 


who feel secure to the law : He consoles the contrite with the 

18. Tloia;; which?) There was no need to ask which, as our 
Lord had said the [commandments] raj.^ 

18, 19. Ou ^ovi-jeeig' — aya'TtiHiig, x.r.X., thou shalt not murder — 
thoushaltlove, etc.) Precepts negative and affirmative. The duties 
of the Second Table are more palpable than those of the First. 

19. T//ia, honour) Honour implies somewhat in addition to 
love. — rJv 'jrarspa,, thy father) It may be supposed that the young 
man in question had transgressed this more than the negative 
commandments ; on which ground it is placed last. — Thv <irXri<s'm, 
thy neighbour) The Jews were peculiarly deficient in the love 
of their neighbour. — ws eiavrhv, as thyself) The love wherewith 
God loveth us, is the standard of the love wherewith we ought 
to love one another. God loves Titius as He does Caitis : there- 
fore Caius ought to love Titius as he does Caius, i.e., as himself.^ 
Yet the love of the godly, like that of God, is not without discri- 
mination of the good and the bad.' 

21. "E(pri aiiTui o 'ijjtfouj, x.r.X., Jesus said unto him, etc.) As 
the young man asks more, and binds himself to more, more is 
proposed to him. — riXnoe, perfect) He is perfect to whom nothing 
is wanting that he may enter into life eternal. As he urgently 
asks it, our Lord proposes to him the most glorious condition, 
the nearest to that of an apostle. — ways — xal Sivpo, axokotihi 
Mo;, go — and come, follow Me) sc. immediately. It is a com- 
mand, not a counsel ;* necessary, not optional (cf. ver. 24, 25) ; 
but particulai", not universal, accommodated to the idiosyncrasy 

^ Thus indicating those pre-eminently so called, and implying the neces- 
sity of keeping all of them. — (I. B.) 

2 He who is endued with this love will evince it even to the child of 
beggars : he who is not endued with it will prefer himself to all men what- 
soever, even to the elect of God. — V. g. 

' Ver. 20. ix, moTviros ftov, from my youth) The reading which omits 
these words, however less probable it be declared by the margin of both 
Editions, has nevertheless been subsequently received into the Vers. Germ., 
the reasons on both sides being regarded by Bengel in a different light from 
what they had been. — E. B. 

BL Vulg. Cypr. Iren. omit the words. But Dabo Orig. 3,669rf, Hilary 
704, retain them (D omitting ftov). The words are plainly, I think, inter- 
polated through Harmonies from Mark x. 20, Luke xviii. 21. — Ed. 

• As opposed to the Romish doctrine of " counsels of perfection," on which 

ST MATTHEW XIX. 22, 23. 803 

of his soul, to whom it was addressed. For many followed 
Jesus, to whom He did not give this command. He may be 
perfect, who still possesses wealth ; he may give all to the poor, 
who is very far from perfection.^ Our Lord's words laid an ob- 
ligation on the man who offered himself ultroneously, and that 
so imreservedly ; although to him, being as yet somewhat of a 
stranger, it was not expressly enjoined, but rather given in the 
form of advice to one seeking advice. In the case of others, 
who are not yet able to receive peculiar commands, a compen- 
sation is made by the leading of divine Providence. — leiiXriaov, 
x.T.x,, sell, etc.) If the Lord had said. Thou art rich, and art 
too fond of thy riches, the young man would have denied it : 
wherefore, instead of so doing. He demands immediately a direct 
proofs [of the contrary]. — s^s's, x.r.X., thou shalt have, etc.) A 
promise inserted in the command, and at once surely guaran- 
teed : q.d. Thou shalt have, and thou shalt know that thou hast.' 
— Srieauphv, treasure) The inheritance is called treasure, in oppo- 
sition to worldly goods. Dost thou wish to be rich ? Seek 
this treasure. — axoXovki Mo/, follow Me) Instruction in faith 
would not then be wanting. 

22. AutoVekos, grieved) sc. because he could not at the same 
time both retain his wealth and follow Jesus, Obedience would 
have absorbed grief. — xr^/iara, possessions) sc. immoveable 
goods; cf. sell in ver. 21. These are referred to in the lands 
spoken of in ver. 29. 

23. AutfxoXwj, with difficulty) This young man, when he had 
his foot already on the threshold, withdrew it on account of his 
riches. It is difficult for a rich man to reUnquish all things.* 

they build the notion of works of ' supererogation' : quoting this instance in 
support of their theory. — Ed. 

' Zaccheus, as recorded Luke xix. 8, when distributing one half of liis 
goods to the poor, obtained the Lord's commendation. [He was not required 
to give all that he had to the poor : nay, what he did give was voluntarily, 
not by command. — Ed.] — ^V. g. 

' In the original the words are, " ipsum statim documentum postulat ;" lit. 
" he demands the very proof." — (I. B.) 

» For already now, in this life, those things which are needful are fredy 
held out to believers from this treasure, ver. 29.— V. g. 

• Nay, it is not even readily that he thinks of the subject of obtaining 
eternal life at all.— V. g. 

364 ST MATTHEW XIX. 24-26. 

24. Ka/i)iXov, a camel) i.e. the animal of that name ; cf. ch. 
xxiii. 24. It is not a rope^ that is compared to a thread, but the 
eye of a needle to a gate. 

25. 'Axoieavng di o'l ficcSi^ral alrov, x.T.X., but when His disciples 
heard it, etc.) Scripture everywhere shows a middle path be- 
tween excessive confidence and excessive timidity. Seever. 26, 
28, 30 ; 1 Pet. v. 7, compared with 6, 8. — n's apa, x.t.x., who 
then, etc.) The disciples were anxious, either for themselves, 
lest other obstacles should equally impede them, or because they 
entertained the hope of acquiring wealth (see ver. 27), or else 
for others : which fear is far more laudable. Cf. Rev. v. 4. 

26. 'E/A/3XE\j/as, having looked upon) in order to fix the 
thoughts of the terrified disciples. Jesus taught many things 
even by His look and by the expression of His countenance. 
This look first moved Matthew, once a publican. — iJ'jriv, said) 
with the greatest sweetness. — adumrov, impossible) more even 
than morally impossible. — vawa, all things) Therefore even this. 
The Divine omnipotence is §een, not only in the kingdom of 
nature, but in those also of grace and glory. That power is 
more than human by which the human heart is led away from 
earthly things. The cause of the rich may be pleaded with the 
greatest effect by the poor and the scrupulous.^ — duvard, possible) 
as each of the elect will know. 

' Bengel alludes to a reading Trhich is evidently corrupt, and an interpre- 
tation which is manifestly erroneous. " Some ancient and modern commen- 
tators," says Bloomfield, " would read xafiiT^oi/, a cable, rope; or take niftrfAou 
in that sense. But for the former there is little or no manuscript authority, 
and for the latter, no support firom the usvs loquendi." For interesting illus- 
trations of the subject, too long to insert, see Kitto, and Wordsworth, in loc. 
-{I. B.) 

^ In the original, " timoratos.'' In illustration and explanation of this bar- 
barous word, the following extract will not be unwelcome : — 

" TiMORATUS. Wippo de Vita Chunradi Salici, p. 428 : In Dei seruitio 
Timorata, in orationibus et eleemosynis assidua. Gesta Innocentii iii. p. 77 : 
Demtus et timoratus. Ditmarus lib. 2 : Filiam bene Timoratam, etc. Humi- 
liter et Timorate, apud eumdem lib. 3. Fulbertus Carnot. Epist. 40 : Haere- 
ham timorate Buspensus et expectans, etc. Occurrit non semel: GaUis 
Timore, Dei timidus et a lenibus culpis auersus. Timoratus et totus plenws 
Deo, in Chronico Noualic. apud Murator, to. 2, part. 2, col. 736. Adde P. 2 
de Imit. Christi, c. 10, n. 3, etc." Glossarium Manuale ad Scriptores 
llEDiiB ET Infim^e Latinitatis cx magnis Glossariis Caroli Du Fresne, 

ST MATTHEW XIX. 27, 28. 865 

27. Elirev, said) in all simplicity. — li/is/s, we) not like that rich 
man. — 'jrdvra, all things) His few things are as much all to the 
workman, as his many things to the satrap. — rl upa, 'israi ni/^n ; 
what therefore shall there he for us f) Our Lord replies by ixa.- 
TovTafXagtova x^-^irai, he shall receive an hundredfold, in ver. 29, 
and Sdgu, x.r.x., / will give, etc., in ch. xx. 4, 2, 7, etc. — i}//,Tv, for 
us) sc. in the kingdom of God. 

28. 'O &i'Itisous eT-TTiv auToTe, x.r.X., but Jesus said unto them, 
etc.) Peter had joined together we have left all, and we have fol- 
lowed Thee. Our Lord rephes to these things separately ; for 
the latter (ver. 28) was peculiar to the apostles ; the former (ver. 
29) common to them with others. See Ps. xlv. 10, H. — h/iiTg 
— xal i/isTs, ye — ye also) sc. you Twelve. — h r5j <!Takiyyivi(Sicf,, in 
the regeneration) This is to be construed with the following, 
not the preceding words : for the following after Jesus is usually 
mentioned alone, without this addition : by which the time of 
the session, which is immediately spoken of, is suitably marked. 
There will be a new creation, over which the second Adam will 
preside, when the whole microcosm of human nature, by means 
of the resurrection, and also the macrocosm of the universe, will 
be born again (genesin iteratam habebit). Cf. Acts iii. 21 ; 
Rev. xxi. 5 ; Matt. xxvi. 29. — Regeneration (vaXiyyiviela,) and 
renovation {avaxaivufii) are joined together in Tit. iii. 5. — Then 
we shall be sons ; see Luke xx. 36 ; Rom. viii. 23 ; 1 John iii. 2. 
— xa,6!(figh, ye shall sit) The middle voice is used in the case of 
the disciples, the active, xaSinri, in that of the Lord. At the 
beginning of the judgment the disciples will stand; see Luke 
xxi. 36 ; 2 Cor. v. 10 ; afterwards, having been absolved from 
all charges against them, they will sit with Him ; see 1 Cor. 
vi. 2. — 6p6vovg, thrones) Another has taken the throne of Judas ; 
see Acts i. 20. Concerning the thrones, cf. Rev. xx. 4. — 
xpivovTtg, judging) In the time of the Judges there was a theo- 
cracy, concerning which see my exposition of the Apocalypse, 
p. 553. Thus, in the first millennium, restored Israel, its ene- 
mies having been destroyed, will have judges again ; see Is. 
i. 26. The promise, however, given to the apostles, refers to a 
still more distant period. — dddixa, twelve) The number of 

Domini Dtr Cange, et Carpentakii in compendium reda«tum multisque 
verbis et diceudi formulis auctum. — Tom. vi., p. 563, b. — (I. B.) 

366 ST MATTHEW XIX, 29. 

princes in Num. viii. 2, etc., and of apostles in Rev. xxi. 12, 14, 
corresponds with that of the tribes of Israel. — pvXag, x.r.X., tribes, 
etc.) to which the apostles had, in the first instance, been sent. 

29. Kal -ira;, and every one) Not only apostles, to whom 
Peter's question ought not to have referred exclusively. See 
2 Tim. iv. 8. — aipijxiv, hath relinquished) If the Lord so com- 
mand (as in iv. 19), or thus guide by various means. — ohias, 
houses^) This is placed first; cf. concerning it, ver. 21, 27. — 
St Matthew, in the present instance, and St Mark, in x. 29, 
maintain the order of affection in the enumeration of relations, 
mentioning them by pairs in an ascending scale, lands being 
placed last ; whereas St Luke, in xviii. 29, follows the order of 
time. — }j yvvaTxa, or wife) i.e. without breaking the law of Moses ; 
see ver. 9. The singular number of this word (i.e. wife) should 
be remarked, as an argument against polygamy ; for those 
things of which there can be more than one, brothers, etc., are 
put in the plural number in this passage. In like manner in 
Mark x. 29, o/x/a, a house, is also put in the singular number. 
A man may, indeed, have more than one house, though such is 
the case of few ; but no one dwells in two at the same time, so as 
to be able to leave them both at once. — emxiv tou hofiarog Mov, on 
account of My name) sc. on account of confessing and preaching 
the name of Christ. — Ixarovra'irXatf/ova, an hundredfold) i.e. of the 
same things which are enumerated in this verse ; cf. Mark x. 30. 
— Kri-^iTKi, shall receive) sc. in this life : for the future life is an 
hundredfold, nay, a thousandfold more productive in its returns ; 

1 Beng., in his Appar. Crit. on this passage, p. 482, had considered the 
singular, oixiem, had been derived from the parallel passages in the other 
Gospels. Hence also in the Gnomon (Ed. ii., p. 128) he preferred the plural 
number. But in the smaller Ed. of N. T. Gr., a.d. 1753, he changed his 
opinion, and gave the superiority to the singular, oinlaa, by appending the 
sign /3, and with this the Germ. Vers, of the passage subsequently corre- 
sponds. In this view, the observation in the Gnomon which immediately 
follows, has the more force. — E. B. 

Tischend. reads oj o'lmas after Jj dypovs, with CL Memph., MSS. of Vulg. 
Origen 1, 283c ; 3,689a. Lachm., as Eec. Text, reads oixi'a; jj before aSsX- 
(Povs with BD. The oldest MS. of Vulg. (Amiatinus) reads the sing. 
' domum," and puts it before " vel fratres aut sorores." abed Hil. also read 
' domum.' Irenaeus, " agros aut domos aut parentes (ij yovei;) aut fratres 
aut Alios." The Sj oUlcci/ first in the enumeration is probably drawn from 
Mark viii. 29 and Luke xviii. 29. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW XiX. 30. 3G7 

gee Luke xix, 16, 17. He shall receive them, however, not as 
civil or personal possessions ; yet he truly sliall receive them, as 
far as the believer needs to do so, and he does so in the person 
of others, to whom, as a believer, he w^ould especially wish them 
to belong ; cf. Matt. v. 5 ; Acts iv. 35 ; 1 Cor. iii. 22. — The 
ungodly are usurpers ; the right of possession belongs to God 
and His heirs ; they receive as much as is expedient for them. 
The word "Kfi-^/iTai (shall receive) agrees rather with the notion of 
hire or wages : but xXtipovo/x^riiei (shall inherit) implies something far 
more abundant. Scripture speaks more expressly and copiously 
of temporal punishments than of temporal rewards, and of eternal 
rewards than of eternal punishments. — Z,ariv, life) see ver. 
16, 17. 

30. UoXXol di, but many) in opposition to ms (every one), in ver. 
29. Perhaps also it is hinted that the young man in question 
would return again, and from being one of the last, become one 
of the first. — vpuroi, first) In the first clause of the verse this 
word is the subject, as is clear from its attributive, -TtoXkol (many), 
which absorbs the article ; in the latter clause it is the predi- 
cate : in ch. xx. 16 the opposite is the case. In the present 
instance, therefore (since the greatest emphasis is placed on the 
last clause), the apophthegm is propounded rather by way of en- 
couragement, as in Mark x. 31 ; whereas in Matt. xx. 16 and 
Luke xiii. 30, by way of warning. In both cases the assertions 
are modified by the addition of the attributive iraXKh (many), 
which applies especially to the worse class ; for the better con- 
tains hut few. The "first" and " last" difier; either, (1), in 
kind, so that the former means those who are saved, the latter 
those who are lost ; or, (2), (which is preferable) in degree, so 
that the " last" may mean those who are also saved, but who 
obtain a station far inferior to that of the "first." F. S. 
Loefler (p. 106), in his exposition of the following parable, 
supposes iig (as) to be understood here, so as to produce the fol- 
lowing meaning : The First shall be as the Last ; and the Last 
AS the First. Nor is the idea of such an ellipsis in itself objec- 
tionable : but this interpretation is irreconcileable with the con- 
text in the parallel passages, of St Mark who does not give the 
subsequent parable, and of St Luke who records this saying 
when uttered on another occasion. Our Lord intimates parti- 

368 ST MATTHEW XX. 1, 2. 

cularly the change of relative condition which was to occur be- 
tween the Jews and the Gentiles. — Cf. ch. viii. 10, 11, 12 , 
Luke xiii. 28-30 (taken in connection with ib, ver. 23-27), and 
Kom. ix. 30, 31. 


1. Tap, for) referring to the last verse of the preceding 
chapter. There is a similar connection of a parable with what 
immediately preceded it, in ch. xviii. 23. Peter is taught to 
be more diffident in asking questions (cf. ch. xix. 27), and in 
comparing himself with others ; cf. Luke xvii. 5, 10, where we 
see that they think more rightly who consider themselves as 
unprofitable servants, than they who consider themselves better 
than others. 

2. 'Su/jLipmtjgag, when he had agreed) He deals with the first 
labourers more by legal compact ; with the latter, more by mere 
liberality, even in the hiring them, though He blames them for 
standing idle ; see ver. 4, 6, 7. They mal^e up for their pre- 
vious idleness by their obedience, without stipulating for a fixed 
amount of wages. The day, divided into twelve hours, signifies 
not the whole duration of the world, nor that of the New Tes- 
tament dispensation, which the life of a single labourer can 
never equal ; neither, as it seems, does it represent the space of 
life given to each human being, in which one labours a longer 
and another a shorter time from his call to his death : although 
one who came before us might labour only one hour {i.e. the last), 
and another who comes after us may begin at the first ; so that 
in this passage that saying should hold good, " In any hour is 
any hour;"^ — But it represents the space of time from the first 
calling of the apostles to the ascension of Christ and the descent 

' " QuMibet hora est quslibet hora." In every hour whatever, there is 
the hour of some one or other [some hour or other, whatsoever that hour be]. 
Any hour of labour whatsoever is counted to the labourer as such, whensoever 
it be, whether at an earlier or later date. This seems to me Bengel's mean- 
ing, though the words are rather ambiguous. — Ed. 

ST MATTHEW XX. 3-8. 369 

of the Paraclete. The denarius is that one amount of wages 
in the present and future life, equally offered to all, mentioned 
in eh. xix. 29, 21 ; the difference of which, though corresponding 
with the difference of labours, is not only not apparent in this 
life, but frequently appears inverted : therefore the middle term, 
equaUty, is here assumed.^ The evening is that time when 
each one is, or appears to be, much nearer the close than the 
commencement of his labours ; and therefore, in the case of the 
disciples, the time then close at hand, immediately before the 
departure of oiu- Lord. They cast their own evening and that 
of others into the same balance, who compare themselves with 
others. The labourers are all who are called, not only the 
apostles. The feeling of the discontented labourers concerning 
the whole day, resembles that of Peter, when he alluded, with- 
out sufficient discretion, to the difference between himself and 
that rich man. And every one is tempted by such a feeling 
towards those whom he most knows, and who are his equals 
He who has a wider range of thought is liable to the same 
temptation with regard to those who are more remote. — furi 
Tuv spyarSiv, with the labowers) The Householder makes an agree- 
ment with the labourers, and they (see ver. 13) with him. The 
one ensures the payment of the wages ; the other shows what 
the labourer should be contented with. — Jx hrivapku, for a dena- 
rius) This was a day's wages, as it is commonly at present 
The Ix (^for) is not repeated in ver. 13. 

3. 'axXous, others) who had not been there at the first hour. 

6. T>)» ivdexdrjiv, the eleventh) The article is emphatic, as it 
does not occur in the case of the ninth, sixth, or even third 
hour. — oX>iv r^v tifiipav, all the day) They could not offer them- 
selves for hire elsewhere. 

7. 'Hfias, us) This suits the Gentiles. 

8. '0'4//a5 ds ytvo/jbivni, but when even was come) A prophetic 
allusion is made to the Last Judgment. The evening qf each 
individual's life resembles the evening of the world. — airi tSu 
sdYaTuv eus ruv 'jrpuTiav, from the last unto the first) They were all 

' Here again there is some obscurity. " Ideo medium, paritas, sumitur." 
It seems to me to refer to His fixing on the denarius as a mean, mergmg the 
various diversities of reward answering to the diversities of lal our, not now 
apparent, in the one commun sum alike and equal to all. — Ed. 

VOL. I. A A 

870 ST MATTHEW XX. 9-14. 

divided into these two classes ; for all are reckoned amongst the 
first, who came before the eleventh horn" ; see ver. 9, 10. 

9. 'Ara, apiece) See John ii. 6. 

10. 0/ nrpuToi, the first) The intermediate labourers did not 
murmur ; for they saw themselves also made equal to the first. 
He who is liable to be envied himself, is less likely to envy 
others. — vXilova, more) so. denarii, i.e. twelve denarii for twelve 

11. 'Eyoy/u^ov, murmured) Cf. Luke xv. 28—30. 

12. oZtoi, X.T.X., these, etc.) Envy is frequently more anxious 
to take from another than to obtain for itself. They envy, not 
those of the ninth, sixth, and third, but only those of the 
eleventh hour. — o/ 'iaxa-roi, the last) The labourers use this ex- 
pression from envy. — imiriaav, have spent) See Acts xv. 33.' — 
jj/i/i', to us) They speak also for those who had come at the 
intermediate hours, and who, though they had borne a less 
burthen than that of the whole day, had yet endured the mid- 
day heat. — ;8apos, burthen) internally, of labour. — Tfa rj/nepai, of 
the day) sc. the whole. — xauaam, heat) externally, of the sun. 

13. 'Evl, to one) who was a sample of the rest of the mur- 
murers. Cf. concerning one, the Gnomon on ch. xxii. 11. — 
iraipi, friend) An expression used also to those with whom we 
are not on friendly or intimate terms.^ 

14. Ti ghv, that which is thine) There is an evident contrast 
intended between these words and h nTg e/ioT(, with my own, in 
the following verse. — \j<?raye, Depart) This expression is not ad- 
dressed to those who came at the eleventh hour. — ^eXw, I will) 
The force of this word is very great.' See ver. 15, and cf. 

' no/^ffafTef — xpoiion. Having tarried a space : as TOiia is here taken by 
Beng. and the margin of our Engl. Bible of contintiance of time, " These last 
have continued one hour only." — Ed. 

' " ernCtpi, at first sight a friendly word merely, assumes a more solemn aspect 
when we recollect that it is used in ch. xxii. 12, to the guest who had not 
the wedding garment ; and in ch. xxvi. 50, by our Lord to Judas." Alford 
in loc— (I. B.) 

Oix, aiiKu at, I do thee no wrong) To do wrong to God is bad ; but it is 
even worse to suppose one's self wronged by God : and this happens more 
often than is generally supposed. — V. g, 

' t.«. denoting the absolute freedom of God's Grace, and the entire sove- 
reignty of His Will.— (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XX. 15-17. 871 

Gnomon on Mark xii. 38. — Tovr^ fj5 la^drui, to this last) The 
expression is repeated from the speech of the murmurer, but 
used in the singular number, and applied to tlie last of the last. 
Every one who is envious, envies some one individually. — eot, to 
thee) The addition, " who hast borne the burden and heat of the 
day," is not repeated. 

15. ' Op'^aX/ihg, eye) The mind shines forth from the eyes. — 
ayaSJs, good) He is good, who grants more than justice (see 
ver. 4, sc. whatsoever is right) requires. See Rom. v. 7. 

16. Ourcos, in such a manner) The conclusion enunciated in 
eh. xix. 30 is inferred again from the parable, though somewhat 
inverted, and at the same time limited by the o'uTdig, as in Rev. 
iii. 16. Not all who are first shall fail, yet all require to be on 
the watch, lest they should fail ; and all do fail who conduct 
themselves as the iraTpog (^ friend^ or comrade) mentioned in 
the parable. Many, also, from the intermediate ranks, may take 
up a higher or a lower position. — egovrai, shall be) With respect 
to the apostles, it is not a prediction, but a warning. — o'l, the) 
The article is here the sign of the subject (as it is everywhere, 
except when that is still more definitely determined by a proper 
name or a pronoun, demonstrative or personal), and at the same 
time has reference to ch. xix. 30 ; thus showing that the proposi- 
tion is not to be taken as of universal application. — wpuroi, first) 
See the end of ver. 8. — mXXot, many) sc. of the first, who them- 
selves are many (see ch. xix. 30) ; and moreover of o'l saxaroi, 
the last. — xXriToi, called) The term xtxXti/ji.ivog is applied to a 
labourer who has been invited, even though he should not enter 
the vineyard : the term hXtitos signifies one who has embraced 
the caUing.^ — hKixro!, chosen) i.e. selected in preference to 
others. In this passage, the first where it occiu's, the word 
seems to denote, not all who shall be saved, but, the most ex- 
cellent of human beings. See Franck's Sermons for Sundays 
and Holidays, pp. 431, 432, and W. Wall's Critical Notes, 
p. 27. 

17. 'Ava^aimv, as He was going up) A very memorable jour- 
ney, in which great and various emotions were manifested. — 

' ' O'hiyat, few) who, as clinging to mere [unmixed] talth, give [cause] more 
honour to God, than the most zealous workmen. — V. g. 

372 ST MATTHEW XX. 18-21. 

«ai>iXal3t, x.r.x., He took, etc.) He propounded the subject, not 
as in His daily conversation, but more solemnly.^ 

18, 19. Tia,fci,&o^rieiTa.i — ■jrapaSuidotisi, shall he delivered up, shall 
deliver up) A momentous verb. See Luke xxiii. 25. 

18. 'Apxiip^^"', to the chief priests) This appellation seems to 
have been very common at that time. — ypctf/if/ianZei, to the 
scribes) whose duty it was to examine, as of the priests to 

19. ToTg 'i'bngi, to the Gentiles) i.e. to the Eoman nation, which 
was the chief of them all. — 6^*a/f a/, to te mocked) What igno- 
miny I He had, on two previous occasions, foretold His passion 
less definitely : He now expressly mentions the stripes, the cross, 
etc., as in ch. xxvi. 2, He does the consummation, namely. 
His crucifixion. 

20. Ton, then) at a most inappropriate time.' — ■ffpoaxuvovga, 
worshipping) Him. From the adoration and discourse of this 
woman, it is evident that she entertained a high idea of our 
Lord's majesty, but possessed very little knowledge. — rl, some- 
thing) She asked for something, indefinitely, as they do who 
knew that a refusal would not be unjust; see 1 Kings 
ii. 20. 

21.* "Iva xa'bieudiv, that they may sit) She seems to refer to the 
promise of the twelve thrones mentioned in ch. xix. 28, and to 
have taken occasion to apply the promise more especially to her 
own sons from the appellation, sons of thunder, which our Lord 

' Viz. in this His third announcement of His coming death, etc — ^V. g. 
Of the preceding declarations as to His approaching Passion, the one had 
been made after the confession of the disciples, the other after the Trans- 
figuration on the Mount (which was attended with an universal admiration 
of His works, Luke ix. 43, 44, 36 ; Mark ix. 15) : a third is now added of His 
own accord, more solemn than the rest. — Harm., p. 432. 

" Bengel's very sentences have a rhythm, which brings out happily the 
antithesis intended: " Scribis) quorum erat scientia; uti^omii^cMmsententia." 
The province of the former was knowledge of the written law ; of the latter, 
to decide or ffive sentence in accordance with it Ed. 

^ ' H fiiryip) This thought seems to have entered the mind of the anxious 
mother altogether sooner than it did that of her sons : and even in her very 

supplication she acted the part of an intermediate agent or intercessor 

Harm., p. 433. 

* T( H'hiis, what wilt thou) The Saviour does not act hastily in proraising. 


ST MATTHEW XX. 22. 373 

had bestowed upon them ; see Gnomon on Mark iii. 17. — 'u/V 
ttou, my sons) Natural relationship had nothing to do with this. 
— ex ii^iojv eou, on Thy right hand) The words t& fisg/a signify, 
passim, the right hand, foot, and side. Before then, Jesus would 
have others on His right and left ; see ch. xxvii. 38.^ — tT;, one) 
It may be supposed that the order of the disciples in their glory 
will correspond to the order in their office. 

22. E'tsv, said) gravely, and with pity. — oux olian, ye do not 
know) Ye do not know what My glory is, what it is to sit on My 
right hand and on My left, to whom it is given, and what is re- 
quired beforehand. — r/ ahsTgh, what ye ask) sc. what it is that 
ye ask.' — dOvoigh ; can ye ?) He replies to the sons, instead of the 
mother, Are you equal to this ? — rJ iror^piov, the cup) In St 
Mark He speaks also of " the baptism ;" see the Gnomon on 
Mark x. 38, 39. Some copies of Matthew have the clause con- 
cerning baptism, others are without it.* — o iyii, which I) Jesus 
already as it were then dwelt on His passion, and draws His dis- 
course from it ; and the speech of those two, whom He thus directs 
to follow Him, was, as it were, outstripping not only their ten 
fellow-disciples, but also the Lord Himself." — Sum/ieSa, we are 

' 0/ Suo) She seemed to herself at the time to be speaking altogether sea- 
sonably. — V. g. 

' Sc. The two thieves who were crucified with Him. — (I. B.) 

3 One ought to know this, who wishes to ask ^V. g. 

* In his Apparatus Criticus, Bengel says on this passage — 

22 ^i) Comp. Aug. 1, 2 ; Colh. 5 et Colb. n. 4112 ; Cypr. Laud. 2, 4; M. 
1, 2 ; Wo. 1, 2, et e Classe ii. undecim alii, pluresve, Pers. Jtus. Syr. xal 
Er. et al. E. Marco. ^ Jj to usq. /JaarTwS^va*) edd. Mss. Arab. Hebr. Pers. 
Bus. Syr. Ohrys., Opus imperf. Basilius Sel. Theophyl. (--) Origenes, Epi- 
phanius, jEth. Copt. Lot. et inde Cant. Colbert, n. 2467, Steph. n. Sax. 
Ambr. Hilar. Hieron., Tr. de Bapt. inter opera G/priani. — (1. B.) 

Rec. Text with C adds after riveiu, ij (x«i) to" /ietTrria-fioc o lyu liefirri^oftai 
BarnaSiiiixi. But BDLZic Viilg. Memph. Theb. Orig. 3,717c, 7196 (as- 
cribing the words to Mark), Hil. 709, omit the words. — Ed. 

However the margin of Ed. 2 reckons that clause concerning the baptism 
among the readings better established in the following verse than in thii 
verse. — E. B. 

Rec. Text adds in ver. 23, with 0, kxI ri /Saarw^* 6 iya fixTrt^oftai 
fittxTKritiireah. But BDLZabc, and the others quoted in note, ver. 22, reject 
the words. — Ed. 

• What Beng. seems to mean is, The request of the two sons of Zebedee, 
as it were, went before even Himself, not to say the ten disciples, in proceed- 

874 ST MATTHEW XX. 23-25. 

able) They did not even know sufficiently what they were an- 
swering ; the Lord, however, bears with them, and accepts their 
confession ;* cf. ch. xxvi. 39, 37. 

23. tJ nh woTripiov, x.r.x., the cup indeed, etc.) This, together 
with the parallel passages, has been treated with singular in- 
dustry by Thomas Gataker in his Adversaria Miscellanea, B. 
i. ch. 3, of which we shall take the chief points. — xaSlgai, x.r.x., 
to sit, etc.) There will, therefore, clearly be some who will sit 
on the right and left hand of Christ. — aXX' olg, x.r.X., except to 
these for whom) By this opposition or exception (for it comes to 
the same thing) Jesus does not deny that it is His to give (see 
Rev. iii. 21), but limits and declares to whom He will give it, 
as well as the time and the order, referring, as is His wont, 
all things to the Father. Jesus did not give it until. His pas- 
sion having been suffered and concluded,^ He had sat down 
Himself on the right hand of the Father. It is neither an 
earthly kingdom in which He gives it, nor does He give it to 
those who have not yet suffered. Under, therefore, the very 
appearance of a repulse. He gives a promise to James and John. 

24. 0/ d'sxa, the ten) Amongst these was the candid Evangelist 
himself. — fiyamxTnsav, were indignant) They feared lest they 
should lose something ' [i.e. lest James and John should gain 
something at their expense]. 

25. liposxaXiaaiJtivog auroug, having called them to Hirn) They 
had been moved, therefore, with indignation when their Master 
was not present. He avowedly corrects them. — o'lban, x.r.X., 
ye know, etc.) Therefore ye think that it will be the same in the 
kingdom of the Messiah. — xaTaxvpuLovaiv [E. V. exercise dominion 
over^ — xuTi^ouaid^oudiv [E. V. exercise authority upori\ — In both 
these compound verbs the xara intensifies the signification (see 
S. V. of Gen. i. 28, and Ps. Ixxii. 8), and in this passage distin- 

ing to the Kingdom at once, whereas He was dwelling on the intermediate 
Passion : He therefore urges them to folloto after Him, not to take the lead 
of Him, and to bear the Cross of His followers before receiving the Crown. 

1 Intending subsequently to perfect in them those things, which at that 
time were above their own comprehension. — V. g. 

' ' Exantlata,' ' having been drained to the dregs.' — (I.B.) 
" Luke records a similar dispute as having arisen at the Last Supper, ck. 
xxii. 24. — Harm., p. 433. 

ST MATTHEW XX. 20, 27. 375 

guishes between the legitimate use and frequent abuse of autho- 
rity. — 01 fiiyaXm, they that are great) sc. ministers of state, who 
are often more imperious than their lords. 

26. Oli;^ oxiriiii hi 'ierai h hfj/ii, hut it shall not he so among you) 
" It appears to me not at all natural to suppose that all use and 
exercise of civil authority is in this passage utterly forbidden to 
those to whom these words apply, and much less so that our 
Lord meant to forbid, by these words, all precedence and in- 
equality amongst His followers, since He Himself both expressly 
recognises degrees amongst them, by which some are preferred 
to others, as greater to less (see Luke xxii. 26), and also pro- 
poses Himself to them as an example (i'Todny/ia) ; see ibid. 27 ; 
Matt. XX. 28. Christ therefore, by this prohibition, did not 
derogate more from the authority of His followers over each 
other, than He did from His own over them." — Gatakee : hier- 
archically enough. — h v^lTv, amongst you) These words " seem to 
apply to all Christians, whether princes or plebeians." — Ibid. 
" Christ teaches that His kingdom is carried on upon different 
principles from those of this world ; for that in those there were 
external dignities, princedoms, and satrapies, which the respec- 
tive kings were in the habit of conferring, according to their 
caprice, upon those whom they wished to honour ; but that in 
His kingdom nothing of this sort was to be found ; not be- 
cause those things were not to be met with, or might not be 
lawfully exercised in the Chm-ch of Christ or amongst the pro- 
fessors of the Christian name, but because they do not pertain 
to, or arise from, the spiritual kingdom of Christ, to which He 
invites His followers. Moreover, that there was no reason why 
any one, in following Him, should promise himself the posses- 
sion of such dignities, since He neither promised such things to 
any one, nor took or exercised them Himself : that He professed 
Himself, by practice as well as precept, to be, not the dispenser 
of secular dignities, but the author and teacher of humility and 
spiritual modesty. He exhorts all His followers, therefore, that 
(utterly laying aside all ambition) they should conform them- 
selves to these virtues, of which they have an example in Him- 
self." — Ibid. — /isya;, great) the minister of a great king is him- 
self great. 

27. llfuTOi, chief. 

876 ST MATTHEW XX. 29-31. 

28. '0.gvip, x,T.\., even as, etc.) The greatest example which 
could be adduced or imagined. — Siaxovrieai, to minister, to serve) 
See Rom. xv. 8. — xal, x.t.X., and, etc.) An ascending climax. — 
Dju -^v^^v Auj-oD, JBis soul) i.e. Himself; see Gal. i. 4, ii. 20. — 
Xirpov, a ransom. — avrl itoWSit, for many) A great ministry, and 
one of vast condescension. That for which a price is given, is in 
some sort more an object of desire to him who gives the price than 
the price itself. And the Kedeemer spends Himself for many, 
not only taken as a whole, but also as individuals. 

29. "OyXoi irokvi, a great multitude) which had been in that 

30. Auo, two) St Mark (x. 46) mentions only one, Barti- 
maeus, the most distinguished ;* as St Matthew in the next chap- 
ter mentions both the ass, and the colt, St Mark only the colt 
which was actually employed by om" Lord ; as St Luke (xxiv. 
4) the two angels who appeared, St Matthew and St Mark, the 
one who spoke. 

31. O/ hi, X.T.X., but they, etc.) We must not listen to those 
who incidcate perverted shame or noxious decorum. 

32. T/' SeXen ; x.r.X., what will ye ? etc.) We ought sometimes 
in our prayers to make special petitions. 

34. 'S'TrXay^viehig, being moved with compassion) The compas- 
sion of Jesus was aroused by every human misery. — ^xoXoiStiean 
AutSj, they followed Him) with the multitudes mentioned in ch. 
xxi. 8, and without any one to lead them.* 

^ And were subsequently present at His royal entry V. g. 

* The same one is meant also in Luke xviii. 35, that Evangelist having had 
occasion to transpose the order of the narration, owing to the fact that one 
of the two blind men made acquaintance with the Divine Physician on the 
way, when Jesus was entering Jericho. In the meantime, whilst the Saviour 
was dining or rather passing the night with Zaccheus, the other of the two 
blind men, whom Matthew adds to the former one, joined Bartimaeus.^ 
Harm., pp. 434, 436. 

' Sc. as formerly, when they were blind. — Ed. 

6T MATTHEW XXI. 1-3. 377 


1. Kal ore, x.t.X., and when, etc.) From this point forward, the 
actions and contests of our Lord are described by the several 
Evangelists with great fialness and agreement. — t'ls 'Upos6Xvpi,a, to 
Jerusalem) which they were about to enter. — ron, x.t.X., then, 
etc.) not before. It is clearly intimated, that the event* about 
to be described was full of mystery. Often had Jesus entered 
Jerusalem f now, in this His last journey, and at the conclusion 
of it. He rides for the only time, solemnly taking possession of the 
Royal City (see ch. v. 35), not only for a few days, but on account 
of that kingdom (see Mark xi. 10) which He was just about to 
institute ; see Luke xxiv. 47, i. 33, and the conclusion of Zech. 
ix. 10, with the whole context. 

2. T)]v avevavri iifiuv) which is over against you. — eOSeug, imme- 
diately) The word is repeated in the next verse. All things are 
easy to the Lord. — Ssdi/iivriv, tied) already as it were prepared. — 
'irwXoi', a colt) The colt had never carried any one before. Jesus 
had never been carried before by any animal, except perhaps at 
a very tender age. He took the mother from the village for a 
short way. 

3. ' o Kipio;, the Lord) The owners of the ass were devoted 
to Jesus.* — sudias hi, hut immediately) i.e. You will not need 

1 In the original, " Vectura {a leing carried or borne, a riding) mysterii 
plena innuitur." See ver. 2-9. — (I. B.) 

2 "The Saviour had come to Jerusalem— (1), in infancy (Luke ii. 22,seqq.); 
(2), in childhood (Luke ii. 42, seqq.) ; (3), in His temptation (chap. iv. 6) ; 
(4), at the Passover (John ii. 23.) ; (5), at the Day of Pentecost (John v. 1) ; 
(6), during the Feast of Tabernacles (John vii. 10) ; and now, for the seventh 
time, to His Passion. After the entrance (Einritte) [described in the fol- 
lowing verses], He went daily to and from Jerusalem, until, at the commence- 
ment of the Friday, [for the Jewish days began at six o'clock in the evening,] 
He was carried in bound, and taken forth in the morning to Golgotha." — 
B. H. E; 

' xpiiav ixiiy iMth need) How great were the needs of so great a Lord ! 


many words. — ^ameriXkn, he sendsf The present tense is used 
because the event was sure and speedy, as they were already 
prepared to send it : cf. Mark iv. 29, tWnag ameTiXXsi rh 8pi- 
■Travov, immediately he sendeth the sickle. — See ibid. xi. 6, xai 
afirixav avnug, and they let them, go. 

5. E'ivare, x.r.x,, tell ye, etc.) This passage is one of those 
which show that many things in the prophets ought to be 
received by us, not only as they were meant by them, but as they 
were destined to be meant by the apostles. This part occurs in 
Isa. Ixii. 11 ; the rest in Zechariah, whom St Matthew quotes, 
beginning at the more important part ; for the word " rejoice" 
is thus suppHed. At the time of its fulfilment it is to be told : 
joy then arises spontaneously.^ In Zech. ix. 9, the lxx. have 
Xaipi (Kpoipa, ^{jyarsp liiiv, xripuSffi Suyarsp ' lepovaaX^/j/' idoCi, 6 Baffi- 
Xiug* 'ip^sTa! eoi, dlxaiog xai eijiZ,m Alrhg'^ "irpcftig xal ififSi^rixiig i-xi 
l-jtoZtjym xal toXov \iiov, — Rejoice greatly, daughter of Sion ; shout,^ 

^ Such is the reading also of Griesbach and Scholz. E. M. reads d'jroare'Ku 
(the future), rendered therefore in E. V. " he will send." In his App. Crit. 
Bengel writes — 

" o.ToiTrtKTi.u) Comp. Er. ed. i. et seqq. ; Stap. Aug. i. 2 : Bodl. 1, 2, 7 ; 
Bu. Byz. Gov. i. Cj/pr. Gal. ; OeM. Go. Laud. 1,2, 5; Lin. Lips. Mont.ranim. 
prima, M. 1, Mosc. N. 1, Par, 1, 3, 4, 7, 8 ; Per. Roe. Steph. omn. vss. 1, 
2, Wh. 1 nonnulli codd. upud Er. vel etiam Barb, decern, et Cam. item Chryg. 
Theophyl. Cant, latine, Syr. Accedunt Evangelistaria, Aug. 4 (in quo cum 
verbum hoc jam x simplici scriptum fuisset, A alteram est suppletum), Bodl. 
4, 5, Laud. 4, Wh. 3. Itaque Afrovri'K'Ku Matthsei, et a.Ttaint'Ku Marci se 
mutuo confirmant, nam librarii videntur lectionem tivomkwti ex publica 
Matthsei recitatione ad Marcum traduxisse, et aliquando dvoanT^el a Marco 
ad Matthseum retulisse. Vid. Gnom. (a.'roare'kel) Lat. et inde Er. vel etiam 
Parisini et Seldiani aliquot, cum Bodl. 6, Cant, grsece, Gon. Hunt. 2 Magd. 
et perpaucis aliis." — (I. B.) 

^ ' KvanTihii is the reading of BD5c Vulg. Orig. and Rec. Text, and so 
Lachm. and Tischend. ' tiJTcmrir.'Ku is read by CLXZArf. — Ed. 

3 Beng. seems to mean, the introductory words in Zech. ix. 9, " Rejoice 
greatly," etc., " Shout," etc., are omitted here, on the occasion of the passage 
being quoted by St Matthew, because, at the time of the fulfilment of the 
prophecy, all that was needed was the telling (and therefore " Tell ye" is sub- 
stituted from Isa. Ixii. 11, " Say ye") : the joy was sure to arise of its own 
accord. — Ed. * 

* The Codex Alexandrinus reads (iaaihii; aov. — (I. B.) 

' The Oxford Edition of 1848 has a comma after aiil^m, and omits the 
colon after Kin-og. — (I. B.) 

* The word denotes, in the orig., the voice of a herald or a preacher. — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XXI. 6-8. 379 

daughter of Jerusalem : behold the King cometh unto thee ; He is 
just and having salvation:^ meek, and riding on an ass, even a 
young colt. — r^ huyaTpl 2iiiv, to the daughter of Sion) put synec- 
dochically for Jerusalem. — BamXibs eou, thy King) and also Bride- 
groom. — sol, to, or for thee) sc. for thy sake or advantage. — 
vpcftis xat, x.r.x., meek and, etc.^) The same thing is frequently ex- 
pressed in the same passage by literal and metaphorical words. 
The horse is a warlike steed, which the King of Peace did not 
make use of; see Zech. ix. 10. He will make use of it here- 
after ; see Rev. xix. 11. — 'im, an ass) not a she ass. In Hebrew, 
"rton, — u/Jk iiro^uy/ou, the male foal of an ass^) who, though the 
offspring of one that had borne the yoke, had not himself yet 
borne it. Our Lord rode upon the foal, but employed also the 
mother as a companion to the foal. 

6. Kal 'KoirjdavTii, and when they had done. 

7. 'ETExaS/ffsv,'' He sat upon) becomingly ; His disciples at- 
tending on Him ;' see Luke xix. 35. The Persian kings were 
rather placed by others, than themselves got on horseback. See 
Brisson. — Ivdm auriuv, on them) though, strictly speaking, on 
the foal ; see Mark xi. 2, 3 ; John xii. 14, 15. 

8. 'O 8e wXiTaros oj/Xof, but the people, who were in great num- 
bers. — h rri idfi, in the way) [i.e in the midst of the way or road] ; 
not only xara rriv o3o'i», by the side of the way ; for St Luke 
(xix. 36) uses the expression Imgrpunwv, they spread them under, 
[i.e. so that He should ride over them]. — Ttka&oug, branches) It 
was customary with the Jews and other ancient nations to mani- 
fest their public joy by cutting down branches from trees. 

» Lit. " Himself savinff."— (I. B.) 

^ It is this very virtue that renders both her King, and the tidings as to 
the approach of her King, so delightful to the daughter of Sion. — V. g. 

* Literally, the son of one who bears the yoke; rendered accurately by the 
Vulgate, which Bengel has followed here, filiitm sici^ugalis. He has not 
been equally exact in his German Version. — (L B.) 

* BC Origen read, as Beng., eiriKiSiaeu, He sat ; abed also have ' sedebat :' 
D has (KciSnTo. Vulg. has impostterunt ; and so Rec. Text iirixaSiaeii/, thep 
set Him thereon. This last plainly comes through Harmonists from Luke 
xix. 35, e?rs/3//3a<r«i/, they set Jesus thereon. — Ed. 

' That is, His disciples helped Him to mount, which harmonises the state- 
ments, that He sat upon the colt, in Matt., and that His disciples set Him <yn, 
in Luke. — Ed. 


9.' 'aean&, Hosanna) ie. K3 nyB'in, Save, I pray. The Lxx. 
render Psalm cxviii. (cxvii.) 25 — w Kipn sZeov Sn' w Kupis M&u- 
ffov dfi, — Lord, do save : Lord, do give prosperity. The 
words, 'IjjffoDs (Jesus) in ver. 11, V^i (having salvation) in 
Zechariah ix. 9, and ugawa. in the present verse, are all cognate 
terms. — rj3, x.t.x., to the, etc.) We sing Hosanna, say they (as 
was foretold by the prophets), to the Son of David. Agreeable 
to the account given by the Evangelists of our Lord's entry, is 
that which Isidore Clarius says that he heard from a certain 
Jew, viz., that these words, " Hosanna ! Blessed is He that 
Cometh" etc., were customarily said by the priests, when victims 
were oflFered for sacrifice. And the formula, Hosanna, was so 
frequently uttered, that they even gave that name to the 
branches which were carried about on the Feast of Tabernacles.* 
— iv'koyriM'hog, x.r.X., blessed, etc.) Thus the lxx. in Psalm 
cxviii. (cxvii.) 26, which psalm formed part of the Hallel, or 
Paschal hymn, which they would have to recite in a few days' 
time. — h ivo/iari, in the name) These words should be construed 
with tuXoyji/AEi/os (blessed), according to the Hebrew accents.' — 

' ol irpodyoi/rei — oJ»oJLou^o5i/Tif, that went before — and that followed) Of 
whom the former had gone from the city to meet Him ; the latter had 
gathered themselves together to Jesus, either at Jericho or elsewhere, as He 
was passing along V. g. 

^ Hartwell Home says on this subject : " During the continuance of this 
feast, they carried in their hands branches of palm trees, olires, citrons, 
myrtles, and willows (Lev. xxiii. 40 ; Neh. viii. 15 ; 2 Mace. x. 7) ; singing, 
Hosanna, save I beseech thee (Ps. cxviii. 25); in which words they prayed for 
the coming of the Messiah. These branches also bore the name of Hosanna, 
as well as all the days of the Feast. In the same manner was Jesus Christ 
conducted into Jerusalem by the believing Jews, who, considering Him to be 
the promised Messiah, expressed their boundless joy at finding in Him the 
accomplishment of those petitions which they had so often offered to God for 
His coming, at the Feast of Tabernacles. (Matt. xxi. 8, 9.) During its 
continuance, they walked in procession round the altar with the above- 
mentioned branches in their hands, amid the sound of trumpets, singing 
Hosanna ; and on the last, or seventh day of the Feast, they compassed the 
altar seven times. This was called the Great Hosanna. To this last cere- 
mony St John probably alludes in Rev. vii, 9, 10, where he describes the 
saints as standing before the Throne, " clothed with white robes, and palms 
fn their hands; and saying. Salvation to our God, which sitteth upon the 
throne, and unto the Lamb." — (I. B.) 

' i.e. BeitgelyfouM renieT it, " Blessed in the name of the Lord, etc." In 

ST MATTHEW XXI. 10-12. 381 

i» ToT{ l-YidToii, in the highest) Succour [us], O Thou who art in 
the highest. 

10. Asyouffa, saying) sc. from amazement. — rig, x.r.X., who ? 
etc.) The chief personage is not immediately seen in a large 
concourse; nor had the Jews been accustomed to see Jesus 
journeying except on foot. 

11. 'O vpo(p^rrig, the Prophet) Jesus was first acknowledged as 
a Prophet, then as Priest and King. — o d^J Na^apiT, of Naza- 
reth) This was a customary appellation [for Him]. 

12. 'E^sjBaKi, cast outy though Hewas meek,and had been just 
called so in ver. 5. In the early part of His ministry, our Lord 
had purified the temple ; see John ii. 14. Those who profaned 
it had, however, returned ; and now, when near the end of His 
course, He purifies it once more, though it was soon to be de- 
stroyed ; see ch. xxiii. 38. — iravrag, all) A great miracle. Even 
a large body of soldiers would not have ventured to attempt it. 
— roii iraiXoZvrag, x.t.X., those who sold, etc.) They had wished to 
offer every accommodation for public worship, especially at 
the time of the Passover ; but by degrees they appear to have 
pushed their licence further. — sv rjS hptfi,' in the temple) and in- 
deed in its uttermost part, the court of the Gentiles ; where the 
Gentiles [or nations'] were wont to pray. See Mark xi. 17. 

a note to his German Version, he says, " That is, Let him, who cometh here, 
he in the name of the Lord blessed." For some account of the Hebrew 
Accents, see p. 132, f.n. 5. — (I. B.) 

But Engl. Ver., " Cometh in the name of the Lord :" joining h ouojixn 
with ipxfljiivos. — ^Ed. 

' This casting out did not occur on that very day, a day so full of grace 
and joy ; but when men refused to obey the intimation conveyed by His eyes 
and look (of which Mark, ch. xi. 11, makes mention: [in the 'eventide' of 
the same day " Jesus entered the temple, and looked round about upon all 
things," and not imtil the morrow He "began to cast out them that sold." 
— Ed.]), the Lord on the following day exhibited more severe specimens of 
His most just indignation. Comp. with this, Mark xi. 15. — Harm., p. 447. 

' The fuller reading, h t$ lep^ toS 0£o2, which the larger Ed. had pro- 
nounced to be an inferior reading, is regarded as almost equal in authority 
to that of the text by the margin of the Ed. 2 and the Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

There is no primary authority for the fuller reading here. E/j to isfi6v, 
omitting &eov in the beginning of the sentence, is read by Lachm., with BLi 
Orig. Hilar. 713, Memph. and Theb. Versions. Doc Vulg. and Rec. Text 
add Toti Qsov. — Ed. 

382 ST MATTHEW XXI. 13-16. 

13. 'O olxog Mou oTxog vpoteu^rji xXrib^aiTCir b/jLiTg Be axiThti ifv^eare 
B'jr^Xaiov Xparuv, My house shall be called (a or the) house of 
prayer ; but ye have made it a den of thieves. — The LXX., in 
Isaiah Ivi. 7, have — 6 y&p oTkS; Mou, oTxog -jposev^^g xXri^^airai 
•Kasi ToT; 'ihnsiv, My house shall be called (a or the) house of 
prayer for all nations ; and in Jeremiah vii. 11, /t^ eirrp:am 
Xparuv 6 ohog Mou ; is My house become a den of thieves ? — 
'jrpoeiu'x/iSf of prayer) Prayer is the principal part of public 
worship ; see 1 Kings viii. ; therefore prayer is put before 
the apostolic ministry of the Word in Acts vi. 4. The 
synagogues also were places for teaching and houses of prayer 
as well. In the temple there was more prayer, in the syna- 
gogues more teaching. — e-jrrjXaio XrigrSiv, a den of thieves) A se- 
vere and proverbial expression, used of a place which admits all 
infamous characters and all profane things. He does not say, A 
market-place. In a den, thieves do not so much attack others, 
as house themselves. 

14. 'Ev rS hpCi, in the temple) The right use of the temple ; 
which was found fault with by His adversaries, who tolerated 
the abuse of the temple. No one else ever performed miracles 
in the temple ; this was peculiar to the Messiah. 

15. T(i 'bauiia.eia, the wonderful things) see ver. 12, 14. 

16. 'AMitig, X.T.X., dost Thou hear? etc.) Every thing which 
is not commonplace and traditional, is too much for hypocrites.^ 
— S»jXa^o'n-wv, sucklings) who might 'be as much as three years 
old.^ See 2 Maccabees vii. 27. 

^ »H3-iW) They who to the world seem still infants, may notwithstanding 
have their mouths opened to utterance by Divine power. We may suppose 
that the little children in this instance caught up the words of those of riper 
age (with which view, comp. ver. 9) : and yet that circumstance was not 
without being valued in the sight of God. Only let one not be wanting to 
his fellow in setting a good example : the Lord will take care of the rest, 
nay, indeed He will take care of all things. — V. g. 

' The passage in Maccabees runs thus : — " O my son, have pity upon me 
that bare thee nine months in my womb, and^awe thee suck three years, and 
nourished thee, and brought thee up unto this age." The same practice 
still prevails in the East. In Persia, male children are often kept at the 
breast till three years of age, and are never taken from it till two years and 
two months. In India the period is precisely three years. In 2 Chron. 
xxxi. 16, no provision is assigned for the children of Priests and Levites imtil 
after three years of age, which gives additional weight to the supposition that 

ST MATTHEW XXI. 17-19. 383 

17. AxjTois, them) Whose perversity has just been mentioned. 

18. 'Uvilvaae, He hungered) though He was the King of Glory , 
see ver. 5. Wondrous humihation ! 

19. Sux^v iLimij a certain fig-tree) the only one in that place. 
— ri^Siiv, He came) sc. as the road led by it. The fig-tree appears 
to have stood in a place of pubhc resort. Our Lord's par- 
taking of refreshment in public is illustrated also by John 
iv. 6, 7. [i.e. at Jacob's Well. See Gnomon in loc.J — bit 
aiirrtv, near to it^) — Xiyii, x.r.X., says, etc.) By that very 
act He meets the difficulty which some might have otherwise 
experienced from astonishment at the Lord's being hungry, 
and coming to a tree without ftnit.^ He was wont to display at 
the same time the greatest proofs of both His manhood and His 
Godhead ; see John xi. 35, 40.' — /irixiTi sx, gou xapvh; ybrtrai ili 

they were not weaned till that time. Amongst the ancient Greeks, also, it 
appears that mothers suckled their children till a comparatively late period. 
-(I. B.) 

' E( fiii 0v'KKa, fiouou) It is better to exhibit and produce nothing at all, 
than merely leames. Reflect, O man, what kind of a tree thou art. — V. g. 

2 Viz. That as God He should be hungry at all, or if hungry, that He 
should not create fruit. — Ed. 

* Such instances, for example, were: — The humble condition of His 
nativity, on the one hand ; the testimony of the angels, on the other : , 
His circumcision, and yet His receiving the nade Jesus (expressive of God- 
head and salvation) : 
His purification, and yet at the same time the Hymns of Simeon and Anna : 
His dwelling at despised Ifazaretb, and yet His thereby fulfilling the pro- 
phecy : 
His obedience to His parents, and yet the specimen of noble gravity ex- 
hibited in a boy twelve years old : 
His baptism ; and, on the other hand, the protest of John, the very becom- 
ing reply of Jesus, the Voice from heaven, the Spirit of God descend- 
ing on Him : 
The Hui^er and Temptation ; and, on the other hand , the ministry of angels : 
His informing them of His approaching Passion, followed however by His 

Transfiguration on the Mount : 
His paying the tiibute-money at Capernaum, and yet His declaration as 
to the Son's being free,-. His miracle in the case of the fish and the coin • 
His washing the feet, yet declaring Himself Master and Lord : 
His being taken prisoner, yet declaring I am He ! 
His Cross, yet the royal inscription over it : 

His death and burial, yet the miracles, accompanied with the testimony of 
the centurion. — Harm. Gotp., p. 455. 

884 ST MATTHEW XXI. 21-24. 

rov alum, let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever) The 
Old Testament contains many miracles of vengeance : the evan- 
gelical history, at its close, this almost alone ; cf. Gnomon on 
ch. viii. 32. — xapirhg, fruit) And therefore it was not to receive 
any more sap in vain. Such was the punishment of the Jews ; 
see Luke xiii. 6. This is an example of what malediction is. — 
If Jipai-a?!, was dried up) Its outward appearance was changed ; 
its leaves shrivelled, or even fell off. 

21. ' A-TToxpi^its di o'lridous ei<iriv, x.t.X., but Jesus answering, said, 
etc.) Our Lord frequently led the disciples from admiration of 
miracles to things more profitable for salvation ; see Luke x. 
20. — mgTiv, faith) The nature of Faith is declared by its opposite, 
which is Doubt. — tCj opu rovriji, to this mountain) sc. that men 
tioned in ver. 1 [i.e., the Moimt of OlivesJ. A proverbial expres- 
sion. — rfiv ^dXaaeav, the sea) which was far from Jerusalem. 
Though such things have not hitherto been ftdfiUed ; they may 
nevertheless be fiilfiUed hereafter. 

22. AlrrieiijTi b rji Tfoaeux^y ye shall ask in prayer') see 
Mark xi. 24. Miracles are performed by the prayers of the 
faithful. — Xri-^l/eabi, ye shall receive, etc.) sc. as a gift. Thus, in 
Mark xi. 23, 24, 'lerai aurSi, x.r.X., he shall have, etc. 

23. UpoariX^v Avrifi, x.r.x., came unto Him, etc.) This was the 
solemn^ question, which occasioned the final trial. — o'l iex'^fiTg, 
the chief priests) who considered their right to be invaded. — 
Xiyowic, x.r.X., saying, etc.) The morose scepticism of His adver- 
saries now at length demands credentials for the Son and Heir's 
caring for His vineyard ; see ver. 37, 38. They thought that 
Jesus had no call to teach, since He was neither a Priest nor a 
Levite. — 'jtoia, s^oxieic^; by what authority'?) divine or human. — 
raZra, these things) sc. teaching ; cf. Siddexom, as He was teach- 
ing, and Mark xi. 27.' 

24. ' Avoxpi'bslg Si 'ijjffoDs, but Jesus answered, etc.) A suitable 
mode of answering those who tempted Him. — ipuTr/eia i/iag xayii, 
x.r.X., r will also ask you, etc.) Thus also in ch, xxii. 41. 

' The relation of faith to prayer is the same as that of fire to flame. 
-V. g. 

' Solennis qusestio, " Their customary questioD." Acts vr. 7, and vii. 27. 

* r/f, who) viz. of the order of the chief priests, or other rulers? — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XXI. 25-27. 385 

Mosheim rightly observes, " Those expositors are mistaken, who 
imagine that Christ had no other object in this question than to 
silence His adversaries." — Oration on Christ the only model for 
the imitation of Theologians, p. 17. — sva, one) and that too con- 
nected with your own question ; one, after you have asked Me 
so many things, both now and heretofore. John the Baptist, 
though without a human call, could be and was a prophet ; 
therefore also Jesus. If they had acknowledged the baptism of 
His forerunner, they would have acknowledged the authority of 
Christ ; but since they did not acknowledge John (see ver. 32), 
they could not beheve in Jesus. Nor did they deserve that 
any further communications should be thrown away by Him 
on their pride and unbelief. To him that hath is given ; from 
him that hath not is taken away. 

25. Tb ^diTTig/ia, the baptism) i.e. the whole mission : cf. further 
on in the verse, " oux siriaTiiguTe-" " did ye not believe?" — If oipccioij, 
from heaven) i.e. from God. An instance of Metonomy of a 
reverential character. — di£Xoy!t,ovro, they reasoned with themselves) 
That is an evil mind which, instead of looking at the truth 
in a divine matter, assumes that which suits its purpose. — 
aurp, him) sc. bearing witness in My favour. 

26. *oj8oi/if&a, we fear) They were unwilling to confess their 
fear. — rk o;^^Xov, the multitude) The multitude was scarcely hkely 
to proceed at once to the extremity which the chief priests 
dreaded, yet it burned with ardent zeal in favour of John. And 
the Jewish population was wont, under sudden impulses, to as- 
sail, with the utmost violence, those who uttered, or were sup- 
posed to utter, impious things. — vpiKp^rnv, a prophet) sent from 
heaven, which had not happened for a long while. 

27. Ovx o'l'da/Mv, we do not know) A forced confession of most 
disgraceful ignorance.-' — oii^s, x.t.X., neither, etc.) A repulse rare 
and just, by which itself Jesus proves His divine authority,' — 
i/itv, to you) you unbeUevers, who do not ask for the sake of 
learning. He gave them a clue by which to ascertain 

' In which, however, the proud at times prefer seeking a refuge, rather 
than yield themselves up to the truth. The Wicked is caught in (his own) 
snare. — V. g. 

' It would not have been becoming that more should be given to one who 
hath not. — V. g. 

VOL. I. B B 

S88 ST MATTHEW XXI. 28-82. 

that authority; see ch. xxii. 43. He had often told them 

28."^ Texm S!)o, two sons) A specimen of two classes.* — '!rpo(f- 
iX^iiv, having come to) sc. kindly. — rc3 -irpuTw, the first) who 
went before the other ; see ver. 31 [" Go into the kingdom of 
God before you]. 

30. TSJ iTiftfi, the other) Who, in a different point of view, is 
called the eldest in Luke xv. 25. — maUu;, in like manner) with 
undoubtedly the same spirit. Their calling was equal. — lyw, I) 
sc. i/ira/w, . go ; cf. in Acts ix. 10, the reply of Ananias, iM, 
lyii, Behold,!, sc. am here; and in S.V. of Judges xiii. 11, that 
of the angel to Manoah, lyi), I, sc. am. — Kuf ;e. Lord) cf. ch. vii. 22. 

31.^ E/'s, into, or as regards) the kingdom of heaven. 

32. 'Ev ohifi dixaiogxivris, in the way of righteousness) "The way 
of righteousness" expresses more than " A righteous way." — 

' t/ 8e vftTiD loKii, But what think ye ?) After that the Jews had declined to 
commit themselves, by expressing an opinion concerning the baptism of 
John, the Saviour defends Himself along with John, thereby reproving the 
unbelief of the chief priests. — Harm., p. 460. 

^ In the dialogue which Athanasius is said to have had at Nicsea with 
Arius, the First Son is referred to the Jews, the Second, to the Gentiles. — 
See App. Crit., ed. ii., p. 131.— E. B. 

In ver. 31, Lachm. reads o Sartpos with B. 'O eVx«"? is read by Dabd, 
MSS. Amiat. (the oldest existing), and Fuld. and Forojuliensis of the Vulg. 
However Jerome, thbugh editing, as appears from his commentary, 
' novissimus,' yet states that good copies have ' primus ' (o -a-puTos) : e also, 
and some less ancient copies of the Vulg., agree with Rec. Text, o Tpairos. 
But Hil. 717 has 'junior.' The 6 vcmpos or hx«.Tos, as being the more diffi- 
cult reading, would be more likely to be changed by a corrector into 6 ■irpuros, 
than vice versa. Jerome vii. 168e explains the former reading, ' novissimus,' 
thus : — " The Jews understood the truth, but shrunk back, and would not 
say what they thought ; just as, though knowing the baptism of John to be 
from heaven, they would not acknowledge in words that it was so." They 
did not like, I think, to repeat again the same reply as before in ver. 27, oix. 
oi'S«|tt£», therefore they doggedly, in spite of convictions, replied, 6 imtpo;. 
However, the words, Kkyavtsiv 6 vaTtpog : 'hiyu ctOrois 6'lrimvs, seem to be an 
interpolation : for Origen, who seldom passes over difficult passages, takes 
no notice of these words ; and besides, varepos, as an adjective, is found 
nowhere in the New Testament except in 1 Tim. iv. 1. — Ed. 

3 ■x-puTos, the first) Work without words is better than splendid words 
unaccompanied with work : and also it is better to adopt a praiseworthy 
course subsequently, rather than not at all — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XXI. 33, 34. 887 

riKZvai, publicans) who were unjust. — a! wopnai, the Tiarlots) who 
were unchaste. — It may be asked whether these, and conse- 
quently women in general, and also infants, were baptized by 
John : CI. Acts xvi. 15. — ou /iEn/tsX^^jji-e, did not alter your way 
ofthinMng} — iieTipov,afterwards) when you had seen their example. 

33. OiKodsg'TroTrig, a householder) who had a large family [so. 
of servants, labourers, etc.] — a.fim'kum, a vineyard) i.e. the 
Jewish Church. — (ppay/niv, a hedge) i.e. the law.'' — XjjvJv, a wine- 
press) i.e. Jerusalem. — iripyov, a tower) i.e. the temple ; see 
ver. 23.^ — awiStj/itigsv, went into a far country) The time of 
Divine silence is meant, when men act according to their own 
will and pleasure [pro arbitrio] : cf. ch. xxv.l4, and Mark xiii. 34. 

34. "Ore §6 ^yyiesv o xaiphg rZv aapirSiv, But when the season of 
the fruit drew near) Comp. John iv. 35. Here also lurks the 
reason why the Messiah had not come sooner. — -Toxig SoiXouc, His 
servants) Servants here represent the extraordinary and greater 
ministers of God ; labourers, the ordinary.'' — rovg x,apmiig, the 

1 Bengal's words are, non mutastis sententiam. In his German Version 
he renders it, " kabt euch hernach nichl anders bedacht," " have not after 
that changed your mind." 

In his Harmony, however, he renders it, " thatet ihr dennoch nicht busse" 
" notwithstanding did not repent." E. V. has " repented not afterward." 
-(I. B.) 

^ In the note in the Germ. Vers., Bengel interprets the Hedge, with a 
slight change of the figure, of the separation of the people of Israel from all 
the nations of the earth, including at the same time the idea of the divine 
protection afforded to the former against the latter : the Winepress, the order 
of the priesthood : the Tower, the Kingdom (Theocracy). We should not, 
however, on account of this difference between his former and his latter 
views in this instance, conclude that such details in Parables are mere empty 
/lowers of ornament. The parts of an enigma, however abstruse, are not 
idle. Comp. what is said below in Gnomon on ch. xxii. 11. — E. B. 

' IliSoTO avriv, let it out) This is the ground on which rests the power of 
the Church. The vineyard was Ut out to husbandmen. They who preside in 
either political or ecclesiastical offices, can indeed act according to their own 
pleasure, and, like the holders of the vineyard, consult only their own private 
interests : they can maltreat the servants of the Lord : they can wantonly 
wrest aside the laws of the Church according to their caprice : and can in this 
way, though not now as then kill the Heir Himself, yet thrust Him out for 
some time from His own proper place. But — the time of Visitation is com- 
ing at last. — ^V. g. 

* Of whom ihi former are for the most part received badly by the latter, 

388 ST MATTHEW XXI. 35, 36. 

fj-uits) understand, of the householder, or rather, of the line- 

35. "Edtipav, they beat) The lxx. generally put sxdfiu, to skin 
off, only once dipu, to skin, for the Hebrew OC'B m the sense of 
to flay. They never use the verb otherwise. The Old Vocabu- 
laiy renders the Lathi " excorio" {to skin) by the Greek, Ami'spu. 
But halpoi signifies to heat in Arrian, B. iii., and Epictetus, ch. 
six. and xxii. Whence Suidas and Favorinus di-aw a clear 
distinction between the two verbs, h'spm and baipu. Hesychius 
also renders 8tlpavri( by sxdtlpavrsg, and iSiipat by s^'s&npav, which 
he further explains by s^edsp/i-dTriiav, they flayed. Old glosses, 
however, render i'spai by tI-ktu, to heat : and Aristophanes, in 
the Wasps (ed. Dindorf, 485), says, "H hibmrai fioi dipei&ai xal 
dipiiv di ii/iipai, " I have indeed determined to be beaten, and to 
beat all the day long," — where the Scholiast says, " 8epi<fyai and 
d'spem" are for TtitrTse^ai (to be beaten). In fact, the verbs, xspa^aiow 
(to capitate), Tpayrfkit^-it (to jugulate), yaarpiZui (to stomachize), and 
thus also hipoi (to shin or hide), have a wide signification, unply- 
ing the infliction of injmy on the head, throat, stomach, or shin 
respectively, either by removing them altogether, or else by 
striking them. The desire to avoid ambiguity induced tlie 
later Greeks to write either h'epta or haipu, and thence, in this 
passage, e^^^ai'.^ 

"'Eoeipav — a.'wixrwtt.i — £X/3o;8oX))(raii, heat — slew — stoned) An as- 
cending climax, in which the tliii'd degree is an atrocious species 
of the second ; cf. Mark xii. 3, 4, and Luke xx. 10, 11, 12, 
where a greater number of intermediate degi-ees occurs. 

36." nxilomc, more) sc. superior (potiores), like the Hebrew 
DUT (great or numerous) : superior, certainly in number, and 
without doubt also in virtue, dignity, etc. The increase of 
calling' is no sign of a more faithful people. 

inasmuch ns these take it ill that they should be disturbed in their quiet 
holding of the vineyard. — V. g. 

' So the uncial Cod. U, etc. — Ed. 

^ ■Ko.'Kiu ci'iriariAsii dKKov;) We may regard the servants first sent as mean- 
ing the Prophets of the middle period, which is called that of the Kings , 
the servants suhaeqiiently sent, as meaning those who flourished about tlie 
time of the Captivity in Babylon. — V. g. 

' i.e. An increase in the number of those who are sent to call men to 
repentance. — (I B.) 

ST MATTHEW XXI. 37-42. 38?> 

37 "T«rip6v, last of all) Cf. Hebrews i. 1. — iWfo.irrieojTat, they 
will reverence) i.e. they were in duty bound to do so. 

38. OuTos IdTiv KXnpov6/io;, this is the Heir) They might have 
known Him to be the Heir, and yet they opposed His right. — 
diZrs, amxriivu/Mv aMv, come, let us kill Him) Thus the LXX. 
in Gen. xxxvii. 20. — xaTa(!y^u//.iv, let us seize upoii) They thought 
to have done so after Christ was slain : see ch. xxvii. 63, 64. 

39. 'E^si3a>.oii — Ka} a'TTsxTiivav, they cast Him out — and slew 
Him) St Mark reverses the order of these verbs. They rejected 
the Lord Jesus both before His death, by denying His right 
(ver. 23), and even more so, by dehvering Him up to a Gentile 
tribunal ; and also after His death, by a hostile interference 
with His sepulture ; see ch. xxvii. 63, 64, etc' 

41. Kaxous xaxSis avoXssu airois, He will miserably destroy 
those wicked men^) An act of retaliation.' He will do so miser- 
ably with reference to the miserable and wicked husbandmen ; 
cf. in Hebrews x. 29, yilpovog — n/iupiag SORER punishment. — 
cxStidirai, will let out) In the Church gathered from the Gentiles, 
the ministers and overseers enjoy great hberty.^ The same 
verb occurs in ver. 33. — xaipoTf, seasons) sc. different seasons. — 
aiirwv, their, o/^Aem). referring to xapntoxig, the fruits, in ver. 34. 

42. "Ew ra/j ypafaii, in the Scriptures, Writings). There is 
one volume which deserves the name of " Writing"* (Scrip- 
ture), and " Book." The rest deserve to be valued only so far 
as they aid mankind in understanding and obeying this One 
Book, and are conformed to that Archetype. — x&ov — h opSaX/tj/i 
ij/iuv, the stone — in our eyes) This is an exact quotation from 
Ps, cxviii.^ 22, 23, as rendered by the LXX. This Psalm was 

' Ver. 40. oreti/ ovv (>^6ri) This coming was accomplished in the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. — V. g. 

' In the original the words are, " Kecxoii; xaxZ; — male malos," which 
cannot be rendered in English so as to give the full force of the words : 
perhaps " ill (adverb) them e'W (adjective)" is about the nearest approach that 
can be made — or, He will wretchedly destroy those wretches. — (I. B.) 

' Talio — i.e. doing ill to ill doers. — (I. B.) 

* Such as the Jewish Church did not enjoy, as being but local and ele- 
mentary — Ed. 

' In Greek and Latin the same word signifies both Writingi and Scrip- 
tures.— (I. B.) 

* Numbered cxvii. in S. V. — (I. B.) 

890 ST MATTHEW XXI. 43-46. 

particularly well known. See Gnomon on ver. 9 (comp. ch. xxvi. 
30). — a-jridoxi/iaeav, rejected) They did not consider Him as eren 
a fit stone or worthy member of the Church at all. — wap& Kvplov 
iyiviTo, is the Lordls doing) This is known to be the case, from 
the importance of the matter, and the disagreement of the 
builders. — airri, this [Lat. hcec, Fr. c«<te]) The feminine for the 
neuter: a Hebraism. This, sc. thing. In Psalm cii. 19^ the 
LXX. render riST (this, fem.) by a'-jTri, thus preserving the gender 
of the original : as also in the analogous phrases in Ps. cxix.'' 50, 
56 ; Judg. XV. 7 and xxi. 3, where eyivrl^ri a'urri (is this come to 
pass) occurs. Cf. 1 (in S. V. 3) Kings iii. 18. — xal tW/, and 
is) sc. NTI, it (fem.), i.e. pK, the stone, itself is wonderful. — 
^au/iasTri, wonderfuP) sc. on account of the great glory which it 
has obtained. The Evangelist uses the feminine, because he was 
unwilling to depart from the LXX. — iv oip'^aX/ioTg ij//.uv, in our 
eyes) sc. of us believers [1 Pet. ii. 7J. 

43. AOr^s, thereof) sc. the kingdom.* 

44. 'O ■xitsiiv iiti, X.T.X., whosoever shall fall on, etc.) He falleth 
on this Stone (sc. Christ in His humiliation) who stumbles 
(offendit) by not believing, whilst the Gospel is being preached ; 
but this Stone (sc. Christ in His glory) falleth on him, who is 
crushed by His sudden coming to judgment. Both happen 
especially to the Jews, and also to the Gentiles. See 2 Thess. 
i. 8, and Dan. ii. 34, 45. — Xm/^rimi, shall scatter, dissolve, dis- 
sipate, reduce to dust) The verb Xix/x^av signifies to scatter, as 
when chaff is given to the winds. See the LXX., who employ 
this verb in Job xxvii. 21 for the Hebrew -\V^, to sweep away 
in a storm ; in Dan. ii. 44, for fjDS, to destroy ; and repeatedly 
elsewhere for mt, to scatter or disperse. 

45.° Aiyii, He is speaking) They perceived that Jesus had not 
yet concluded what He had to say. See ch. xxii. 1. 

• These are the Hebrew numbers. In S. V. it is ci. 18; in E. V. cii. 18. 
-(I. B.) 

2 Numbered cxviii. in S. V.— (I. B.) 

^ Bengel in both instances uses the word mirahilis, which implies in this 
place admiration as well as wonder. — (I. B.) 

* Even though thou mayest be a good tree, yet thy fruit is not thine own, 
but that of the vineyard. Rom. xi. 17. — V. g. 

' irtpl aiiTuii) as being the 'husbandmen' and the 'builders.' — V. g. 



1. 'Aroxpidtls, answering) Not only he who has, been questioned, 
but he also to whom a reason for speaking has been given, may 
rightly be said to answer. — vdXiv, again) construe this word with 
Iv irapa^oXaTg, in parables, i.e. with the design of putting forth 

3. KaXisa/ roij? xexKrjfi'svoug, to call those that had been called) 
The first call was before the wedding ; the second, on the day of 
its celebration. 

4. "Apierov, dinner) sc. with regard to the Jews in the early time 
of the New Testament dispensation, but supper with regard to 
the saints at the actual consummation of the spiritual marriage : 
see Rev. xix. 9.' This parable embraces the history of the 
Church from the one time to the other. — riToi//,aea, I have pre- 
pared) Our salvation is effected, not by our power, but by that 
of God. — ttiTiSToi,, failings) a general word. — iravra, all things) 
For there are many things besides oxen and fatlings. — ieun, 
come) sc. forthwith. 

5. ' A/j-cX^aayrsg, making light of, neglecting) This is a greater 
offence than the previous, They would not come. They ought 

^ For although we freely grant that by the term yufios at times is meant, 
according to the Scripture style, any solemn feast whatever ; yet that this 
more general meaning holds good in this passage, is by some concluded, from 
the fact that mention of the Bride is wanting here, with more confidence 
than is warranted. For instance, in ch, xxv. 1, etc., where the Bridtgroom 
is once or twice mentioned, the mention of the Bride also is not introduced 
even by the smallest word. Moreover, 1 feel fully persuaded that the analogy 
of the texts. Matt. xxii. 2, 13, when compared with Rev. xix. 9, 20, requires 
the more strict signification in this place. Nor can I think that no weight 
is to be rested on the fact, that the word yafto; in that one parable is re- 
peated eight times, and only once it is called olpiarou. Finally, dyot^ml ifispai 
ydficii) xal iuCppoavtivi; (Gsth. ix. 22), lead to the meaning, the so-called 
nuptial (joyous) life, in general, more readily even than the expression here, 
iwoiwi ydfiov; r^ vl^ aurou ; not to mention that the very Feast of Purim, 
mentioned in the passage of Esther, plainly involves a remembrance of the 
nuptials (in the strict sense) celebrated between the King and Esther. Comp. 
ch. ii. 17, 18.— E. B. 


to have understood (see Acts vii. 25), and to have watched. — 
a-jrnXkv, they departed) leaving even the city, which was there- 
fore humt ; see ver. 7. He who does not answer tlie call, loses 
even those advantages which he previously had possessed. — rh 
"im — axiToZ, his own — his) Egoism.'' — a'/phv — efj^vopmv, field — mer- 
chandise) The one busied with immoveable, the other with 
moveable goods; the one detained by a false contentment 
(aurafXE/a^), the other by the desire of acquiring more. 

6. 0/ hi "Komol, and the remnant) Who did not wish to appear 
to have made light of it? — u^pieav, treated them with insult and 
injury) see 2 Chron. xxx. 10 ; 1 Tim. i. 13 ; Heb. x. 29. 

7. 'Axoisag Se o ^agiXtvg, but when the king heard thereof) The 
transgression of the disobedient was a crying sin. — r^v -xokt^ 
auTuv, their city) sc. that of the murderers. — ffrpare{i/ji.ara, armies) 
sc. the Roman forces.^ — ipoveTg, murderers) The chief crime pro- 
vokes the whole punishment ; see Amos ii. — aurSv, of them) viz. 
of those murderers and despisers. 

8. Tore, X.T.X., then, etc.) see Acts xiii. 46. — Xiyu, x.r.X., 
saith He, etc.) The Lord frequently reveals the principles of 
His counsel to His servants. — sroi/j,6g ianv, is ready) and wiU not 
be dispensed with on account of the ingratitude of them which 
were bidden." — oiix nsa,\i &^m, were not worthy) cf. Acts xiii. 46. 
No one is considered unworthy until the offer has been made to 

^ In the original, " i"S;oi/' axnov, proprium : suum) Sintas." This is one of 
those passages which it is far more easy to understand than to translate. 
There is a connection between the expression " Suitas" (a word, I believe, 
coined by Bengel for the occasion) and suum immediately preceding. The 
meaning is, that the words, i'S/oj, aiirou, both refer to Self, and imply a re- 
cognition of Self as the object of thought and consideration, apart from, 
independent of, in contradistinction, nay in preference to, God — in fact, a 
state or feeling the very opposite to that involved in the Apostle's words (1 
Cor. vi. 19, 20), Te are not tour own : i/e are tonight with a price. There- 
fore glorifi/ God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's. — (I. B.) 

2 See p. 150, f. n. 3, and on Matt. x. 9.— (I. B.) 

' And who did not attend either to farming or merchandise. To wit, 
those who have less of hinderances in their way not rarely sin the more 
grievously for that very reason, when they thrust themselves into sacred 
things, by their perverse mode of behaving with respect to them. — V. g. 

* Who were let loose upon Jerusalem forty years from this time. — V. g. 

* The Wedding i$ truly even still ready for the guests who are willing to 
come. — V. g. 

ST MATTHEW XXII. 9-14. 393 

and refused by him : by doing which he betrays himself. The 
past tense, were not worthy, is used to show that the opportunity 
of the unworthy has passed away. 

9. tAs die^oSoug, the cross ways) It would be pleasant to see a 
map of the journeys of all the apostles through the world, like 
that of St Paul's Voyages and Travels. — od'6; signifies the whole 
road, — dii^oSoi, the parts, and as it were, branches of it. 

10. Iwriyayov, brought together) partly by calling them as they 
had been commanded, and partly by employing unjustifiable 
compulsion. — •jrovripovs re xal ayahig, both bad and good) A pro- 
verbial mode, as it were, of expression." 

11. "AvSptamv, a man) Some remarkable one amongst the 
many bad who were called, and yet not chosen ; who is indivi- 
dually a sample of all such, one whom you would especially 
suppose to be chosen, and from whose not being chosen, the 
small number of the chosen is perceived. The singular number 
is emphatic ; for the passage would otherwise have equally ad- 
mitted of the plural. — 'ivdu/ia, yd/j^.ov, a wedding garment)' sc. the 
righteousness of Christ ; see Gnomon on ch. vi. 33. 

12. 'Era/fiE, comrade) A word of ambiguous meaning, which 
is also applied to those with whom we are not on terms of inti- 
macy or friendship. — vug, x.r.X., how, etc.) by what culpable in- 
dulgence of the servants ? by what audacity on thine own part ? 
— [s<pi/Lu>Sri, he was speechless) By this speechlessness [implying, 
as it does, that the lost perish altogether through their own 
fault] all objections whatever that are directed against Christi- 
anity are dissipated. — ^V. g.] 

13. Aiaxovoig, attendants) Servants, SouXoi, are sent forth ; at- 
tendants, hi&Mvoi, wait at table ; see John ii. 5. — ex^aXtn ilg, 
x.r.X., cast him into, etc.) This will take place a Httle before the 
nuptial evening ; see Rev. xix. 20. 

14.* HoXXoI yap, x.r.X.,for many, etc.) Our Lord "adds this 

' This is the aspect of the Church in the present day. It was not exactly 
such instructions as these that the King had given to His servants, ver. 9. 
No one is good before his call : but when the call has been duly accepted, all 
things are well.— V. g. 

2 Beng. states, in the note of the Oerm. Vers, on this passage, that the 
persons themselves who were celebrating the marriage feast, distributed such 
garments to the guests. — E. B. 

' ix.u £ oT«/— iroxxoi yiUp ilai xXutoJ) Two expressions somewhat frequently 

894 8T MATTHEW XXII. 15-20. 

remark in His own person to the conclusion of the king's 
speech. Cf on, x.t.x., for, etc., in Luke xvi. 8. — yap, x.r.X., 
for, etc.) This general sentiment is a proof, that this man with- 
out a wedding garment, and all who are hke him, will be cast 

15. Tors <K»ps\i6hrsc oi ^apiisaToi, x.r.X., then went the Pharisees, 
etc.) On the malignant spirit of our Lord's adversaries, see 
Mark xii. 12, 13 ; Luke xx. 20. 

16. MaSrirac, disciples) With whom they thought that our 
Lord would deal less cautiously, and whose overthrow they 
thought would be attended with less disgrace to themselves. — 
' HpcadiavSiv, of the Herodians) who were especially attached to 
the party of Herod, and consequently to that of Caesar, which 
the Pharisees viewed with aversion ; see Josephus Antiq. xvii. 
3 ; and see Mark iii. 6 and xii. 13. There might be, moreover, 
a variety of opinion amongst the Herodians themselves con- 
cerning holy things, Herod, etc. — aXri6^g — sv aXrihlci,, true — in 
truth) Truth should be known and spoken. Truth is the agree- 
ment of things with the faculties of knowing, willing, speaking, 
and acting. — djv hihv tou ©goD, the way of God) A part of which 
way is the doctrine concerning what ought to be given to God. 
There is a striking antithesis here between ©sou, of God — and 
uvSpuwcav, of men. — ou y&p jSXeot/; ilg vpoeuvov, for Thou regardest 
not the person) They wished Jesus to deny that tribute ought 
to be given to Csesar.' Truth truly estimates both things and 
persons ; but he who regards persons easily betrays truth. 

17. "E^igri, is it lawful?) They do not merely say, is it in- 
cumbent ? but, is it lawful f [not must we ? but may we ?] i.e. on 
account of what was due to God. — Jj ou, or not) They demand a 
categorical answer. 

18. Tvoii, knowing) sc. without delay, or instruction from any 
one. — imxpiTa! ! hypocrites ') Our Lord shows Himself to them 
true, as they had said ; ver. 16. 

20. E/zctiv, image, likeness) smypoi.ipii, letters inscribed. 

repeated by the Saviour, and tiierefore most worthy of consideration.— 
Harm., p. 463, 464. 

1 Which tribute, either a short while before (comp. ch. xvii. 24) or at 
that very time, namely in the month Nisam, was being paid according to 
custom. — Harm., p. 465. 

ST MATTHEW XXII. 21-23. 395 

21. 'A*o3or8, render) sc. as it is just. — oui/, therefore) In these 
days the coins of one country are used promiscuously in others, 
as happens with French money in Germany ; but none except 
Koman money appears to have been current at that time in 
Judea But if the Jews had not been subject to Csesar, they were 
not of such a disposition as to have employed foreign coin, espe- 
cially when stamped with heathen likenesses (imaginibus). — xal, 
X.T.X., and, etc.) The one duty is not, as you suppose, destroyed by 
the other. The things which are God's, those which have been set 
apart and dedicated to Him are not Csesar's ; but the things 
which are Cesar's are, in some sort, also God's.^ — rd roS ©sou, 
the things that are God's) whose cause you wish to appear to 
plead ; see ver. 1 6. 

22. 'ESa\i/j,Di(!av, they marvelled) And showed their astonish- 
ment at His safe and true answer. 

23. 'S.aMovxaToi, Sadducees) Towards the close of His earthly 
career all rise together against Jesus. The Sadducees are 
seldom mentioned by the Evangelists ; on that day not even the 
Sadducees remained quiescent. — avasraaiv, resurrection) It is 
clear that this article of faith was well known at that time, from 
the Evangelist not having added the words, " of the dead." 
And the adversaries of this article contravene it in various de- 
grees, some by denying^ altogether the immortality of the soul, 
Others, its being joined again to its former body. And there may 
also have been a variety of error among the Sadducees them- 

24. Tlxva, children) sc. a son or a daughter, or more, see 
Deut. XXV. 5. 

25. na^ rii/.n, with us) The Sadducees raise this doubt on a 

1 Very frequently human sagacity fastens only upon one side, whichever 
side it be, of Duties [having a twofold side or aspect] : true wisdom weighs 
all things at the same time and together. These hypocrites were thinking 
thus : tribute ought to be given either to God for the use of the Temple, or 
else to Csesar. Jesus saith, It is right, according to divine law, that both be 
done. So also the Sadducees were thinking thus : If the resurrection be 
admitted, the wife must be given back either to the first brother, or to the 
second, etc. But Truth subjoins the reply, She is to be given back not even 
to any one out of them all. — V. g. 

» The Wisdom of the world, like the barren figtree, fruitless and most 
beggarly, is in fact for the most part occupied in negations.— V. g. 

396 ST MATTHEW XXII. 28, 30. 

circumstance, rare, and perhaps long since canvassed,' wLich 
might have been nearly as well raised from the case of any 
vroman who had married more than one husband. The main- 
tainers of errors frequently seek for a colour for them from 
things which are little or nothing to the point. 

28. Thog, whose) She will, say they, be the wife either of all 
or of one : but none of them has a superior claim to the rest. 
Jesus answers (ver. 30) she will be the wife of none. The 
Pharisees also had divided and opposed those things which are 
Caesar's, and those which are God's : He who is the Truth, 
affirms both in His reply to them : to the Sadducees He denies 
both. Earthly wisdom frequently precipitates itself into ab- 
surdity from an imperfect enumeration, even in an easy matter, 
of parts, not one of which escapes heavenly wisdom. — /jb^ iidong, 
X.T.X., not knowing, etc.) This twofold ignorance is the mother 
of almost all errors. The resurrection of the dead rests on the 
power of God : and the belief in the resurrection rests on the 
Scriptures. Jesus refutes their Jirst and fundamental error 
(prpSiTov -^tiihtg) : which they did not suppose themselves to labour 
under at all. He first answers the argument by which they 
opposed the truth : then He proves the truth itself. — rag ypa^ac, 
the Scriptures) which clearly look to a future life ; see ver. 31, 
32. The Sadducees did not understand Moses : they did not 
receive the prophets who explain Moses. — rriv d{jva/j,iv roD ©sou, the 
power of God) The power of God will make man eqtial to the 
angels ; see ver. 30. To be ignorant of God and His perfections 
is the fountain of error ; see 1 Cor. xv. 34 [Rom. iv. 17, E. B.] 

30. OvTt yafioZeiv, neither marry) sc. men — oun ixya/il^ovrai, 
nor are given in marriage) sc. women ; cf. ver. 25. — ug ayyiXoi 
Tou ©£oD, as the angels of God) The absurdity which the Sad- 
ducees supposed would apply to the righteous rather than the 
unrighteous, as no one could imagine that the unrighteous would 
enjoy the blessing of marriage. Our Lord therefore replies 
only concerning the righteous. The righteous will then be in 
the same condition as the angels of God,' without wedlock, 

' But which had not heretofore been sufficiently and decidedly cleared up. 
-V. g. 

2 The unrighteous will be in the same condition as the sinful and fallen 
angels. — V g. 

ST MATTHEW XXII. 31, 32. 39T 

meat and drink, etc. Elsewhere it is said that those who 
obtain the life to come, wUl be like God : but, since God has 
one Son and many sons, in this passage, where there is question 
concerning begetting, it is said that they wiU be as angels ; and 
simultaneously the existence of angels also is defended against 
the Sadducees who ignored it. — liel, are) sc. both men and 

31.^ 'X/i^Tv, unto you) To you He says, not to us. They were 
not written for Christ.'' To you the descendants of Abraham. 

32. 'O &ihg, the God) see Ex. iii. 6. These words are not 
put only once, but three times, because Jacob did not hear the 
promise of God merely from Isaac, or Isaac merely from Abra- 
ham, but each of them separately also from God Himself; and 
Abraham's name was Divinely changed, Isaac's Divinely given, 
that of Israel Divinely added to Jacob : see Gen. xvii. 5, 19, 
xxxii. 28. — oux iSTi Qihg vsxpSiv,^ He is not God of the dead) i.e., 
God is not God of the dead. There is an ellipsis as in Kom. 
iii. 29. The value of inferential^ reasoning is seen by this 
example,—" God is thine." This phrase expresses both a Divine 
gift and a human duty. The Divine gift (for that is considered 
in this passage) thus expressed, is infinite, everlasting, and one 
which could never be fully realized to us by an earthly life, 
however long or happy (see Ps. cxliv. 15, and Luke xvi. 25), 
much less by a pilgrimage of a few and evil days, such as were 
the lives of Abraham, Isaac, and above all, Jacob, compared 
with those of their ancestors,* who, nevertheless, had not ob- 

1 ■jffpi Si T^f ai/cccratria;) Jesus not merely refuted the objection of those 
in error, but also demonstrates the truth to them. — V. g. 

' Nor were they written even for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who had 
lived before that the Vision was vouchsafed to Moses, which was subse- 
quently committed to writing — V. g. 

' The reading of B. M. is " oix 'hriu 6 ©eoc ©eo? vtupuv'' rendered in E. V. 
" God is not the God of the dead." — (I. B.) BLAftc Vulg. omit the second 
0io;: so Iren. Hil. 77, 484, 500, 722. But Grig. 3,8286; 8296 support it, 
with the Bee. Text.— Ed. 

* Bengel means to say, that we are bound to receive not only what is 
actually written toiidem verbis in Scripture, but also what may be logically 
inferred from the words of Holy Writ — ^not merely what " is contained 
therein," but also what "may be proved thereby." — (I. B.) 

» Conip. Gen. xlvii. 9.— Ed. 


tained that promise. For it is not said wealth, long life, secu- 
rity, or, in short, the world is thine, but, God is thine : nor is it 
said God is thine for fifty, an hundred, or seven hundred years, 
tut simply God is thine. When, therefore, God first declared 
Himself to Abraham to be his God, He conferred, and was 
acknowledged to have conferred, upon him the everlasting com- 
munion of Himself everlasting. And though the death of the 
body has intervened in the case of the patriarchs, it cannot last for 
ever, nor produce a long delay, long in comparison with ever- 
lasting life. For Abraham himself, the whole man, and all that 
is included under the name Abraham, that is, not only his soul 
but also his body, which also received the seal of the promise, pos- 
sesses God. God, however, is not the God of that which is not : 
He is the Living God ; they therefore who possess God must 
themselves also be living, and as to any portion of them in which 
life has been suspended, must revive for ever. The force of the 
formula is shown also in Gnomon on Heb. xi. 16, which passage 
is chiefly to this effect, " He hath prepared for them a city," 
and that principally in eternity; and therefore He is called 
their God. And this reasoning of Christ is sound, evident, anc 
then heard for the first time : and most effectually proves both 
the immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body, 
against the Sadducees, who denied altogether the existence of 
spirits. The force, however, of the argument does not consist 
in the verb il//,!, I am, nor in the use of its present tensfe at the 
time of Moses (for though it is expressed by St Matthew, it 
is not found in the parallel passages of St Mark or St Luke, 
or the original of Moses), but in the formula itself.' And these 
phrases, My, Thy, His, etc., GoD, are by far the most frequent. 
This passage, however, here cited against the Sadducees is 
furthermore the most striking of all of them, on the following 
grounds : (1) In it God speaks Himself, an irrefragable proof 
of its truth ; (2) He speaks on the occasion of a most solemn 
and visible manifestation of Himself; (3) He speaks of Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob conjointly ; (4) And indeed after their 
death, and that a long while after, at the very time of perform - 

' For the possession of that which is everlasting implies everlasting pos- 
session, and everlasting possession involves everlasting duration. — (I. B.) 


ing the promise to them, even in the persons of their descend- 
ants, which was a proof that these patriarchs had not in their 
own hfetime themselves obtained the promises. And thus, as 
we are told in Luke xx. 37, even, kai, Moses showed the resur- 
rection of the dead, even Moses, not only the prophets, in pre- 
ference to whom, Moses was read publicly before the time of 
Antiochus.^ At the same time, our Lord reduces to its proper 
shape the proverb of the Jews, who said, " God is not the God 
of the living but of the dead." See Axiom ix. of Alexander 
Morus, and the Dissertation of E. F. Cobius, on the force of 
this passage. 

35. ETg eg aurSiv, one of them) This man is less blamed by our 
Lord ; wherefore he seems to have been led on by others. — 
io/ji^ixhs, a lawyer) How great soever he was, and proud of that 
abundance of knowledge which he was now about to exhibit. — 

^ Hartwell Home says, " The third part of the synagogue service was the 
Reading of the Scriptures, which included the reading of the whole law of 
Moses, and portions of the Prophets, and the Hagiographa or holy writings. 
(1.) The Law was divided into fifty-three, according to the Masorets, or, 
according to others, fifty-four Paraschiath or sections : for the Jewish year 
consisted of twelve lunar months, alternatsjly of twenty-nine or thirty days, 
that is of fifty weeks and four days. The Jews, therefore, in their division 
of the law into Paraschioth or sections, had a respect to their intercalary 
year, which was every second or third, and consisted of thirteen months ; so 
that the whole law was read over this year, allotting one Parascha or section 
to every Sabhath ; and in common years they reduced the fifty-three or fifty- 
four sections to the number of the fifty Sabbaths, by reading two shorter 
ones together, as often as there was occasion. They began the course of 
reading on the first Sabbath after the Feast of Tabernacles ; or rather, indeed, 
on the Sabbath-day before that, when they finished the last course of read- 
ing, they also made a beginning of the new course ; that so, as the rabbles 
say, the devil might not accuse them to God of being weary of reading His 
law. (2.) The portions selected out of the Prophetical writings are termed 
Haphtoroth. When Antiochus Epiphanes conquered the Jews, about the 
year 163 before the Christian sera, he prohibited the public reading of the 
Law in the synagogues on pain of death. The Jews, in order that they 
might not be wholly deprived of the Word of God, selected from other parts 
of the Sacred Writings fifty-fov/r portions, which were termed haphtoras 
n-nash (HaPHTORoTH), from ibb (PaTaR), he dismissed, let loose, opened 
— for though the Law was dismissed from their synagogues, and was closed 
to them by the edict of this persecuting king, yet the prophetic writings, not 
being under the interdict, were left open ; and therefore they used them in 
place of the others." — (I. B. ) 

too ST MATTHEW XXII. 37, 38. 

vofiixhi ^ ypafi/iartv;, a scribe, in Luke xi. 45, 44, 53 ; and vofio- 
diddaxaXoc, a doctor of the law, in Luke v. 17, 21. 

37. ' Ayavrisei;, x.r.x., thou shalt love, etc.) Moses repeats this in 
Deut. vi. 8, from the Decalogue in lb. v. 10 ; and it is frequently 
repeated in the same book, of which it is the sum, the last time with 
a most solemn adjuration ; lb. xxx. 19, 20. — h oXri xapdlcf gov xat 
h oXfj ■^uyjfi tsou, xal IV oXjj rri Siavolcf cov,^ with all thy heart, and with 
all thy soul, and with all thy mind. Those who have copied or 
collated MSS., have for the most part treated the article with 
indifference ; but as far as can be gathered from MSS. lately 
collated, St Matthew introduced the article only in the last 
clause. In the Hebrew it is ^^KD 7331, q. d., and with all thy 
strength (et in omni validitate tua). The LXX. render it xai i^ 
oXjig Trig 8vva,(iit<i( gov, and with all thy might. In St Mark it is, 
xal £§ oXjjs rris diavota; gov, xal t^ oXrig rfii la-xvog gov, and with all 
thy mind and with all thy strength. In St Luke x. 27, it is xal 
1^ oXra r^5 ig'xvog gov xal l§ oX»)s Trig Siavoiac gov, one Hebrew word, 
IKD,^ being expressed by two Greek ones. [sc. Igx^og, strength, 
and diavolag, mind, or understanding.] Even the Hebrew accents* 
distinguish this third clause from the two previous ones, which 
are closely united. They all form an epitasis,^ with which St 
Matthew's introduction of the article only in the third clause 
agrees. John James Syxbius, PhUos. primse. Part I., ch. i., 
§ 1, thus expresses himself, — " Of all those things which are 
ever found in man, there are three fundamental principles, idea, 
desire, and emotion." All ought to be animated and governed 
by the love of God. 

38. Upurri, first) This commandment is not only the greatest 
in necessity, extent, and duration, but it is also the first in na- 
ture, order, time, and evidence. 

^ E. M. has h oT^tfi rri xctpiiec aov, xal h oXjj rij ipv^^yi aov, Kxi h o>ij) 
rii iiecvoltf aov. — (I. B.) 

DZ. support the articles before xetplia, and before liavot'tf : the reading 
of B. is doubtful. Only inferior uncial MSS. A., etc., omit the articles. — Ed. 

' i8» — (I) subst. m. strength, force, from the root -e\if. No. 3, Deut. vi. 
5, " And thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, with all thy 
mind, fj-isM Issal, and with all thy strength," i.e. in the highest degree. 
Gesenius. — (I. B.) 

•'' For some account of the Hebrew accents, see p. 132, f. n. 6.— (I B.) 

* See explanation of technical terms in Appendix — (I. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XXll. 39-42. 401 

39. Aiurepa, second) Corresponding with vptirri, first- o/io/a, 
like) sc. of that same character as contrasted with sacrifice ; 
see Mark xii. 33. The love of our neighbour resembles tne 
love of God more than all the other duties, just as the moon 
resembles the sun more than the stars do : see Gen. i. The 
lawyer might easily omit the latter, whilst anxious about the 
former. Our Lord guards him from that danger, and answers 
more than he had asked. — iig, as) sc. as thou lovest thyself. 
Self-love needs not to be enjoined separately. He who loves 
God will love himself in a proper degree without selfishness. 
God loves me as He does thee ; and thee as He does me : there- 
fore I ought to love thee, my neighbour, as myself; and thou 
me as thyself: for our love to each other ought to correspond to 
God's love towards us both. 

40. Kp'e/iarai — xa,) oi icpofntai^ hangs^ — and the prophets. The 
Latin Codices have pendet, et prophetce — hangs, atid the prophets: 
whence the Canterbury MS. has the reading xpsfji^arai xal oi -jrpo- 
(prirai. The question was concerning the law : the reply con- 
cerns the law especially : see ver. 36, 40. The Anglo-Saxon 
version has not xai ol 'xpo^riTai ; and it might seem a gloss from 
ch. vii. 12, because the verb xps/jLurai is in the singular number, 
and the disputed clause follows afterwards. The fathers, how- 
ever, have it, including even TertuUian, if the copies of him 
are not corrupt. And again, the Anglo-Saxon version fre- 
quently omits something which is found in the Latin. The 
matter requires further consideration, xpl/iarai is an elegant 
verb. He who takes away either of these commandments, takes 
away the law.' 

41. 'Svvri'y/ihuv Sh ruv <S>apieai!uv, but while the Pharisees were 
gathered together) sc. solemnly ; see ver. 34. 

42. T/, x.r.x., what ? etc.) You Pharisees, says our Lord, are 
always putting questions concerning commandments ; now I will 
propose to you something else, concerning which also it is writ- 

' E. M. reads xal o! 'irpotp^rini xpifiauTxi — (I. B.) 

" E. V. has " hang" which agrees with the reading of E. M., q. v. supra. 

-(I- B.) 

BDLZoic Vulg. Syr. and Hil. read xpifieirxi. Orig. 3, 9815 supports 
Rec. text, xpifiuvrai after vpocp^Toii — Ed. 

* Which comprises so many commandments. — V. g. 

VOL. I. C C 

tOa ST MATTHEW XXII. 43, 44. 

fen {scriptum est), as of an important matter ; that you may see 
that the Gospel is as much to be sought for in the Scriptures 
(Scripturis) as the Law is.^ — i/t/V doxii, seems to you) [i.e. is your 
opinion^. Jesus employs the word doxiT'^ (seems) with greater 
right towards the Pharisees than they had done to Him, in ver. 
17. Even opinion might become the beginning of faith. — r/vos 
v'log, whose son?) Jesus thus gave them an opportunity of acknow- 
ledging Him as the Messiah. The doctrine of the Divine Unity 
(ver. 37), is illustrated by that of the Trinity. — rou Aavli, of 
David) Human reason more easily accepts moderate views con- 
cerning Christ, than those which are either more humble or 
more glorious. 

43. 'Ek Uviu/iari, in Spirit) and therefore truly : see 1 Cor. 
xii. 3. — Kiipiov Aiirhv xa'KiT, calleth Him Lord) a sign of subjec- 
tion : see Phil. ii. 11 ; cf. 1 Pet. iii. 6. It was a higher honour 
to have Christ for his Son, than to be a king ; and yet David 
does not say that Christ is his son, but rejoices that Christ is his 
Lord, and he Christ's servant. But this joy has also been pro- 
cured for us : see Luke i. 43 ; John xx. 28 ; Phil. iii. [3], 8. 
They who regard the Messiah only as the son of David, regard 
the lesser part of the conception of Him. A dominion to which 
David himself is subject, shows the heavenly majesty of the 
King, and the heavenly character of His kingdom. 

44. E/Vev 6 Ktpio;, x.T.X., the Lord said, etc.) The whole of this 
verse agrees verbatim with the S. V. of Ps. ex. 1. — rp Kvpiu /tou, 
to my Lord) Therefore He was David's Lord, before the Lord 
said to Him, " Sit Thou on My right hand," etc. — xdkv, sit) in 
token of command ; see 1 Cor. xv. 25. — sx de^iSiv /jaui, on My right 
hand) in token of power. — ews av, until) The eternity of the 
session is not denied ; but it is denied that the assault of the 
enemies will interfere with it. The warlike kingdom will come 
to an end (as in earthly wars the heir of a kingdom commonly 

' The sum of both law and Gospel is set forth, in this concluding passage, 
by the greatest of the prophets. The first discourse of Jesus was in the 
temple, in which He professed that God was His Father : Luke ii. 49 ; 
John ii. 16. And now this last question, put forth in the temple by the 
same Jesus, points out the truth, that He is Himself the Lord of David,— 
Harm., p. 469. 

« T/ iiiilt 8ox£7, E. V. What think t/et—{\. B.) 

ST MATTHEW XXII. 45, 4b.-XXlII. 1-3 *03 ■ 

resigns the command which he held during the war, when the 
enemy has been conquered) ; the peaceftd kingdom, however, 
will have no end. Cf. 1 Cor. xv. 25, etc. Even before that, 
the Son was subordinate to the Father, but did not then appear 
so, on account of the glory of His kingdom : even after that. 
He will reign, but as the Son, subordinate to the Father. — 
6u, x.T.'k., I place, etc.) The enemies will lie prostrate. — l^ieolti, 
enemies) and amongst them the Pharisees. — Sou, Thy) i.e. of 
Thee. The hatred of the enemies is directed especially against 
the First-born. — woto'S/oh, footstool) The enemies will themselves 
be the footstool of Christ by right of conquest. Cf. Josh. x. 24 ; 
Ps. xlvii. 4. 

45. E/' oh Aaii/5, if David therefore) It was the duty of the 
Jews to study that point with the utmost earnestness, especially 
at that time. It is considerably more evident of Christ that He 
is the Lord, than that He is the Son of David.^ 

46. Aoyoi', a word) On that question or any other. — ''Efripot- 
rndai, to question) sc. with the object of tempting Him ; the 
disciples questioned Him with the object of learning. — oxnin, no 
more) A new scene, as it were, opens from this point. 


1 . ToVs, then) Having left His adversaries to themselves. 

2. "ExdSieav, X.T.X., sit, etc.) Kepresenting Moses, reading and 
interpreting his law, and even urging more than he enjoined. — 
01 Tpafi/j^areTg xal o'l 'PapigaToi, the Scribes and the Pharisees) The 
sins which are here enumerated, did not belong all equally to 
both of these classes ; but they had many in common, and par- 
ticipated in many ; see Luke xi. 45.^ 

3. Ouv, therefore) This particle limits the expression " what- 

1 So great is the glory of the Son of God ! David as well as Abraham 
alike, John viii. 56, saw the day of Christ, the last great day we may sup- 
pose, when all His adversaries shall become the Lord's footstool. — V. g. 

' And of those sins of the Scribes and Pharisees specified in the discour- 
ses of Christ, which are described more fully by Matthew, Mark and Luke, 


soever they bid you observe," so that the people should